SIGI 2009


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The Social Institutions and Gender Index is a new composite measure of gender equality, based on the OECD’s Gender, Institutions and Development Database – GID.

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  • lundi 8 juin 2009
  • SIGI 2009

    1. 1. The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) OECD Development Centre Construction and Results 2009
    2. 2. Why measure gender equality? <ul><li>Gender equality a fundamental human right and a driver for development </li></ul><ul><li>Important gender gaps in health, education, political rights, and economic opportunities, particularly in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Better policies needed to effectively address gender inequalities </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why the SIGI? <ul><li>Existing indices of gender equality measure inequality outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDI: inequality in health, education and economic participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GEM: women‘s social and political rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GGI: multidimensional measure of gender differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GEI: Socio-economic opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The SIGI measures the root causes of gender inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions inducing inequalities (e.g. inheritance practices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social norms impacting on gender equality (e.g. son preference) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural practices limiting the freedom of women (e.g. ogligations to be accompanied by male guardian) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. How is the SIGI constructed? All variables are coded between 0 and 1. The value 0 means no or very low inequality and the value 1 indicates high inequality. Three of the variables (Early marriage, Female genital mutilation and Violence against women) are continuous. The other indicators are on an ordered categorical scale. Social Institutions Variables <ul><li>Early marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy </li></ul><ul><li>Parental authority </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of dress </li></ul><ul><li>Female genital mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Access to land </li></ul><ul><li>Access to bank loans </li></ul><ul><li>Access to property </li></ul>Ownership Rights Civil Liberties Physical Integrity Family Code <ul><li>Missing women </li></ul>Son Preference
    5. 5. Family Code <ul><li>… refers to institutions that influence the decision-making power of women in the household. The following variables are included: </li></ul><ul><li>Parental authority measures whether women have the right to be a legal guardian of a child during marriage, and whether women have custody rights over a child after divorce. </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance is based on formal inheritance rights of spouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Early marriage measures the percentage of girls between 15 and 19 years of age who are/were ever married. </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy measures the acceptance of polygamy in the population. Countries where this information is not available are assigned scores based on the legality of polygamy. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Civil Liberties <ul><li>… captures the freedom of social participation of women. It includes the following variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of movement indicates the freedom of women to move outside the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of dress is based on the obligation of women to cover parts of their body in the public. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Physical Integrity <ul><li>… comprises different indicators on violence against women. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence against women indicates the existence of laws against domestic violence, sexual assault or rape, and sexual harassment. </li></ul><ul><li>Female genital mutilation is the percentage of women who have undergone female genital mutilation. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Son Preference <ul><li>… reflects the economic valuation of women. Its only component is the variable Missing women : </li></ul><ul><li>Missing women measures gender bias in mortality. Countries were coded by Stephan Klasen based on estimates of gender bias in mortality for a sample of countries (Klasen and Wink, 2003) and on sex ratios of young people and adults. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Ownership Rights <ul><li>… covers the access of women to several types of property. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access to land indicates whether women are allowed and have de facto access to own land. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access to bank loans measures whether women are allowed and have de facto access to credits. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access to property other than land covers mainly access to real property such as houses, but also any other property. </li></ul>
    10. 10. The SIGI Formula <ul><li>The SIGI is an unweighted average of the GID subindices. Each term is squared to allow partial compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Its values are between 0 and 1, with 0 meaning no inequality and 1 indicating complete inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>SIGI = ⅕ (Subindex Family Code) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Civil Liberties) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Physical Integrity) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Son Preference) 2 + ⅕ (Subindex Ownership Rights) 2 </li></ul>
    11. 11. What does the SIGI show? <ul><li>Bottom performers among 102 developing countries: Sudan, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>Top performers : Paraguay, Croatia, Kazachstan </li></ul><ul><li>Highest inequality : sub-Saharan Africa; Middle East and North Africa; South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest inequality : Latin America; Europe and Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Region with both high and low performers: East Asia and Pacific </li></ul>
    12. 12. How can I use the SIGI? <ul><li>Score and Ranking provide an overview of gender discrimination in social institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Subindeces help locate areas of particular concern </li></ul><ul><li>Social Institutions Indicators offer new empirical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>GID Country Notes explain in depth the SIGI score and ranking </li></ul><ul><li>GID Statistics , including the SIGI composite measure, can be accessed free of charge from </li></ul>
    13. 13. For more information