• Like
2b Patterns of aid for environment and development co-operation to support Green Growth in Zambia by Juan Casado OECD DCD
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

2b Patterns of aid for environment and development co-operation to support Green Growth in Zambia by Juan Casado OECD DCD

  • 1,425 views
Published

Mr Juan Casado-Asensio (Policy Analyst, OECD Secretariat) presented on Patterns of aid for environment and development co-operation to support green growth in Zambia. Presentation delivered at the …

Mr Juan Casado-Asensio (Policy Analyst, OECD Secretariat) presented on Patterns of aid for environment and development co-operation to support green growth in Zambia. Presentation delivered at the OECD ENVIRONET EXPERT WORKSHOP: GREEN GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND POLICY; as part of the 16th ENVIRONET meeting in Paris.

Published in News & Politics , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,425
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • I am building upon Doreen’s remarks to present the conclusions of a pilot project on devco to support the environment in Zambia. Most of of Zambia’s GDP and export value is derived from environment-related sectors such as mining, agriculture or forestry.Development co-operation providers have been playing an important role in this field – and will continue doing so in the future. Moreover, this is an area that is heavily dependent on foreign financing with about 3% of total investment comes from the government (Government of Zambia, 2011). Although this should grow by 33% in the future, it would still leave the environment heavily donor-dependent.
  • I will structure my presentation around threetrends of environment-related aid and devco efforts to support the environment in Zambia: The first trendpertainsdevco flows targeting “green” objectives in Zambia since 2007: our quantitative assessment using the DAC-Creditor Reporting System database. The second trend refers to how well these ODA patterns reflect and support Zambia’s emerging “green” priorities and needs. Finally, the third trendrelates to how devcoproviders work on the ground.
  • Turning first to the major patterns of ODA targeting “green objectives”, which includes environment-related aid, as well as climate-related, desertification and biodiversity ODA (and therefore captures both local and global environmental objectives in this respect)This figure shows that:Since 2007, “green” ODA commitments have increased from slightly less than USD 150 million to close to USD 200 million in 2012.Similarly, the share of green aid as a share of total ODA commitments gained in importance, growing from 15 to 25% in that period.However, growth in commitments has been irregular over time (saw-like shape). This reflects general ODA commitments to Zambia, which fluctuated substantially during that period. In terms of disbursements, however, the evolution is smoother. And growth has been driven by the climate-related component of “green” aid.
  • Donors are looking for synergies with their environment-related activities in Zambia. This can be seen in the large overlaps among green areas, especially with desertification, biodiversity and adaptation aid, which are almost always targeted on their own.
  • Moving on to the second point on whether devco activities match Zambian priorities…
  • Zambia’s “green” priorities are now incorporated into the country’s Fifth and especially in the Sixth NDPs. The amount of activities and initiatives related to the environment have grown considerably over time, and e.g., the SNDP, in particular, lists 13 key sectors, up from 4 sectors in the FNDP.But are devco providers mirroring these priorities?
  • Sector-wise: energy, agriculture, water supply and sanitation, transport and storage constituted the main sectors where environment-related ODA flowed in Zambia during 2006-2011. This suggests that devco activities are mainstreamed across a number of the key sectors identified by the government of Zambia
  • One could conclude that There are substantial synergies in terms of the sectors targeted by devco providers But that there are also a notable gaps, such as the mining sector, which represents about 9% of GDP, 8% of formal employment and 70% of foreign exchange earnings in Zambia and that has an important environmental sustainability dimension in the form of water use, waste and pollution. But this does not tell us much about whether devco providers are actually aligned with Zambian priorities, by design.
  • Which made us look at howdevco providers work on the ground in Zambia…Interestingly, 16 DAC members co-ordinate their devco efforts in Zambia around a Joint Assistance Strategy on Zambia or JASZ
  • The JASZ is reviewed and updated at the same time as the Government updates its NDP… The first JASZ (2007-2010) has some interesting features:It led to a division of labour on the environment among Nordic countries (and for other areas other donors)The partners identified the following priorities …and key sectors …The effectiveness of the first JASZ was evaluated …. Nevertheless, it also found that the JASZ lacks specific targets and indicators to measure progress and follow up on commitments made and that the Zambian government was initially not participating in the Strategy. The second JASZ (2011-2015) builds upon these lessons and Has a broader scope in terms of priorities and sectors for the environmentCo-ordinated more closely with the government, aims to improve the division of labour among partners and to enhance dialogue with other stakeholders
  • Looking at the top donors in the environment-related area for 2007-2012 evidences that the Nordic countries, plus Japan, Germany and the US are among the most important (accounting for 89% of total environment-related aid to Zambia).Tend to be the countries where aid efforts are concentrated on the environment sector.This reflects the division of labour agreed through the JASZ.We performed an additional qualitative data study for the paper on the cases of Denmark, Finland and Norway, using the DAC Evaluation Resource Centre (Derec) Database, which showed that over time these partners are aligning closer to the governmental priorities, but that additional efforts would have to be made to include poverty reduction into their activities.
  • To conclude…Development co-operation providers are key actors in the environment sector of Zambia, helping to “green” various key sectors of its economyActivities are increasingly aligned with those of Zambia’s NDPs, helping to harmonise donor activities, reduce and avoid duplication of activities and improving the information flow among donors and with the GovernmentDespite this, there is scope for further alignment, e.g, by focusing efforts on the mining sector or incorporating poverty reduction into donor projects.Efforts in Zambia to produce an Inclusive Green Growth Strategy could provide an opportunity to further align DAC donor efforts with Zambian priorities

Transcript

  • 1. Patterns of aid for environment and development co-operation to support green growth in Zambia* Presentation by Juan Casado-Asensio Policy Analyst Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD *Source: Wang et al. (forthcoming 2014)
  • 2. • Major patterns in Official Development Assistance (ODA) targeting “green” objectives in Zambia • How do development co-operation patterns compare to Zambian priorities? – Synergies… but also gaps • How are providers of development co-operation working on the ground in Zambia? Outline
  • 3. “Green” ODA commitments to Zambia Source: OECD DAC CRS (2014) 15% 9% 27% 10% 36% 25% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 EnvironmentasashareoftotalODA commitments USDmillion Composition of environmental ODA commitments to Zambia 2007-2012, bilateral commitments, USD million, constant 2011 prices Biodiversity-related Climate-related Total environmental-related aid (biodiversity, climate change, desertification and the environment) Environment-related as a share of total ODA commitments to Zambia
  • 4. Overlaps between different “green” markers OECD DAC aid targeting the environment and Rio Conventions Annual Average 2010-11, USD million, constant 2011 prices Source: OECD DAC CRS (2014) Climate Change Adaptation USD 64 million Climate Change Mitigation USD 97 million Environment USD 109 million Biodiversity USD 16 million Desertification USD 11 million
  • 5. • Major patterns in Official Development Assistance (ODA) targeting “green” objectives in Zambia • How do development co-operation patterns compare to Zambian priorities? – Synergies… but also gaps • How are providers of development co-operation working on the ground in Zambia?
  • 6. Mirroring Zambian green priorities? • 5th NDP (2006-2010) and 6th NDP (2011-2015) identify a growing number of environmental priorities, e.g.,: – 4 sectors in 5th NDP (agriculture, manufacturing, mining, tourism) – 13 sectors in the 6th NDP (agriculture, trade, fisheries, education, health, energy, infrast ructure, water and sanitation, forestry, mining, tourism) • To what extent are development co-operation providers aligned with Zambian priorities?
  • 7. Types of activities supported by DAC members Source: OECD DAC CRS (2014) Energy, 19% Agriculture, 17% Water Supply & Sanitation, 15% Transport & Storage, 14% General Budget Support, 10% General Environment Protection, 8% Other Social Infrastructure & Services, 5% Other Multi-sector, 5% All other sectors, 7% Environmental ODA to Zambia by sector 2006-2011, bilateral commitments
  • 8. Mirroring Zambian green priorities? • Data suggests important synergies between activities of development co-operation providers and the sectors identified by the Zambian government. • But there is also a notable gap: mining sector – Less than 2% of ODA to the sector integrates environmental considerations – Despite being a key sector for Zambia’s environment (e.g., impact on water use and waste) … – … and economy: about 9% GDP, 8% formal employment, 70% foreign exchange earnings (Government of Zambia 2011)
  • 9. • Major patterns in Official Development Assistance (ODA) targeting “green” objectives in Zambia • How do development co-operation patterns compare to Zambian priorities? – Synergies… but also gaps • How are providers of development co-operation working on the ground in Zambia?
  • 10. Joint Assistance Strategy for Zambia (JASZ) • 16 DAC members co-ordinate their development efforts through the JASZ. • The JASZ is reviewed and updated in line with the NDPs: JASZ I (2007-2010) JASZ II (2011-2015) Priorities Capacity building; SEAs and EIAs; knowledge management Mainstreaming into planning, programming and budget; ecosystem assessments and indicators; capacity building; access to finance Sectors Fisheries, Forestry, Energy, Adaptation Agriculture, Energy, Forestry, Climate Evaluation • Donor co-ordination and duplication • Further harmonisation through novel dialogue architecture • Lacking specific targets, indicators • Zambia initially not signatory (N/A)
  • 11. Strategies to mainstream environment in developing countries Source: OECD DAC CRS (2014) 40% 37% 59% 53% 65% 40% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 ShareoftotalODAcommitted USDmillion Top 7 donors of environmental ODA to Zambia Annual average 2007-12, bilateral commitments, USD million, constant 2011 prices ODA to environment ODA to environment as share of total ODA committed by donor to Zambia • Main donors: Nordic countries and Japan, Germany, USA • Account for 89% of total environment-related aid to Zambia • Reflecting JASZ labour division • Qualitative data sourced from the DAC Evaluation Resource Centre (DEReC) for three donors: • Activities in line with government priorities • Future focus on poverty reduction needed
  • 12. In Summary… • Development co-operation providers are key for the environment in Zambia • Donor activities are increasingly : – aligned with Zambian priorities – harmonised across actors (less duplication, division of labour) – Sharing information among donors and with the Government • Scope for further alignment: – the mining sector – incorporating poverty reduction • Zambian Inclusive Green Growth Strategy could be an opportunity for further alignment and raising the profile of the environment-development nexus for the government
  • 13. THANK YOU! For more information: juan.CASADOASENSIO@oecd.org OECD DCD Environment and Development Homepage www.oecd.org/dac/environment-development OECD DAC-CRS: Methods and data on ODA www.oecd.org/dac/stats/rioconventions.htm DAC Evaluation Resource Centre (DEReC) www.oecd.org/derec