Gps( global positioning system) 2010


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  • يتألف الجى.پى.إس من ثلاث شرائح وهى: شرائح الفضاء، والتحكم، والمستخدم. فشريحة الفضاء تتألف من 24 إلى 32 قمراً صناعياً في المدار الأرضى المتوسط، وهو يتضمن أيضاً القاذفات المطلوبة لإطلاق هذه الأقمار إلى مدارها. وتتألف شريحة التحكم من محطة تحكم رئيسية، ومحطة تحكم رئيسية بديلة، ومضيف للهوائيات الأرضية المهداة والمشتركة، بالإضافة إلى محطات رصد. أما شريحة المستخدم فتتألف من مئات الآلاف من المستخدمين التابعين للجيش الأمريكي وقوات الحلفاء والذين يتمتعون بالخدمة الآمنة " جى.پى.إس التحديد الدقيق للمواقع "، وعشرات الملايين من المستخدمين المدنيين والتجاريين والعلماء الذين يستخدمون خدمة تحديد المواقع القياسى
  • Gps( global positioning system) 2010

    1. 1. Tanta University Faculty of Science Department of Geology Global Positioning System GPS Submitted by Mohamed Mahmoud Ahmed El-shora Supervised By Prof. Dr. Shadiya Taha El-khodary11/13/2012 1
    2. 2. Global Positioning System11/13/2012 2
    3. 3. Introduction Global Positioning System or GPS is a constellation of 27 satellites orbiting the earth at about 12000 miles. These satellites are continuously transmitting a signal and anyone with a GPS receiver on earth can receive these transmissions at no charge. By measuring the travel time of signals transmitted from each satellite, a GPS receiver can calculate its distance from the satellite. Satellite positions are used by receivers as precise reference points to determine the location of the GPS receiver.11/13/2012 3
    4. 4. Introduction . If a receiver can receive signals from at least 4 satellites, it can determine latitude, longitude, altitude and time. If it can receive signals from 3 satellites, it can determine latitude, longitude and time. The satellites are in orbits such that at any time anywhere on the planet one should be able to receive signals from at least 4 satellites.11/13/2012 4
    5. 5. Global Positioning System GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) GPS is a satellite system which enables anyone with a GPS receiver to establish their position, altitude and speed. It was developed by the USA and can be used by anyone. In this picture: Artists conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in orbit GPS Satellite NASA art-ii-f11/13/2012 5
    6. 6. Comparison of GNSS systems System Country Number of Orbital satellites height & period GPS United 24 ≤ km, 20,200 States (24-32) 12.0h COMPASS China 35 km, 21,150 12.6h GALILEO European 22 km, 23,222 Union 14.1h GLONASS Russia 24 km, 19,100 11.3h•Core Satellite navigation systems, currently GPS, Galileo andGLONASS. 11/13/2012 6
    7. 7. Global Positioning System GPS Consists of two main parts, the transmitter and receiver Part of the sender are those satellites, but receiver devices are small hands very sophisticated work in electronic circuits called Microprocessor The location is determined in two ways: First by the so-called Doppler Shift of the electromagnetic waves received from the satellite, and the displacement caused by the relative speed between the Earth and satellite The second way to determine the location based on measuring the time delay between the electromagnetic waves received from satellites.11/13/2012 7
    8. 8. Measuring DistanceA GPS receiver determines itsposition by using the signals that itobserves from different satellites.Since the receiver must solve for itsposition (X, Y, Z) and the clock error(x), four SVs are required to solvereceivers position using the following :four equations Where (x1,y1) (x2,y2) (x3,y3) and (x4, y4) stand for the location of satellites and R1, R2, R3, R4 are the distances of satellites from the receiver ).position (Figure-3 Hence solving the four equations for four unknowns X, Y, Z and x, the position or 11/13/2012 location of the station is 8 . calculated
    9. 9. Global Positioning System GPS The analysis of these data by the GPS devices that contain software provider a lot of information and physical variables such as the impact the atmosphere on electromagnetic waves, as well as the influence of gravity and the situation of climate, as the program contains detailed maps of the land, cities and streets, where, and the most important geographical features and other information important. It could be argued that the system of Global Positioning System GPS is based on an integrated system of satellites that operate within a system called Sophisticated Network Of Satellites, and these satellites will scan the globe twice every 23 hours and 56 minutes, as distributed these satellites on 6 levels of rotation of each level makes 55 degrees with the other level, and in each level there are three satellites.11/13/2012 9
    10. 10. 11/13/2012 10
    11. 11. GPS11/13/2012 11
    12. 12. Models for GPS11/13/2012 12
    13. 13. Models for GPS11/13/2012 13
    14. 14. GPS MAP11/13/2012 14
    15. 15. GPS Maps Of Egypt11/13/2012 15
    16. 16. Structure of GPS:GPS consists of three parts ,the space segment ,the control segment .and the user segment The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit ,These space vehicles (SVs) send radio signals fromspace.Their configuration provides user with between five and eight .SVs visible from any point on the earth 11/13/2012 16
    17. 17. Structure of GPS The control segment is composed of a master control station, an alternate master control station & a host of dedicated & shared ground antennas & monitor stations. The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world.These stations measure signals from the SVs, compute orbital data, upload data to the SVs, then the SVs send data to GPS receivers over radio signals. 11/13/2012 17
    18. 18. Structure of GPS The User Segment consists of the GPS receivers and the user community. – GPS receivers convert SV signals into position, velocity, and time estimates. – Four satellites are required to compute the four dimensions of X, Y, Z (position) and T (time).  GPS receivers are used for navigation, surveying, time dissemination, and other research.  Navigation receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and for hand carrying by individuals. 11/13/2012 18
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    21. 21. GPS Structure11/13/2012 21
    22. 22. Uses Of GPS There are many uses of this system are difficult to restrict, at the present time, proceeded a lot of companies, global transportation and shipping companies manufactured to follow the movement of machinery and vessels by this system very effective, as has been the introduction of this system in a lot of cars newly, which provides drivers for detailed maps of places and streets where they are located, and the best and shortest routes, which should conduct during their movements daily. Also saw this system for other uses by the airlines and air navigation to guide planes in the sky very precisely, and most recently was the introduction of this system in monitoring systems, air and track hurricanes, wind and waves raging in the oceans, as used by the bodies of scientific research to track migration birds, aquatic and forest fire monitoring and movement of icebergs.11/13/2012 22
    23. 23. Uses Of GPS11/13/2012 23
    24. 24. Applications of GPS GPS has become a widely used and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance. GPSs accurate timing facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately.11/13/2012 24
    25. 25. Applications of GPS11/13/2012 25
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