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OECD Education At A Glance

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  • The pace of change is most clearly visible in college education, and I want to bring two more dimensions into the picture here.Each dot on this chart represents one country. The horizontal axis shows you the college graduation rate, the proportion of an age group that comes out of the system with a college degree. The vertical axis shows you how much it costs to educate a graduate per year.
  • *Lets now add where the money comes from into the picture, the larger the dot, the larger the share of private spending on college education, such as tuition.The chart shows the US as the country with the highest college graduation rate, and the highest level of spending per student. The US is also among the countries with the largest share of resources generated through the private sector. That allows the US to spend roughly twice as much per student as Europe. US, FinlandThe only thing I have not highlighted so far is that this was the situation in 1995. And now watch this closely as you see how this changed between 1995 and 2005.
  • You see that in 2000, five years, later, the picture looked very different. While in 1995 the US was well ahead of any other country – you see that marked by the dotted circle, in 2000 several other countries had reached out to this frontier. Look at Australia, in pink.
  • Thatwasallveryquick, letusgothroughthisdevelopmentonceagain
  • Thatwasallveryquick, letusgothroughthisdevelopmentonceagain
  • Transcript

    • 1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
      Education at a Glance
      Better education or lower pay
    • 2. Better education or lower pay
      Large and often growing earning differentials
      In the current economic environment…
      … Opportunity costs for education decline
      Dominated by lost earnings, not tuition (US is exception)
      … Labour-market entry becomes more difficult
      as young graduates compete with experienced workers
      … Job prospects for less qualified deteriorate further
      … Young people with lower qualifications who become unemployed are likely to spend a long time out of work
      In most countries over half of low-qualified unemployed 25-34-year-olds are long-term unemployed
      … Higher risks for systems with significant work-based training
      … Gaps in educational attainment between younger and older cohorts likely to widen
      This suggests educational participation to rise further
      In systems where high tuition limits increased participation additional public spending can leverage additional participation and thus additional public benefits
      Countries without significant household spending can improve participation through widening funding base .
    • 3. Relative earnings from employment for males By level of educational attainment and gender for 25-to-64-year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education= 100) 2007 or latest available year
      % of index
      A7.2a
    • 4. Relative earnings from employment for femalesBy level of educational attainment and gender for 25-to-64-year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education=100) (2007 or latest available year)
      % of index
      A7.2b
    • 5. Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education
      27K$
      56K$
      170K$
      105K$
      35K$
      26K$
      367K$
      Net present value in USD equivalent
    • 6. Average relative earningsgrowthat the tertiarylevel of educationbetween 1997 and 2007 and average relative earningsat the tertiarylevel of educationdeviationfrom the OECD average (2007)
      A7.1
    • 7. Public versus private investment for a male obtaining higher education
      Public costs
      Privatecosts
      Total investmentprivate+public in USD equivalent
      USD equivalent
    • 8. Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education
      Public costs
      Upper secondary and post-secondary
      non-tertiary education
      TertiaryEducation
      Public benefits
      Net present value, USD equivalent
      (numbers in orange shownegative values)
      A8.5
      USD equivalent
    • 9. Proportion of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education employed in skilled jobs
      Change between 1998 and 2006
      In 2006
      A1.4
      %
      %
    • 10. Difference between unemployment rates of females and males, by level of education attainment (2007)
      Gender differences in unemployment are much smaller for those with higher qualifications
      Unemployment rate higher for females
      Unemployment rate higher for males
    • 11. Supply and demand for youngindividuals(25-34 year-olds) to skilled jobs, 1998-2006
      Difference in the proportion of 25-34 year-olds and 45-54 year-old cohort with below tertiary education in skilled jobs
      Slowing demand for higher educated individuals; Preference towards younger individuals over older with below tertiary education
      Increasing demand for higher educated individuals; Employers have fewer choices and must take younger, less educated workers to fill skilled positions
      Slowing demand for higher educated individuals; Preference towards older individuals (experience) over younger with below tertiary education
      Increasing demand for higher educated individuals; Demand tends to be satisfied by existing pool of individuals with tertiary education
      older Advantage for lower-educated younger
      Slowing Demand for higher-educated Growing
      A1.5
      Percentage point change in the proportion of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education in skilled jobs between 2006 and 1998
    • 12. Relationship between employment and unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds (2007)
      Employment rate (%)
      A6.5a
      Unemployment rate (%)
    • 13. Relationship between employment and unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds (2007)
      Employment rate (%)
      A6.5a
      Unemployment rate (%)
    • 14. Relationship between employment and unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds (2007)
      Employment rate (%)
      A6.5a
      Unemployment rate (%)
    • 15. Marginaleffects of educationon self-reportedhealth and politicalinterest
      Politicalinterest
      Health
      Movingfrombelowuppersecondary to uppersecondary
      ALL 2003
      WVS 2005
      ISSP 2004/6
      WVS 2005
      ESS 2004
      ESS 2004
      Movingfromuppersecondary to tertiary
      ESS 2006
      ESS 2006
      A9.1
      Yellow and blue bars show non statisticallysignificant countries
    • 16.
    • 17. Unabated educational expansion
      University graduation doubled from an OECD average of 20% in 1995 to 39% in 2007
      Pace of change varied widely, Finland improved its relative standing from Rank 10 to Rank 3, US dropped from Rank 2 to Rank 14
      Significant expansion also of early childhood education
      Enrolment of 4-year-olds and under up from an average of 40% in 1998 to 71% in 2007 .
    • 18. %
      tA1.3a
      Growth in university-level qualificationsApproximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age groups 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and 55-64 years) (2007)
    • 19. Growth in baselinequalificationsApproximatedbypercentageofpersonswithuppersecondaryorequivalentqualificationsin the agegroups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 and 25-34 years
      %
      tA1.2a
    • 20. Upper secondary graduation rates (1995, 2007)Percentage of graduates to the population at the typical age of graduation (unduplicated count)
      %
      A2.1
    • 21. Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary graduates (2007)
      %
      A2.2
    • 22. Entry rates intotertiary-type A education
      A2.3
    • 23. Averageannualgrowth in thepopulationwithtertiaryeducation (1998-2006)
      %
      A1.1
    • 24. Entry rate intotertiary type A: Impact of international students (2007)
      %
      A2.5
    • 25. Tertiary-type A graduation rates by gender in 2007 (first-time graduation)
      A3.1
    • 26. Graduation rate attertiary-type A level (firstdegree): Impact of international students (2007)
      %
      A3.4
    • 27. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Cost per student
      Graduate supply
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 28. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      United States
      Cost per student
      Finland
      Graduate supply
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 29. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Australia
      Finland
      United Kingdom
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 30. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 31. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 32. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 33. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 34. A world of change – highereducation
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 35. A world of change – highereducation
      What about international students?
      Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
      United States
      Australia
      A
      A
      United Kingdom
      Finland
      A
      Tertiary-type A graduation rate
    • 36. Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programmebut leave without at least a first tertiary degree (2005)
      %
      A3.4
    • 37. Expected years in education and not in education for 15-to-29-year-olds (2006)
      Years
      tC3.1a
    • 38. Overlapping of top performers in science, reading and mathematics on average in the OECD
      Science 9%
      Science and reading 0.8%
      Science only 1.3%
      Science and mathematics 2.8%
      Science, reading and mathematics 4.1%
      Reading only 5.3%
      Mathematicsonly 5.3%
      Reading and mathematics 1.4%
      A4.2
    • 39. Who pays for high-level qualificationsExpenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2005)
      A4.5
    • 40.
    • 41. Investment in education
      OECD countries as a whole spend 6.1% of their GDP on education
      Expenditure per school student increased on average by 40% between 1995 and 2006
      Mixed pattern in tertiary education
      Countries vary significantly in how they spend their money, different priorities on…
      … Salaries, learning time, teaching time, class size
      Room for more effective cost-sharing between government and households
      Even if household expenditure rose much faster than public spending in tertiary education .
    • 42. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for all levels of education
      B2.1
    • 43. Total public expenditure on all services as a percentage of total public expenditure (2000, 2006)
      B4.1
    • 44. Total public expenditure on all services as a percentage of GDP (2000, 2006)
      B4.2
    • 45. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over primary and secondary studies (2006) Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student multiplied by the theoretical duration of studies, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs
      OECD average (primary and secondary)
      B1.4
    • 46. Changes in student numbers and expenditurePrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education
      Index of change between 2000 and 2006 (2000=100, 2006 constant prices)
      Index of change (2000=100)
      B1.7a
    • 47. Contribution of various factors to salary cost per upper secondary student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2006)
      Percentage points
      B7.1
    • 48. Contribution of various factors to salary cost per primary student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2006)
      Percentage points
      B7.2
    • 49. Expenditure on educational institutions per student at various levels of education for all services relative to primary education (2006)Primary education = 100
      Index
      657
      Level of expenditurehigherthan for primaryeducation
      Level of expenditurelowerthan for primaryeducation
      B1.3
    • 50. Who pays for tertiary qualificationsExpenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2006)
      B3.2
    • 51. Expenditure on educational core services, R&D and ancillary services in tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2006)
      % of GDP
      B6.2
    • 52. Changes in student numbers and expenditure for tertiary education
      Index of change between 2000 and 2006 (2000=100, 2006 constant prices)
      B1.7b
    • 53. Average annual tuition feescharged by tertiary-type A public institutions for full-time national students, in US Dollars converted using PPPs (school year 2006/2007)
      USD
      5000
      4000
      3000
      2000
      1000
      500
      0
      United States (64%, 25 110)
      Korea (59%, 10 844), United Kingdom1(57%, 15 447)
      Japan (45%, 15 022),
      Australia (84%, 16 070),
      This chartdoes not takeintoaccountgrants, subsidies or loansthatpartially or fully offset the students’ tuitionfees
      Canada (m, 23 329)
      New Zealand (72%, 10 100)
      Netherlands1 (58%, 15 196)
      Portugal, (53%, 9 724), Italy (55%, 8 738)
      Austria (40%, 14 001), Spain (43%, 11 342),
      Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (m, m)
      France (m, 12 180)
      B5.1
      Czech Republic (50%, 9 891), Denmark (59%, m), Finland (76%, 12 845),
      Ireland (40%, 11 832), Iceland (78%, 8 579), Norway (67%, 16 235),
      Sweden (76%, 16 991)
      1. Public institutions do not existatthislevel of education and most of the students are enrolled in governmentdependent institutions.
    • 54. Public subsidies for education in tertiary education (2006)Public subsidies for education to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on education, by type of subsidy
      B5.2
    • 55. Relationshipsbetweenaveragetuitionfees and proportion of studentswhobenefitfrom public loans and/or scholarships/grantsTertiary-type A, public institutions, academicyear 2006/07, national full-time students
      Bubble size shows graduation rates
      Averagetuitionfeeschargedbypublic institutions in USD
      Group 2:Potentially high financial barriers for entry to tertiary-type A education, but also large public subsidies to students.
      Group 3:Extensive and broadly uniform cost sharing across students, student support systems somewhat less developed.
      Group 4:Relatively low financial barriers to entry to tertiary education and relatively low subsidies
      Group 1:No (or low) financial barriers for tertiary studies due to tuition fees and still a high level of student aid.
      B5.3
      % of studentswhobenefitfrom public loansAND/OR sholarships/grants
    • 56.
    • 57. Student mobility
    • 58. Student mobility in tertiary education (2007)Percentage of international students in tertiary enrolments
      C2.1
    • 59. Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education by country of destinationPercentage of foreign tertiary students reported to the OECD who are enrolled in each country of destination (2007)
      C2.2
    • 60. Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination
      Marketshare (%)
      Partner countries
      C2.3
    • 61.
    • 62. Teachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years (2007-08)
      D5.1
    • 63. Perception of teachers of the impact of appraisal and feedback in theirschool (2007-08)
    • 64. Classroom discipline and effective learning
      Average percentage of lesson time spent teaching and learning
      Classroom disciplinary climate: mean standardised factor score
      D6.6
    • 65. Where teachers are satisfied with their jobs they also trust more in their effectiveness
      Job Satisfaction
      Self -efficacy: standardised factor scores
      D6.7
    • 66. Total number of intended instruction hours in public institutions between the ages of 7 and 14 (2007)
      Students in OECD countries are expected to receive, on average, 6 862 hours of instruction between the ages of 7 and 14, of which 1 580 betweenages 7 and 8, 2 504 betweenages 9 and 11, and 2 778 betweenages 12 and 14. The large majority of intendedhours of instruction are compulsory.
      D1.1
      Total number of intended instruction time in hours
    • 67. Average class size in primary education (2000, 2007)
      D2.1
    • 68. Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2007)
      Number of students
      per classroom
      D2.2
    • 69. Teachers’ salaries (minimum, after 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education (2007)Annual statutory teachers’ salaries in public institutions in lower secondary education, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs, and the ratio of salary of 15 years of experience to GDP per capita
      Equivalent USD converted using PPPs
      The annualstatutory salaries of lowersecondaryteacherswith 15 yearexperience range fromlessthan USD 15 000 in Hungary and the partner countries Chile and Estonia, to over USD 52 000 in Germany, Ireland, Koreaand Switzerland and exceedsUSD 89 000 in Luxembourg.
      D3.2
    • 70. Changes in teachers’ salaries in lower secondary education, by point in the salary scale (1996,2007) Index of change between 1996 and 2007 (1996=100, 2007 price levels using GDP deflators)
      Indexof change
      D3.3
    • 71. Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2007)Net contact time in hours per year in public institutions
      Hours per year
      D4.2
    • 72.
    • 73. www.oecd.org
      All national and international publications
      The complete micro-level database
      Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
      … and remember:
      Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
      Thank you !