SIGI 2009
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SIGI 2009



The Social Institutions and Gender Index is a new composite measure of gender equality, based on the OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database – GID.

The Social Institutions and Gender Index is a new composite measure of gender equality, based on the OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database – GID.



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  • lundi 8 juin 2009

SIGI 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) OECD Development Centre Construction and Results 2009
  • 2. Why measure gender equality?
    • Gender equality a fundamental human right and a driver for development
    • Important gender gaps in health, education, political rights, and economic opportunities, particularly in developing countries
    • Better policies needed to effectively address gender inequalities
  • 3. Why the SIGI?
    • Existing indices of gender equality measure inequality outcomes
      • GDI: inequality in health, education and economic participation
      • GEM: women‘s social and political rights
      • GGI: multidimensional measure of gender differences
      • GEI: Socio-economic opportunities
    • The SIGI measures the root causes of gender inequality
      • Traditions inducing inequalities (e.g. inheritance practices)
      • Social norms impacting on gender equality (e.g. son preference)
      • Cultural practices limiting the freedom of women (e.g. ogligations to be accompanied by male guardian)
  • 4. How is the SIGI constructed? All variables are coded between 0 and 1. The value 0 means no or very low inequality and the value 1 indicates high inequality. Three of the variables (Early marriage, Female genital mutilation and Violence against women) are continuous. The other indicators are on an ordered categorical scale. Social Institutions Variables
    • Early marriage
    • Polygamy
    • Parental authority
    • Inheritance
    • Freedom of movement
    • Freedom of dress
    • Female genital mutilation
    • Violence against women
    • Access to land
    • Access to bank loans
    • Access to property
    Ownership Rights Civil Liberties Physical Integrity Family Code
    • Missing women
    Son Preference
  • 5. Family Code
    • … refers to institutions that influence the decision-making power of women in the household. The following variables are included:
    • Parental authority measures whether women have the right to be a legal guardian of a child during marriage, and whether women have custody rights over a child after divorce.
    • Inheritance is based on formal inheritance rights of spouses.
    • Early marriage measures the percentage of girls between 15 and 19 years of age who are/were ever married.
    • Polygamy measures the acceptance of polygamy in the population. Countries where this information is not available are assigned scores based on the legality of polygamy.
  • 6. Civil Liberties
    • … captures the freedom of social participation of women. It includes the following variables:
    • Freedom of movement indicates the freedom of women to move outside the home.
    • Freedom of dress is based on the obligation of women to cover parts of their body in the public.
  • 7. Physical Integrity
    • … comprises different indicators on violence against women.
    • Violence against women indicates the existence of laws against domestic violence, sexual assault or rape, and sexual harassment.
    • Female genital mutilation is the percentage of women who have undergone female genital mutilation.
  • 8. Son Preference
    • … reflects the economic valuation of women. Its only component is the variable Missing women :
    • Missing women measures gender bias in mortality. Countries were coded by Stephan Klasen based on estimates of gender bias in mortality for a sample of countries (Klasen and Wink, 2003) and on sex ratios of young people and adults.
  • 9. Ownership Rights
    • … covers the access of women to several types of property.
    • Women’s access to land indicates whether women are allowed and have de facto access to own land.
    • Women’s access to bank loans measures whether women are allowed and have de facto access to credits.
    • Women’s access to property other than land covers mainly access to real property such as houses, but also any other property.
  • 10. The SIGI Formula
    • The SIGI is an unweighted average of the GID subindices. Each term is squared to allow partial compensation.
    • Its values are between 0 and 1, with 0 meaning no inequality and 1 indicating complete inequality.
    • SIGI = ⅕ (Subindex Family Code) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Civil Liberties) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Physical Integrity) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Son Preference) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Ownership Rights) 2
  • 11. What does the SIGI show?
    • Bottom performers among 102 developing countries: Sudan, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone
    • Top performers : Paraguay, Croatia, Kazachstan
    • Highest inequality : sub-Saharan Africa; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia
    • Lowest inequality : Latin America; Europe and Central Asia
    • Region with both high and low performers: East Asia and Pacific
  • 12. How can I use the SIGI?
    • Score and Ranking provide an overview of gender discrimination in social institutions
    • Subindeces help locate areas of particular concern
    • Social Institutions Indicators offer new empirical evidence
    • GID Country Notes explain in depth the SIGI score and ranking
    • GID Statistics , including the SIGI composite measure, can be accessed free of charge from
  • 13. For more information