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Seeing your education system in the prism of international comparisons<br />Stockholm, 17 May 2010<br />
Agenda<br />1.There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for educational success is no longer improvement by national sta...
There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best practi...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Gradua...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Sweden<br />United States<br...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />What about international students?<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level...
Moving targetsFuture supply of college graduates<br />
Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education<br />27K$<br />56K$<br />170K$<br />105K$<br ...
Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining <br />post-secondary education<br />Public costs<br />Public benefits<br />N...
Schooling in the medieval age:<br />The school of the church<br />
Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />
Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />The challenges today:<br />Universal quality<br />Motivated an...
How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input...
Skills for the 21st century<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world beco...
Skills for the 21st century<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, givi...
Education needs to prepare students…<br />…	to deal with more rapid change than ever before…<br />…	for jobs that have not...
OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />8...
Strengths and weaknesses in math<br />The real world<br />The mathematical World<br />Making the problem amenable to mathe...
High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />… 18 countries pe...
Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after a...
Modelling the impact<br />Programmes to improve cognitive skills through schools take time to implement and to have their ...
Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<...
Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
Catching up with Finland (total 260 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
Catching up with Finland(in percent of GDP)<br />% currrent GDP<br />
Interest science<br />Indicate curiosity in science and science-related issues and endeavours<br />Demonstrate willingness...
Global</li></ul>Competencies<br /><ul><li>Identify scientific issues
Explain phenomena scientifically
Use scientific evidence</li></ul>Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of science
Knowledge about science</li></ul>Attitudes<br />-Interest in science<br />-Support for scientific enquiry<br />-Responsibi...
Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceFrance<br />Science competencies<br ...
Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceCzech Republic<br />Scientific compe...
Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceSweden<br />Scientific competencies<...
High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average perf...
High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br /...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Altering content or pace of curriculum
Improving instructional techniques
Changing the learning environment in schools and classrooms
Standards and accountability
Teacher professional development</li></li></ul><li>Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />A...
Different to socio-economically targeted policies, efforts are directed to ameliorating economic circumstances, rather tha...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Students are often also identified through other risk factors, e.g. immigration, ethnicity, low-income community</li></ul>...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Early intervention programmes
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2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1

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Stockholm Summit looks at educational performance in cities and regions

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  • And policy makers do this because in this world where all work that can be digitised, automated or outsourced can now be done anywhere in the world by those who are best prepared, the yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards, but the best performing education systems internationally. I will begin my presentation this evening by showing how the global talent pool has changed, in response to the forces of globalisation and technological changeThen examine what international comparisons can tell us about this. I will show you where we see the United States and try to contrast this with the best performing education systems, that give you a sense of what is possible in education, terms of the quality of educational outcomes and equity in the distribution of educational opportunities. And I will conclude with tying the results to some of the policy levers that emerge from international comparisons.
  • The pace of change is most clearly visible in higher education, and I want to bring two more dimensions into the picture here. Each dot on this chart represents one country. The horizontal axis shows you the college graduation rate, the proportion of an age group that comes out of the system with a college degree. The vertical axis shows you how much it costs to educate a graduate per year.
  • *Lets now add where the money comes from into the picture, the larger the dot, the larger the share of private spending on college education, such as tuition.The chart shows the US as the country with the highest college graduation rate, and the highest level of spending per student. The US is also among the countries with the largest share of resources generated through the private sector. That allows the US to spend roughly twice as much per student as Europe. US, FinlandThe only thing I have not highlighted so far is that this was the situation in 1995. And now watch this closely as you see how this changed between 1995 and 2005.
  • You see that in 2000, five years, later, the picture looked very different. While in 1995 the US was well ahead of any other country – you see that marked by the dotted circle, in 2000 several other countries had reached out to this frontier. Look at Australia, in pink.
  • Thatwasallveryquick, letusgothroughthisdevelopmentonceagain
  • This is where China, the European Union, India and the US stood in terms of the number of high school graduates in 2003. This is how the picture is likely to look in 2010, and this is what we project for 2015.China more smart kids than Europe has kids.
  • Clearly, our countries will not compete with this by putting more graduates through schools and universities, it is the nature of skills, it is the quality of educational output that really counts.
  • Analogy with militaryGet children into school when they have reached a certain agePut them into fixed classrooms, managed by a single instructorRun schools with curricula, timetables, instruction hours, working horus …
  • Levy and Murnane show how the composition of the US work force has changed and I want to show one slides because it provides such a great introduction to our work on PISA. What they show is that, between 1970 and 2000, work involving routine manual input, the jobs of the typical factory worker, was down significantly. Non-routine manual work, things we do with our hands, but in ways that are not so easily put into formal algorithms, was down too, albeit with much less change over recent years – and that is easy to understand because you cannot easily computerise the bus driver or outsource your hairdresser. All that is not surprising, but here is where the interesting story begins: Among the skill categories represented here, routine cognitive input, that is cognitive work that you can easily put into the form of algorithms and scripts saw the sharpest decline in demand over the last couple of decades, with a decline by almost 8% in the share of jobs. So those middle class white collar jobs that involve the application of routine knowledge, are most at threat today. And that is where schools still put a lot of their focus and what we value in multiple choice accountability systems.The point that Levy and Murnane make is, that the skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the skills that are easiest to digitise, automatise and offshore. If that is all what we do in school, we are putting our youngsters right up for competition with computers, because those are the things computers can do better than humans, and our kids are going to loose out before they even started. Where are the winners in this process? These are those who engage in expert thinking – the new literacy of the 21st century, up 8% - and complex communication, up almost 14%.We have tried to use these message that emerge from the analysis of skill demands as an important starting point for conceptualising our assessments.
  • At the OECD, we are measuring skills, with a focus on those non-routing cognitive skills, regularly through our PISA programme, now the most comprehensive international assessment of the quality of education. Every three years, we test roughly half a million of children in OECD countries in key competencies, and that’s not simply about checking whether students have learned what they were recently taught, but we examine to what extent students can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply their knowledge and skills in novel settings. Here you see the countries which we can compare, and how the set of countries being compared has expanded.
  • The best way to find out whether what students have learned at school matters for their life is to actuallywatch what happens to them after they leave school. This is exactly what we have done that with around 30,000 students in Canada. We tested them in the year 2000 when they were 15 years old in reading, math and science, and since then we are following up with them each year on what choices they make and how successful they are in their transition from school to higher education and work.The horizontal axis shows you the PISA level which 15-year-old Canadians had scored in 2000. Level 2 is the baseline level on the PISA reading test and Level 5 the top level in reading.The red bar shows you how many times more successful someone who scored Level 2 at age 15 was at age 19 to have made a successful transition to university, as compared to someone who did not make it to the baseline PISA level 1. And to ensure that what you see here is not simply a reflection of social background, gender, immigration or school engagement, we have already statistically accounted for all of these factors. The orange bar. …How would you expect the picture to be like at age 21? We are talking about test scores here, but for a moment, lets go back to the judgements schools make on young people, for example through school marks. You can do the same thing here, you can see how well school marks at age 15 predict the subsequent success of youths. You see that there is some relationship as well, but that it is much less pronounced than when we use the direct measure of skills.
  • In one way, our international benchmarks make depressing reading for the US, because this is the country with the greatest potential and the country that has led education and research for decades. But the comparisons also indicate a way forward. They demonstrate what can be done with a combination of the right strategy and courageous, sustained leadership. Singapore’s story over 40 years is truly inspirational. So, in an entirely different culture, is Finland’s over 30 years. Poland made remarkable progress in the last decade by raising the average performance of 15-year-olds by almost a school year in the last six years alone. The reforms in Alberta and Ontario, just across your northern border, are working too.
  • What you see, however, that countries spend their money quite differently.Average spending – some of the most successful education systems know how to invest their money where the challenges are greatest, and how to attract the brightest teachers into the most difficult classrooms.
  • This chart shows you the proportion of teachers who participated in various types of professional development over the last 18 months, with the bars showing the average across countries and the red dot showing the Mexican figures. So you see that just over 60% of Mexican teachers have engaged in some form of individual and collaborative research, just over 30% in qualification programmes, almost every teacher in informal dialogue to improve teaching, 70% in reading professional literature, and so on.These are impressive numbers. But do governments offer, and do teachers take up the kind of professional development that is actually most effective? The yellow bar shows you the proportion of teachers who think that the various types of professional development have a moderate to large impact on their development as a teacher. So you see that, while individual and collaborative research seems to have the largest impact (the yellow bar is long), participation rates here, shown by the blue bar, are comparatively low. The same is true for sustained qualification programs, these seem to make a genuine impact but few teachers pursue such courses. In contrast, lots of teachers participate in one-off seminars and workshops which much fewer teachers perceive to be of value.TALIS thus shows that we need to do better in matching the costs and benefit as well as supply and demand for professional development. Courses and workshopsProfessional development networkMentoring and peer observationObservation visits to other schoolsEducation conferences and seminars
  • This chart shows you the proportion of teachers who participated in various types of professional development over the last 18 months, with the bars showing the average across countries and the red dot showing the Mexican figures. So you see that just over 60% of Mexican teachers have engaged in some form of individual and collaborative research, just over 30% in qualification programmes, almost every teacher in informal dialogue to improve teaching, 70% in reading professional literature, and so on.These are impressive numbers. But do governments offer, and do teachers take up the kind of professional development that is actually most effective? The yellow bar shows you the proportion of teachers who think that the various types of professional development have a moderate to large impact on their development as a teacher. So you see that, while individual and collaborative research seems to have the largest impact (the yellow bar is long), participation rates here, shown by the blue bar, are comparatively low. The same is true for sustained qualification programs, these seem to make a genuine impact but few teachers pursue such courses. In contrast, lots of teachers participate in one-off seminars and workshops which much fewer teachers perceive to be of value.TALIS thus shows that we need to do better in matching the costs and benefit as well as supply and demand for professional development. Courses and workshopsProfessional development networkMentoring and peer observationObservation visits to other schoolsEducation conferences and seminars
  • But the balance between national prescription and schools leading reform is not an all-or-nothing. In fact, most school systems have started out with highly prescriptive education systems. But gradually the have moved towards building capacity and enabling schools to assume greater responsibility.
  • The last point I want to make here is that we can do better in ensuring that good teaching is recognised.On average across countries, three-quarters of teachers report that they would receive no recognition for increasing the quality of their teaching, shown here by the light green bar, or for being more innovative in their teaching, shown by the dark green bar. Similarly, three-quarters of teachers say that, in their school, the most effective teachers do not receive the most recognition.Poor teaching also goes largely unheeded. In most countries, few teachers think that a persistently underperforming teacher will face a pay cut, shown by the orange bar, or risk being dismissed, shown by the red bar. It will be worth for Mexico and other countries to re-think the incentive structures for teachers. An appraisal system and a career structure that focuses upon and promotes innovation and effectiveness would better assist school improvement programmes and efforts to increase school effectiveness. I am saying this because TALIS shows that the appraisal and feedback which teachers receive is mirrored in the beliefs in their own teaching abilities. The more feedback they receive on specific aspects of their work, the more they trust in their abilities to address the respective teaching challenges. In a number of countries teachers also report higher levels of self-efficacy when they had received public recognition for the improvements and innovations in connection with the appraisal or when innovative practices were part of appraisal and feedback. These are things that do not cost much money but can make a difference.
  • Transcript of "2010 e-stockholm (international compoarisons) - long - rev 1.1"

    1. 1. Seeing your education system in the prism of international comparisons<br />Stockholm, 17 May 2010<br />
    2. 2. Agenda<br />1.There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for educational success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best performing systems internationally<br />2.Where we are – and where we can be <br />Where Sweden and other countries stand <br />What the best performing countries show can be achieved<br />3.How we can get there<br />Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons <br />
    3. 3. There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best practice internationally<br />
    4. 4. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    5. 5. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Sweden<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    6. 6. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />United Kingdom<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    7. 7. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    8. 8. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    9. 9. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    10. 10. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    11. 11. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    12. 12. A world of change – highereducation<br />What about international students?<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Sweden<br />Australia<br />A<br />A<br />United Kingdom<br />Finland<br />A<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
    13. 13. Moving targetsFuture supply of college graduates<br />
    14. 14. Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education<br />27K$<br />56K$<br />170K$<br />105K$<br />35K$<br />26K$<br />367K$<br />Net present value in USD equivalent<br />
    15. 15. Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining <br />post-secondary education<br />Public costs<br />Public benefits<br />Net present value, USD equivalent<br />(numbers in orange shownegative values)<br />USD equivalent<br />
    16. 16. Schooling in the medieval age:<br />The school of the church<br />
    17. 17. Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />
    18. 18. Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />The challenges today:<br />Universal quality<br />Motivated and self-reliant citizens<br />Risk-taking entrepreneurs, converging and continuously emerging professions tied to globalising contexts and technological advance<br />
    19. 19. How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution<br />The dilemma of schools:<br />The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource<br /> (Levy and Murnane)<br />
    20. 20. Skills for the 21st century<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world becomes, the more individuals and companies need various forms of co-ordination and management <br />The great synthesisers<br />Conventionally, our approach to problems was breaking them down into manageable bits and pieces, today we create value by synthesising disparate bits together<br />The great explainers<br />The more content we can search and access, the more important the filters and explainers become<br />
    21. 21. Skills for the 21st century<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, giving them expertise that is recognised by peers but not valued outside their domain<br />Generalists have broad scope but shallow skills<br />Versatilists apply depth of skill to a progressively widening scope of situations and experiences, gaining new competencies, building relationships, and assuming new roles. <br />They are capable not only of constantly adapting but also of constantly learning and growing<br />The great personalisers<br />A revival of interpersonal skills, skills that have atrhophied to some degree because of the industrial age and the Internet<br />The great localisers<br />Localising the global<br />
    22. 22. Education needs to prepare students…<br />… to deal with more rapid change than ever before…<br />… for jobs that have not yet been created…<br />… using technologies that have not yet been invented…<br />… to solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise <br />It’s about new…<br />Ways of thinking<br />involving creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making<br />Ways of working<br />including communication and collaboration<br />Tools for working<br />including the capacity to recognise and exploit the potential of new technologies<br />The capacity to live in a multi-faceted world as active and responsible citizens. <br />
    23. 23. OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />81%<br />85%<br />86%<br />87%<br />
    24. 24. Strengths and weaknesses in math<br />The real world<br />The mathematical World<br />Making the problem amenable to mathematical treatment<br />A mathematical model<br /> A model of reality<br />Understanding, structuring and simplifying the situation<br />Using relevant mathematical content to solve the problem<br />A real situation<br />Validating the results<br />Mathematical results<br />Real results<br />Interpreting the mathematical results<br />
    25. 25. High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />… 18 countries perform below this line<br />Low science performance<br />
    26. 26. Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group PISA Level 1)<br />Odds ratioCollege entry<br />School marks at age 15<br />PISA performance at age 15<br />
    27. 27. Modelling the impact<br />Programmes to improve cognitive skills through schools take time to implement and to have their impact on students.<br />Assume that it will take 20 years to implement reform<br />The impact of improved skills will not be realised until the students with greater skills move into the labour force<br />Assume that improved PISA performance will result in improved skill-based of 2.5% of the labour-force each year<br />The economy will respond over time as new technologies are developed and implemented, making use of the new higher skills<br />Estimate the total gains over the lifetime of the generation born this year .<br />
    28. 28. Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<br />Percent addition to GDP<br />
    29. 29. Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
    30. 30. Catching up with Finland (total 260 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
    31. 31. Catching up with Finland(in percent of GDP)<br />% currrent GDP<br />
    32. 32. Interest science<br />Indicate curiosity in science and science-related issues and endeavours<br />Demonstrate willingness to acquire additional scientific knowledge and skills, using variety of resources and methods<br />Demonstrate willingness to seek information and have an interest in science, including consideration of science-related careers <br />Support for science<br />Acknowledge the importance of considering different scientific perspectives and arguments<br />Support the use of factual information and rational explanation<br />Logical and careful processes in drawing conclusions <br />Knowledge of science<br />Physical systems (structure of matter, properties of matter, chemical changes of matter, motions and forces, energy and its transformations, energy and matter)<br />Living systems (cells, humans, populations, ecosystems, biosphere)<br />Earth and space (structures of the earth system, energy in the earth system, change in the earth system, earth’s history, space)<br />Technology systems (Concepts and principles, science and technology)<br />Knowledge about science<br />Scientific enquiry (purpose, experiments, data, measurement, characteristics of results)<br />Scientific explanations (types, rules, outcomes)<br />Identifying<br />Recognising issues that can be investigated scientifically<br />Identifying keywords in a scientific investigation<br />Recognising the key features of a scientific investigation<br />Explaining<br />Applying knowledge of science in a situation<br />Describing or interpreting phenomena scientifically or predicting change<br />Using evidence<br />Interpreting scientific evidence and drawing conclusions<br />Identifying the assumptions, evidence and reasoning behind conclusions<br />Context<br />- Personal<br /><ul><li>Social/public
    33. 33. Global</li></ul>Competencies<br /><ul><li>Identify scientific issues
    34. 34. Explain phenomena scientifically
    35. 35. Use scientific evidence</li></ul>Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of science
    36. 36. Knowledge about science</li></ul>Attitudes<br />-Interest in science<br />-Support for scientific enquiry<br />-Responsibility<br />
    37. 37. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceFrance<br />Science competencies<br />Science knowledge<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13<br />
    38. 38. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceCzech Republic<br />Scientific competencies<br />Scientific knowledge<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13<br />
    39. 39. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceSweden<br />Scientific competencies<br />Scientific knowledge<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13<br />
    40. 40. High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low science performance<br />
    41. 41. High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low science performance<br />
    42. 42. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
    43. 43. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />Universal policies<br /><ul><li>Increasing educational performance of all children through reforms applied equally across the school system, e.g.
    44. 44. Altering content or pace of curriculum
    45. 45. Improving instructional techniques
    46. 46. Changing the learning environment in schools and classrooms
    47. 47. Standards and accountability
    48. 48. Teacher professional development</li></li></ul><li>Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Compensatory policies<br /><ul><li>Providing additional economic resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    49. 49. Different to socio-economically targeted policies, efforts are directed to ameliorating economic circumstances, rather than providing specialised curriculum or additional educational resources</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
    50. 50. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Socio-economically targeted policies<br /><ul><li>Providing a specialised curriculum or additional educational resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    51. 51. Students are often also identified through other risk factors, e.g. immigration, ethnicity, low-income community</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
    52. 52. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Performance targeted policies<br /><ul><li>Providing additional economic resources to students based on their academic performance
    53. 53. Early intervention programmes
    54. 54. Remedial and recovery programmes
    55. 55. Performance-based tracking or streaming</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
    56. 56. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background United States<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
    57. 57. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Finland<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
    58. 58. How to get there<br />Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons<br />
    59. 59. Domain 1<br />Individual learner<br />LevelA<br />LevelB<br />Instructional settings<br />LevelC<br />Schools, other institutions<br />Country or system<br />LevelD<br />Dimensions for international benchmarking<br />Domain 3<br />Domain 2<br />Antecedentscontextualise or constrain ed policy<br />Policy Leversshape educational outcomes<br />Outputs and Outcomesimpact of learning<br />Quality and distribution of knowledge & skills<br />Individ attitudes, engagement and behaviour<br />Socio-economic background of learners<br />Student learning, teacher working conditions<br />Quality of instructional delivery<br />Teaching, learning practices and classroom climate<br />The learning environment at school<br />Community and school characteristics<br />Output and performance of institutions<br />National educ, social and economic context<br />Social & economic outcomes of education<br />Structures, resource alloc and policies<br />
    60. 60. Money matters - but other things do too<br />
    61. 61. Spending choices on secondary schoolsContribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costsper student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004)<br />Percentage points<br />
    62. 62. High ambitionsand universal standards<br />Rigor, focus and coherence<br />Great systemsattractgreatteachers and provideaccesstobestpractice and quality professional development<br />
    63. 63. Challenge and support<br />Strong support<br />Poor performance<br />Improvements idiosyncratic<br />Strong performance<br />Systemic improvement<br />Lowchallenge<br />Highchallenge<br />Poor performance<br />Stagnation<br />Conflict<br />Demoralisation<br />Weak support<br />
    64. 64. International Best Practice<br />The past<br /><ul><li>Principals who are trained, empowered, accountable and provide instructional leadership
    65. 65. Principals who manage ‘a building’, who have little training and preparation and are accountable but not empowered
    66. 66. Attracting, recruiting and providing excellent training for prospective teachers from the top third of the graduate distribution
    67. 67. Attracting and recruiting teachers from the bottom third of the graduate distribution and offering training which does not relate to real classrooms
    68. 68. Incentives, rules and funding encourage a fair distribution of teaching talent
    69. 69. The best teachers are in the most advantaged communities</li></ul>Human capital<br />
    70. 70. International Best Practice<br />The past<br /><ul><li>Expectations of teachers are clear; consistent quality, strong professional ethic and excellent professional development focused on classroom practice
    71. 71. Seniority and tenure matter more than performance; patchy professional development; wide variation in quality
    72. 72. Teachers and the system expect every child to succeed and intervene preventatively to ensure this
    73. 73. Wide achievement gaps, just beginning to narrow but systemic and professional barriers to transformation remain in place</li></ul>Human capital (cont…)<br />
    74. 74. Some teachers lose much more time than othersPercentiles of time on spent on task<br />Figure 4.10<br />Source: OECD, TALIS Database.<br />
    75. 75. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity<br />
    76. 76. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity<br />
    77. 77. The teachers who paid most also did most professional development<br />Figure 3.10<br />
    78. 78. It’s not just about more of the same<br />For what type of professional development do teachers report a high level of need? <br />
    79. 79. High ambitions<br />Devolvedresponsibility,theschoolasthecentreofaction<br />Accountabilityandintervention in inverse proportiontosuccess<br />Access to best practice and quality professional development<br />
    80. 80. Local responsibility and national prescription<br />Towards system-wide sustainable reform<br />National prescription<br />Schools today<br />The industrial model, detailed prescription of what schools do<br />Schools tomorrow?<br />Building capacity<br />Finland today<br />Every school an effective school<br />Schools leading reform<br />
    81. 81. Pooled international dataset, effects of selected school/system factors on science performance after accounting for all other factors in the model<br />School principal’s positive evaluation of quality of educational materials(gross only)<br />Schools with more competing schools(gross only)<br />Schools with greater autonomy (resources)(gross and net)<br />School activities to promote science learning(gross and net)<br />One additional hour of self-study or homework (gross and net)<br />One additional hour of science learning at school (gross and net)<br />School results posted publicly (gross and net)<br />Academically selective schools (gross and net) but no system-wide effect<br />Schools practicing ability grouping (gross and net)<br />One additional hour of out-of-school lessons (gross and net)<br />20<br />Each additional 10% of public funding(gross only)<br />School principal’s perception that lack of qualified teachers hinders instruction(gross only)<br />Effect after accounting for the socio-economic background of students, schools and countries<br />Measured effect<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies from Tomorrow’s World, Table 6.1a <br />
    82. 82. Some teachers are left aloneTeachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years<br />Figure 5.3<br />
    83. 83. Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for teaching?<br />Figure 5.6<br />
    84. 84. Perception of teachers of the impact of appraisal and feedback in theirschool<br />Figure 5.7<br />
    85. 85. Creating a knowledge-rich profession in which schools and teachers have the authority to act, the necessary knowledge to do so wisely, and access to effective support systems<br />The future of education systems is “knowledge rich”<br />Informed professional judgement, the teacher as a “knowledge worker”<br />Informed prescription<br />National prescription<br />Professional judgement<br />Uninformed prescription, teachers implement curricula<br />Uninformed professional judgement, teachers working in isolation<br />The tradition of education systems has been “knowledge poor”<br />
    86. 86. Strong ambitions<br />Devolvedresponsibility,the school as the centre of action<br />Integrated educational opportunities <br />From prescribed forms of teaching and assessment towards personalised learning<br />Accountability<br />Access to best practice and quality professional development<br />
    87. 87. High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Early selection and institutional differentiation<br /> High degree of stratification<br /> Low degree of stratification<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />6<br />Low science performance<br />
    88. 88.
    89. 89. www.oecd.org; www.pisa.oecd.org<br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org<br />Twitter: @SchleicherEDU<br />… and remember:<br /> Without data, you are just another person with an opinion<br />Thank you !<br />
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