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SIGI 2009


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The Social Institutions and Gender Index is a new composite measure of gender equality, based on the OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database – GID.

The Social Institutions and Gender Index is a new composite measure of gender equality, based on the OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database – GID.

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  • lundi 8 juin 2009
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) OECD Development Centre Construction and Results 2009
    • 2. Why measure gender equality?
      • Gender equality a fundamental human right and a driver for development
      • Important gender gaps in health, education, political rights, and economic opportunities, particularly in developing countries
      • Better policies needed to effectively address gender inequalities
    • 3. Why the SIGI?
      • Existing indices of gender equality measure inequality outcomes
        • GDI: inequality in health, education and economic participation
        • GEM: women‘s social and political rights
        • GGI: multidimensional measure of gender differences
        • GEI: Socio-economic opportunities
      • The SIGI measures the root causes of gender inequality
        • Traditions inducing inequalities (e.g. inheritance practices)
        • Social norms impacting on gender equality (e.g. son preference)
        • Cultural practices limiting the freedom of women (e.g. ogligations to be accompanied by male guardian)
    • 4. How is the SIGI constructed? All variables are coded between 0 and 1. The value 0 means no or very low inequality and the value 1 indicates high inequality. Three of the variables (Early marriage, Female genital mutilation and Violence against women) are continuous. The other indicators are on an ordered categorical scale. Social Institutions Variables
      • Early marriage
      • Polygamy
      • Parental authority
      • Inheritance
      • Freedom of movement
      • Freedom of dress
      • Female genital mutilation
      • Violence against women
      • Access to land
      • Access to bank loans
      • Access to property
      Ownership Rights Civil Liberties Physical Integrity Family Code
      • Missing women
      Son Preference
    • 5. Family Code
      • … refers to institutions that influence the decision-making power of women in the household. The following variables are included:
      • Parental authority measures whether women have the right to be a legal guardian of a child during marriage, and whether women have custody rights over a child after divorce.
      • Inheritance is based on formal inheritance rights of spouses.
      • Early marriage measures the percentage of girls between 15 and 19 years of age who are/were ever married.
      • Polygamy measures the acceptance of polygamy in the population. Countries where this information is not available are assigned scores based on the legality of polygamy.
    • 6. Civil Liberties
      • … captures the freedom of social participation of women. It includes the following variables:
      • Freedom of movement indicates the freedom of women to move outside the home.
      • Freedom of dress is based on the obligation of women to cover parts of their body in the public.
    • 7. Physical Integrity
      • … comprises different indicators on violence against women.
      • Violence against women indicates the existence of laws against domestic violence, sexual assault or rape, and sexual harassment.
      • Female genital mutilation is the percentage of women who have undergone female genital mutilation.
    • 8. Son Preference
      • … reflects the economic valuation of women. Its only component is the variable Missing women :
      • Missing women measures gender bias in mortality. Countries were coded by Stephan Klasen based on estimates of gender bias in mortality for a sample of countries (Klasen and Wink, 2003) and on sex ratios of young people and adults.
    • 9. Ownership Rights
      • … covers the access of women to several types of property.
      • Women’s access to land indicates whether women are allowed and have de facto access to own land.
      • Women’s access to bank loans measures whether women are allowed and have de facto access to credits.
      • Women’s access to property other than land covers mainly access to real property such as houses, but also any other property.
    • 10. The SIGI Formula
      • The SIGI is an unweighted average of the GID subindices. Each term is squared to allow partial compensation.
      • Its values are between 0 and 1, with 0 meaning no inequality and 1 indicating complete inequality.
      • SIGI = ⅕ (Subindex Family Code) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Civil Liberties) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Physical Integrity) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Son Preference) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Ownership Rights) 2
    • 11. What does the SIGI show?
      • Bottom performers among 102 developing countries: Sudan, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone
      • Top performers : Paraguay, Croatia, Kazachstan
      • Highest inequality : sub-Saharan Africa; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia
      • Lowest inequality : Latin America; Europe and Central Asia
      • Region with both high and low performers: East Asia and Pacific
    • 12. How can I use the SIGI?
      • Score and Ranking provide an overview of gender discrimination in social institutions
      • Subindeces help locate areas of particular concern
      • Social Institutions Indicators offer new empirical evidence
      • GID Country Notes explain in depth the SIGI score and ranking
      • GID Statistics , including the SIGI composite measure, can be accessed free of charge from
    • 13. For more information