First, we have analysed measures to seize the low-hanging fruit… describe 4-4-2 ….These actions could play a key role in keeping emissions on track between now and 2020. But they also have implications for national contributions post-2020: for example should countries be expected to <at least> undertake this zero-cost level of emissions reductions? And how can early action before 2020 best be encouraged?
CONCLUSION- “unlocking” existing infrastructure is going to be a key part of the transition. How could the 2015 agreement help ensure countries go beyond just new investment in clean energy, and also address infrastructure transition?
IPCC Working Group II (September 2013)US DOE Report (June 2013)Munich RE (2012)IEA Electricity Security Framework (2012) World Energy Outlook Special Report (2013)NEA Report (2014)WBCSD Report (2014)
Taking developments across the energy system together, it is difficult to paint a positive picture. You see it summed up here.At the same time, the positive progress in renewable energy demonstrates the very real power governments have to create markets and policies that accelerate development and uptake of clean energy technologies. The potential of clean energy technologies remains largely untapped, but governments can unlock that potential through effective government policy, and by pricing energy appropriately. Several of the most promising trends in clean energy are also coming from emerging economies – precisely where demand growth has been buoying carbon emissions. That is great news. Our report makes a number of broad, global recommendations, that pull together the key outcomes of the report. First: that is it only by working together - among countries but also with stakeholders in the private sector and non-profit worlds - that we can make progress at the scale and pace required. This means deepening international collaboration on clean energy deployment – through joint, actionable and monitored commitments – and setting clear and ambitious clean energy technology goals.Second: for too long have we supported, directly or indirectly, wasteful use of energy. Largely this is because prices do not reflect the true cost of energy. Altering this means creating a meaningful carbon price and phasing out fossil fuel subsidies. It also means implementing long-term, predictable policies that encourage investors to switch from traditional energy sources to low-carbon technologies. While that may not happen overnight, let’s not fool ourselves: if we do not get prices and policies right, the transition to a clean energy system simply will not happen. That is my second key message.Third message:we need to take a systems-perspective and a long-term view. Governments must think beyond individual technologies and electoral cycles and consider the larger picture. Smart infrastructure investments that enable system-wide gains make sense, and clean energy solutions such as electric vehicles and solar PV depend on them. But infrastructure takes time to build, so action is needed now.Fourth, let’s seize on energy’s easy win, energy efficiency. We have seen that much energy efficiency potential remains untapped, due to barriers such as high upfront capital costs, customer indifference, and lack of awareness or capacity. Stronger economic incentives and more ambitious regulation – including building energy codes, fuel economy standards, energy management in industry and other energy efficiency measures - are required to tap into that potential.Our final recommendation relates to the report’s special feature: energy technology RD&D and innovation. Early deployment is vital for learning and cost reduction for more mature technologies, but strategic RD&D is also critical to bring promising clean energy technologies to the market. The private sector will not act on its own. Governments must accelerate RD&D support for clean energy, and double its share in public budgets, to enable cost and performance gains that make clean energy competitive.[Open discussion].