Simon Upton's presentation on OECD Environmental performance review of Colombia

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Simon Upton's is director of Environment at the OECD. Here is the presentation he gave on April 10th for the launch of the first Environmental performance review of Colombia. Inequalities, commodities boom, precious biodiversity and green growth.
http://www.oecd.org/env/country-reviews/colombia2014.htm

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Simon Upton's presentation on OECD Environmental performance review of Colombia

  1. 1. Environmental Performance Reviews Simon Upton Director, Environment 10 APRIL 2014 Environmental Performance Review of Colombia
  2. 2. Environmental Performance ReviewsSurfing the commodities boom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 %change(2000-11) USD1000(2005pricesandPPP) GDP per capita in 2011 and % change in total GDP (2000-11) GDP per capita % change
  3. 3. Environmental Performance ReviewsOne of the world’s most unequal countries 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 Gini coefficient of household disposable income, 2010 or latest available year
  4. 4. Environmental Performance ReviewsStrong commodity prices 0% 4% 8% 12% 2001 2006 2011 % share of value added Contribution to GDP growth Other Metal ores Coal Oil and gas
  5. 5. Growth in mining Environmental Performance Reviews 0 3 000 6 000 9 000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1 000 ha 8% of the continental land area Land titled for mining (cumulated ha)
  6. 6. Mining exploration Environmental Performance Reviews Mining titles 2012 Titles granted Titles and applications
  7. 7. Coal, metal and other mining 2% Oil and gas extraction 43% Manufacture of metals 13% Manufacture of electrical machinery and motor vehicles Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products 4% Other manufacturing 13% Printing and publishing 3% Transport 4% Human health activities 9% Other 4% Total: 174 419 tonnes Environmental Performance ReviewsHazardous waste generation Renewables Generation of hazardous waste by type of activity in 2011
  8. 8. Natural resources under pressure from agriculture Environmental Performance Reviews 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of land area Forest area in 2011
  9. 9. Land use area (estimated) 1500160018001850192019702000
  10. 10. Natural resources under pressure from agriculture Environmental Performance Reviews 0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1,00 1,20 1,40 1,60 1,80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Pacific Orinoquía Caribbean Andean Amazon million ha Forest area (1990) Forest area (2005) Forest area (2010) Average annual deforestation rate (1990-2010) % of 1990 forest area Forest area and average annual deforestation by region
  11. 11. Livestock grazing Environmental Performance Reviews 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 million head of cattle Increase in stock units
  12. 12. Land holding Environmental Performance Reviews 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Uruguay Paraguay Peru Gini index Land holding concentration Source: FAO Gender and Land Rights Database; Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi.
  13. 13. Environmental Performance ReviewsUrbanisation is growing 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2018 2021 2024 2027 2030 2033 2036 2039 2042 2045 2048 million inhabitants Urban Rural Population trends: projections to 2050
  14. 14. Environmental Performance ReviewsUsing water more efficiently 0 20 40 60 80 Pacific Orinoquia Magdalena-Cauca Carribean Amazon % urban population % average annual runoff % Distribution of surface water resources and population by hydrographic area 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2008 2019 billion m3 Water abstractions by major uses: 2008 and projections to 2019 Manufacturing industry Public water supply Agriculture and aquaculture
  15. 15. Environmental Performance ReviewsAccess to water and sanitation 0 25 50 75 100 Urban Rural Urban Rural Safe drinking water Basic sanitation Population with access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 1993 and 2010 1993 2010 % MDG targets 2015 Urban Rural Urban Rural
  16. 16. 0 25 50 75 100 Water supply % Households connected to water supply and sewer systems, 2003-12 2003 2012 Sewerage Environmental Performance ReviewsAccess to water and sanitation Urban Rural Rural Urban
  17. 17. Environmental Performance Reviews The effects of climate change on precipitation Change in precipitation 2071-2100 vs 1971-2000
  18. 18. Environmental Performance Reviews Planned expansion of fossil fuel power generation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011 2020 TWh Electricity generation, 1990-2011 and projections to 2020 (baseline scenario) Hydro Biofuels and waste Natural gas Oil products Coal and coal products Thermal plants Hydroelectric plants
  19. 19. Low CO2 emission intensity – for now Environmental Performance Reviews 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 COL NOR FRA ITA TUR CHL MEX JPN USA CAN AUS t/USD 1 000 (2005 PPP) Energy-related CO2 emissions intensity, 2011
  20. 20. Low CO2 emission intensity – for now Environmental Performance Reviews 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Transport Manufacturing and construction Residential, commercial and public services Other energy industry own use Energy-related CO2 emissions by sector, 2000-11 Mt Electricity and heat Agriculture and forestry
  21. 21. Environmental Performance ReviewsGrowth in road transport 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 United States Australia Canada Norway Japan Mexico Chile Turkey Colombia % change vehicles/ 100 inhabitants Road vehicle stock per capita, 2010 Passenger cars Other % change 2000-10
  22. 22. Lower taxes on diesel than petrol Environmental Performance Reviews Fuel prices in Colombia and selected OECD countries, 2012 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00 Norway Turkey UnitedKingdom France Switzerland Japan Chile Colombia-Bogotà UnitedStates Mexico USD/litre Unleaded petrol Diesel for commercial use
  23. 23. Petrol vs diesel Environmental Performance Reviews -0,3 0,0 0,3 0,7 1,0 1,3 1,7 2,0 -1 000 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 % of GDP COP billion 2005 prices Petrol Diesel Total % GDP (right axis) Fuel subsidies It is estimated that diesel subsidies accounted for 65% of total fuel subsidies in 2011.
  24. 24. Air pollution has significant impacts on human health and the economy Environmental Performance Reviews 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Bogotá Medellín Bucaramanga National standard WHO standard µg/m3 Annual mean concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM10) in three cities
  25. 25. Environmental Performance Reviews Low municipal waste generation but high landfill rate Municipal waste generation, 2011 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 200 400 600 800 COL BRA JPN MEX CHL TUR NOR FRA GBR USA % kg/capita Waste per capita % landfilled (right axis)
  26. 26. Environmental Performance ReviewsWaste – municipal waste generation 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sanitary landfills Recovery* Other** Private final consumption (right axis) million tonnes * Mainly carried out by treatment plants not complying with adequate technical standards. Excludes recovery from households, commerce and industrial sources (about 1.8 millions tonnes in 2010). ** Includes waste disposal in non-controlled sites and water bodies, and waste burning in open areas. Generation and treatment of municipal waste 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 Private final consumtion (right axis) Index 2005 = 100 (constant prices)
  27. 27. Environmental Performance ReviewsEnvironmentally related taxes -2,0 -1,0 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 Mexico Colombia UnitedStates Chile Japan France SouthAfrica Norway Brazil Turkey % of GDP Energy products Motor vehicles Other OECD countries and selected non-member economies, 2011
  28. 28. Environmental Performance Reviews Mobilising resources to develop and manage protected areas 0 20 40 60 80 100 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total SINAP resources Domestic government budget to national natural parks International co-operation Other domestic sources COP million 2011 prices Sources of funding for protected areas

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