Climate finance aoki (gef)scale up&replication-gef perspectives-ccxg gf march2014


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GEF Presentation made during OECD/IEA CCXG Global Forum March 2014: Scale-up and replication of Climate Finance: GEF Perspectives

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Climate finance aoki (gef)scale up&replication-gef perspectives-ccxg gf march2014

  1. 1. OECD Climate Change Expert Group Global Forum Breakout Group 2 Scale-up and replication of climate finance interventions Chizuru Aoki Coordinator, Climate Change Mitigation Team 19 March 2014 Scale-up and Replication of Climate Finance: GEF Perspectives
  2. 2. Key Questions • What are broad lessons from replication and scaling-up experiences to date? • What are implications for the balanced provision of climate finance between mitigation and adaptation?
  3. 3. Snapshot of GEF Adaptation • Since 2002 through SPA, LDCF and SCCF • 230 projects • Total GEF grant of ~$1.2 billion • Co-financing of ~$5.5 billion Mitigation • Since 1991, through GEF Trust Fund • Over 750 projects • Total GEF grant of ~ $3 billion • Co-financing of ~ $25 billion  Tailor support to specific needs of each project and country  Facilitate partnerships among international organizations, authorities, private sector and other actors to create conditions for successful climate finance
  4. 4. Impact of GEF Interventions  Progress towards impact: assessed through extent of broader adoption of interventions by stakeholders  Replication and scaling-up: two “pathways” for broader adoption  GEF Climate Mitigation projects showed progress towards broader adoption, as assessed by GEF Independent Evaluations Office (IEO):  77% of projects in 4 emerging economies (Impact Evaluation, 2013)  66% of recently completed projects (5th Overall Performance Study, 2013) 1. Sustaining 2. Main- streaming 3. Replication 4. Scaling-up 5. Market change
  5. 5. Key Evaluation Findings and Lessons  Successful projects adopted comprehensive approaches to address market barriers with targeted supportive policy frameworks  Project relevance to stakeholders and demonstration of technology applicability, effectiveness and feasibility are important  Projects with large greenhouse gas impact had replication factored into project design  Profitability & cost-effectiveness are key for replication  needed for private sector engagement  Roles of countries as regional leaders are important for scaling-up, if facing comparable challenges  Technical standards and national support policies are effective for scaling-up (GEF IEO, 2013)
  6. 6. GEF Approaches to Enhance Cooperation in Climate Finance Transforming policy and regulatory environments Demonstrating innovative approaches Strengthening institutional capacity Building multi-stakeholder alliances De-risking partner investments  Pursuing complementarity in climate finance is key to facilitate replication and scale-up  GEF invests in individual and across focal areas to deliver global environmental benefits, through five approaches
  7. 7. Example: Demonstrating Innovative Approaches Source: Fraunhofer-ISI, “Assessment of the World Bank/GEF strategy for the market development of concentrating solar thermal power” (2006); Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Egypt, Morocco, Mexico Co-financing: 7.7x $142M in grants to support four large-scale projects in Egypt, Morocco, Mexico and India to push concentrating solar power down the cost curve Source: MSNBC Partner roles & contributions ▪ World Bank: engaged with different partners across countries depending on policy and market context, and provided key loans ▪ GEF: supported demonstrations and shared information among countries; facilitated scale-up investments by CTF & others ▪ Governments: provided significant funding, policy support ▪ Private sector: catalyzed development of an industry & technology where there previously had been little global activity ▪ Even projects that were less than fully successful provided key lessons learned for future GEF and industry investments
  8. 8. Example: Building Multi-Stakeholder Alliances Partner roles & contributions  World Bank: Soft loans integrated into regional program (TerrAfrica); loans supporting Building Resilience through Innovation Communication & Knowledge Service at country-regional level  GEF: Facilitating integration of climate adaptation, mitigation, land degradation and biodiversity priorities  Governments: policy reforms on forest, agriculture, land management sharing of traditional knowledge and best practices Map by John Kappler, National Geographic Great Green Wall Initiative Co-financing: 18x Support regional program with 12 countries to address national priority challenges of desertification + climate vulnerability in an integrated manner
  9. 9. Example: Building Multi-Stakeholder Alliances Partner roles & contributions  GEF: public-private partnership to develop and promulgate best practices  Governments: Over 60 countries committed to phase-out of inefficient lighting and policy reforms/incentives  Private sector: providing key technical expertise and corporate leadership
  10. 10. Some Thoughts towards GEF-6 1. Enhance synergy among institutions: Complementing each other and leveraging private sector, towards higher impact together 2. Thematic integration is happening: More projects that address mitigation and adaptation, multi-sector projects across Conventions 3. Differences exist in mitigation and adaptation financing: Flow of finance, types of co-financing, etc.  Pursue complementarity in climate finance: Key theme for proposed GEF mitigation and adaptation strategies  Enhance impact on the ground: Five approaches to be used to inform GEF-6 project development
  11. 11. GEF’s Unique Value for Climate Financing 1. Facilitating innovation & technology transfer 2. Catalyzing systemic impacts through synergistic multi-focal initiatives 3. Building on Convention obligations for reporting & assessments towards mainstreaming Assisting developing countries in defining and implementing mitigation measures towards 2015 agreement
  12. 12. Thank you for your attention Please contact us at : Chizuru Aoki: 1818 H Street, NW, Mail Stop P4-400 Washington, DC 20433 USA Tel: (202) 473-0508 Fax: (202) 522-3240/3245
  13. 13. Proposed GEF-6 Climate Mitigation Strategy • Program 1: Low carbon technologies and mitigation options • Program 2: Innovative policy packages and market initiatives 1. Promote innovation & technology transfer • Program 3: Integrated low-carbon, urban systems • Program 4: Forests and other land use, and climate smart agriculture 2. Demonstrate systemic impacts of mitigation options • Program 5: Convention obligations for planning and mitigation targets 3. Foster enabling conditions to mainstream mitigation concerns into SD strategies Goal: To support developing countries to make transformational shifts towards low emission, resilient development path
  14. 14. GEF scaling up models for energy efficiency
  15. 15. GEF leveraging private sector investments in energy efficiency • 2006, $16.9 million GEF grant, $200 million IFC loan for EE marketing, development and financing services • 2012, leveraged about $800 million local bank loans for 170 plus EE/RE projects • Now, mitigates over 19 million tonnes CO2 pear year = total annual emissions of Mongolia • CHUEE 3 is currently under implementation in China 15 Case study of GEF/IFC CHUEE
  16. 16. GEF support to transforming China’s renewable energy (REDP and CRESP)
  17. 17. Recent Analysis: Impact Evaluation 77 % of 18 projects from 4 emerging economies reviewed in depth showed high, significant, or moderate progress towards broader adoption • Replication – Activities replicated in 15 projects, traced back to GEF projects – Types of replication: private sector replication; with support by national institutions, strategies, or policies; through national, GEF, or ODA support; decentralized public sector replication • Scale-up – Scale-up with causal links to GEF projects in 11 projects; 6 projects working on scale-up with or without GEF or government support – Types of scale-up: within project countries; in other countries; national support policies with causal relationship with GEF project, product and technology standards and specifications developed in GEF projects (GEF IEO, 2013 a, Climate Change Mitigation Impact Evaluation)
  18. 18. Recent Analysis: Fifth Overall Performance Study of GEF 66% of 113 completed climate change mitigation projects had broader adoption initiatives adopted or implemented • Mainstreaming: most common mechanism of broader adoption – Policy, legislative, and regulatory measures – Mainstreaming of financing and promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy, such as lease purchase agreements, funds, ESCOs • Replication – Technologies and infrastructures most commonly replicated • Scale-up and Market Change – Not common among project cohort – Technologies and infrastructure most common measures (GEF IEO, 2013b, Fifth Overall Performance Study of the GEF)