Anatomy pharynx and larynx - Olaleye


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Anatomy pharynx and larynx - Olaleye

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Anatomy pharynx and larynx - Olaleye

  1. 1. Pharynx & Larynx Olaleye O.O. 2B10
  2. 2. •  Pharynx –  Subdivisions and borders –  Pharyngeal muscles –  Pharyngeal gaps –  Blood supply and innervation•  Larynx –  Laryngeal cartilages Paired vs. unpaired Basic structure Membranes and ligaments –  Vocal cords and folds –  Muscles and innervation –  Blood supply
  3. 3. •  Is a wide muscular tube•  12 cm in length•  Located posterior to the nasal and oral cavities•  Extends inferiorly, posterior to the larynx•  Extends from the cranial base to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (anteriorly) and inferior border of C6 (posteriorly) [Extends from the base of the skull to the level of the C6 vertebra]where it is continuous with the oesophagus•  Widest opposite the hyoid bone and narrowest at the junction where it joins the oesophagus
  4. 4. Pharyngeal wallThe wall of the Pharynx consists of five layers:1.  Mucous membrane2.  Submucosa3.  Pharyngobasilar fascia4.  Pharyngeal muscles (3 constrictors) 1.  Stylopharyngeus 2.  Salpingopharyngeus 3.  palatopharyngeus5.  Buccopharyngeal fascia
  5. 5. •  Nasopharynx•  Oropharynx•  Laryngopharynx
  6. 6. •  Respiratory function•  Roof and Posterior wall: Continuous surface that lies inferior to the body of the sphenoid bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone•  Pharyngeal tonsils: Found in the mucous membrane of the roof and the posterior wall of the nasopharynx
  7. 7. •  Digestive function•  Aids in the process of deglutition•  Borders Superiorly: Soft Palate Inferiorly: Base of the Tongue Laterally: Palatoglossal and Palatopharyngeal arches
  8. 8. •  Palatine tonsils –  Collections of lymphoid tissue on either side of the Oropharynx between the arches•  Tonsillar bed –  Superior constrictor of the pharynx and the pharyngobasilar fascia form the tonsillar bed
  9. 9. •  Extends from the superior border of the epiglottis and the pharyngoepiglottic folds to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage•  Borders Posteriorly: related to the bodies of the C4- C6 vertebrae Posterior and lateral walls: Middle and Inferior constrictor muscles
  10. 10. •  Palatopharyngeus and Stylopharyngeus muscles form the walls•  Piriform recess, small depression of the laryngopharyngeal cavity on either side of the laryngeal inlet•  Separated from the laryngeal inlet by the aryepiglottic fold
  11. 11. 2 layers of voluntary muscle: •  External circular layer •  Internal circular layer
  12. 12. External circular layer• Constrictor muscles• Primarily responsible for constricting the pharynx during swallowing• Mainly innervated by the pharyngeal branch of vagus and thepharyngeal plexus• Middle and Inferior constrictor muscles are also innervated by theexternal and recurrent laryngeal nerves
  13. 13. •  Internal Longitudinal layer•  Elevate/shorten and widen the pharynx during swallowing and speaking•  Palatopharyngeus•  Stylopharyngeus•  Salpingopharyngeus•  Palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus are innervated by the pharyngeal branch of CNX and the pharyngeal plexus•  Stylopharyngeus is innervated by CN IX
  14. 14. •  1. Cranium to Superior Constrictor muscle Levator Veli Palatini Pharyngotympanic tube Ascending palatine artery•  2. Superior Constrictor to Middle Constrictor Stylopharyngeus Glossopharyngeal nerve Stylohyoid ligament
  15. 15. •  3. Middle Constrictor to Inferior Constrictor Internal laryngeal nerve Superior laryngeal artery and vein, which passes to the larynx•  4. Inferior to the Inferior Constrictor Muscle Recurrent Laryngeal nerve Inferior Laryngeal artery
  16. 16. Supply to the upper parts of the pharynx•  Ascending pharyngeal artery•  Ascending palatine artery•  Tonsillar branches of the facial artery•  Branches of the maxillary and lingual arteries Supply to the lower parts of the pharynx•  Pharyngeal branches of the inferior thyroid artery
  17. 17. LARYNX•  Is the upper , expanded part of the windpipe which is modified for phonation•  Supported by a number of cartilages
  18. 18. •  Complex organ of voice production•  Composed of 9 cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments•  Contains the vocal folds•  Located anteriorly in the neck•  Vertebral levels C3-C6•  Connects the inferior part of the Oropharynx to the trachea•  Lies anterior to the Laryngopharnx•  Secondary function is to guard the air passages
  19. 19. •  3 unpaired cartilages Thyroid Cricoid Epiglottic•  3 paired cartilages Arytenoid Cuneiform Corniculate
  20. 20. •  Main divisions of the Laryngeal Cavity Laryngeal Vestibule Middle part of the laryngeal cavity Laryngeal Ventricle Infraglottic cavity•  Vocal folds and ligaments•  Quadrangular membrane
  21. 21. Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation ActionCricothyroid Antero-lateral part Inferior margin and External Stretches and tenses of cricoid cartilage inferior horn of thyroid laryngeal nerve vocal ligament cartilageThyro-arytenoid Lower ½ of Anterolateral arytenoid Relaxes valocal posterior aspect of surface ligament angle of thyroid laminae and cricothyroid ligamentPosterior Crico- Posterior surface Abducts vocal foldsarytenoid of lamina of cricoid cartilage Inferior Vocal process of laryngeal nerve arytenoid cartilage (terminal part ofLateral crico- Arch of arytenoid recurrent Adducts vocal foldsarytenoid cartilage laryngeal nerve from vagus)Transverse & One arytenoid Contra-lateral arytenoid Adducts arytenoidOblique arytenoids cartilage cartilage cartilagesVocalis Lateral surface of Ipsilateral vocal ligament Relaxes posterior vocal vocal process of ligament while arytenoid maintaining tension of cartilages anterior part
  22. 22. •  Superior Laryngeal artery Supplies the internal surface of the larynx•  Cricothyroid artery Supplies the cricothyroid muscle•  Inferior Laryngeal artery Supplies the mucous membrane and the muscles of the inferior part of the larynx