IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan1LECTURE 3REQUIREMENTS GATHERINGKey Definitions• The As-Is system is the current system and...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan2o Trace symptoms to their causes to discover the “real” problemBusiness Process Improvemen...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan3Selecting an Analysis TechniqueBusiness Business BusinessProcess Process ProcessAutomation...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan4o Userso Ideally, all key stakeholdersKeep organizational politics in mindDesigning Interv...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan53. JOINT APPLICATION DESIGN (JAD)Joint Application DevelopmentA structured group process f...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan6• Mostly closed-ended questions• May be paper-based or electronic• Select participants usi...
IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan7Selecting the Appropriate TechniquesInterviews JAD Questionnaires Document ObservationAnal...
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JOHN

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JOHN

  1. 1. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan1LECTURE 3REQUIREMENTS GATHERINGKey Definitions• The As-Is system is the current system and may or may not be computerized• The To-Be system is the new system that is based on updated requirements• The System Proposal is the key deliverable from the Analysis Phase1. Requirements DeterminationWhat is a Requirement?• A statement of what the system must do• A statement of characteristics the system must have• Focus is on business user needs during analysis phase• Requirements will change over time as project moves from analysis to design to implementationRequirement Types• Functional Requirementso A process the system hast to performo Information the system must contain• Nonfunctional Requirementso Behavioral properties the system must haveOperationalPerformanceSecurityCultural and politicalDetermining Requirements• Participation by business users is essential• Three techniques help users discover their needs for the new system:o Business Process Automation (BPA)o Business Process Improvement (BPI)o Business Process Reengineering (BPR)Basic Process of Analysis• Understand the “As-Is” system• Identify improvement opportunities• Develop the “To-Be” system concept• Techniques vary in amount of changeo BPA – small changeo BPI – moderate changeo BPR – significant change• Additional information gathering techniques are needed as well2. Requirements Analysis TechniquesBusiness Process AutomationIdentifying Improvements in As-Is SystemsProblem Analysiso Ask users to identify problems and solutionso Improvements tend to be small and incrementalo Rarely finds improvements with significant business valueRoot Cause Analysiso Challenge assumptions about why problem exists
  2. 2. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan2o Trace symptoms to their causes to discover the “real” problemBusiness Process ImprovementDuration AnalysisCalculate time needed for each process stepCalculate time needed for overall processCompare the two – a large difference indicates a badly fragmented processPotential solutions:o Process integration – change the process to use fewer people, each with broaderresponsibilitieso Parallelization – change the process so that individual step are performed simultaneouslyActivity-Based CostingCalculate cost of each process stepConsider both direct and indirect costsIdentify most costly steps and focus improvement efforts on themBenchmarkingStudying how other organizations perform the same business processInformal benchmarkingo Common for customer-facing processeso Interact with other business’ processes as if you are a customerBusiness Process Reengineering (BPR)Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthroughimprovements in products and servicesGoalso Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organizationo Eliminate unnecessary stepso Combine stepso Become more responsive to future changeIdentification of processes to reengineero Key business processesSet of activities designed to produce specific output for a particular customer ormarketFocused on customers and outcomeSame techniques are used as were used for requirements determinationIdentify specific activities that can be improved through BPRDisruptive technologieso Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizationsfrom making radical business changesBusiness Process Reengineering StepsOutcome AnalysisConsider desirable outcomes from customers’ perspectiveConsider what the organization could enable the customer to doTechnology AnalysisAnalysts list important and interesting technologiesManagers list important and interesting technologiesThe group identifies how each might be applied to the business and how the business might benefitActivity EliminationIdentify what would happen if each organizational activity were eliminatedUse “force-fit” to test all possibilities
  3. 3. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan3Selecting an Analysis TechniqueBusiness Business BusinessProcess Process ProcessAutomation Improvement ReengineeringPotential Business Low-Moderate Moderate HighValueProject Cost Low Low-Moderate HighBreadth ofAnalysis Narrow Narrow-Moderate Very BroadRisk Low-Moderate Low-Moderate Very High2. Requirements Gathering TechniquesRequirements GatheringCharacteristics for gathering requirementso ImpertinenceQuestion everythingo ImpartialityFind the best organizational solutiono Relaxation of constraintso Attention to detailo ReframingView the organization in new waysTechniquesInterviewso Open-ended and close-ended questionso Preparation is keyQuestionnaireso Must be carefully designedo Can contain close-ended as well as open-ended questionsOther means of gather requirementso Observing workerso Analyzing business documentsJoint Application Design (JAD)PrototypingInterviewsGather facts, opinions and speculationsObserve body language and emotionsGuidelineso PlanChecklistAppointmento Be neutralo Listeno Seek a diverse viewInterviews StepsSelecting IntervieweesBased on information needsBest to get different perspectiveso Managers
  4. 4. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan4o Userso Ideally, all key stakeholdersKeep organizational politics in mindDesigning Interview Questionso Types of Questionso Closed-Ended QuestionsHow many telephone orders are received per day?How do customers place orders?What additional information would you like the new system to provide?o Open-Ended QuestionsWhat do you think about the current system?What are some of the problems you face on a daily basis?How do you decide what types of marketing campaign to run?o Probing QuestionsWhy?Can you give me an example?Can you explain that in a bit more detail?Organizing Interview Questionso Unstructured interview useful early in information gatheringGoal is broad, roughly defined informationo Structured interview useful later in processGoal is very specific informationInterview Preparation Stepso Prepare general interview planList of questionAnticipated answers and follow-upso Confirm areas of knowledgeo Set priorities in case of time shortageo Prepare the intervieweeScheduleInform of reason for interviewInform of areas of discussionConducting the Interviewo Appear professional and unbiasedo Record all informationo Check on organizational policy regarding tape recordingo Be sure you understand all issues and termso Separate facts from opinionso Give interviewee time to ask questionso Be sure to thank the intervieweeo End on timeConducting the Interview Practical TipsTake time to build rapportPay attentionSummarize key pointsBe succinctBe honestWatch body languagePost-Interview Follow-UpPrepare interview notesPrepare interview reportHave interviewee review and confirm interview reportLook for gaps and new questions
  5. 5. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan53. JOINT APPLICATION DESIGN (JAD)Joint Application DevelopmentA structured group process focused on determining requirementsInvolves project team, users, and management working togetherMay reduce scope creep by 50%Very useful techniqueJAD ParticipantsFacilitatoro Trained in JAD techniqueso Sets agenda and guides group processesScribe(s)o Record content of JAD sessionsUsers and managers from business area with broad and detailed knowledgeJAD SessionsTime commitment – ½ day to several weeksStrong management support is needed to release key participants from their usual responsibilitiesCareful planning is essentiale-JAD can help alleviate some problems inherent with groupsJAD Meeting RoomManaging Problems in JAD SessionsReducing dominationEncouraging non-contributorsSide discussionsAgenda merry-go-roundViolent agreementUnresolved conflictTrue conflictUse humorQuestionnaires• A set of written questions, often sent to a large number of people
  6. 6. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan6• Mostly closed-ended questions• May be paper-based or electronic• Select participants using samples of the population• Design the questions for clarity and ease of analysis• Administer the questionnaire and take steps to get a good response rate• Questionnaire follow-up reportAdministering Questionnaires• Choosing respondentso Should be representative of all userso Types of samplesConvenientRandom samplePurposeful sampleStratified sampleGood Questionnaire Design• Begin with non-threatening and interesting questions• Group items into logically coherent sections• Do not put important items at the very end of the questionnaire• Do not crowd a page with too many items• Avoid abbreviations• Avoid biased or suggestive items or terms• Number questions to avoid confusion• Pretest the questionnaire to identify confusing questions• Provide anonymity to respondentsDocument Analysis• Study of existing material describing the current system• Forms, reports, policy manuals, organization charts describe the formal system• Look for the informal system in user additions to forms/report and unused form/report elements• User changes to existing forms/reports or non-use of existing forms/reports suggest the systemneeds modification• Types of information to be discovered:o Problems with existing systemo Opportunity to meet new needo Organizational directiono Names of key individualso Values of organizationo Special information processing circumstanceso Rules for processing dataObservation• Watch processes being performed• Serves as a good method to supplement interviews• Users/managers often don’t accurately recall everything they do• Checks validity of information gathered other ways• Be aware that behaviors change when people are watchedo Often difficult to obtain unbiased data• Be unobtrusive• Identify peak and lull periods
  7. 7. IS 460 Notes Professor Yong Tan7Selecting the Appropriate TechniquesInterviews JAD Questionnaires Document ObservationAnalysisType of As-Is As-Is As-Is As-Is As-IsInformation Improve. Improve. Improve.To-Be To-BeDepth of High High Medium Low LowInformationBreadth of Low Medium High High LowInformationIntegration Low High Low Low Lowof Info.User Medium High Low Low LowInvolvementCost Medium Low- Low Low Low-Medium MediumPrototyping• Prototypingo Repetitive processo Rudimentary version of system is builto Replaces or augments SDLCo Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system• Quickly converts requirements to working version of system• Once the user sees requirements converted to system, will ask for modifications or will generateadditional requests• Most useful when:o User requests are not clearo Few users are involved in the systemo Designs are complex and require concrete formo History of communication problems between analysts and userso Tools are readily available to build prototype• Drawbackso Tendency to avoid formal documentationo Difficult to adapt to more general user audienceo Sharing data with other systems is often not consideredo Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed

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