The Impacts of Universities on Society and EconomyAn accountability exercise of the universities in Catalonia (Spain) Josep M. Vilalta, Alba Morales, Alicia Betts Associació Catalana d’Universitats Públiques (ACUP)
The Impacts of Universities on Society and EconomyContents – General context – The study • Rationale • Methodology • Findings – Conclusions of the accountability exercise
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy General context (1)• Universities are a key educational, social and economic agents• OECD identifies institutions of higher education as bodies with the capacity to re-invent today’s society• Recent policies that support the role of universities as key agents for social and economic development: – Lisbon Strategy (2000): the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. – Europe 2020 strategy (2010): smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.• Demand for new roles for higher education involves two trends: – Diversification – Increased strategic capacity of the institutions
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy General context (2)• In the last 25 years Spain, and Catalonia, have made an important effort to move from a panorama in which science was hardly present, to become the ninth state worldwide in scientific output.R+D expenditure (%GDP) and impact on the scientific production 2004-2008. Higher Education, Hospitals and Government(Research Centres). European Union - 15 1.2 HIGH RESROUCES HIGH RESOURCES R+D expendutre HE+HP+GO / GDP (%) 1 FIN SWE NLD 0.8 DEU AUT DNK FRA 0,67 GBR 0.6 BEL ESP ITA CAT PRT 0.4 GRC IRL LOW RESOURCES LOW RESROUCES 0.2 0 1,47 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Normalised impact (HE+HP+GO) Source: ACUP, 2010.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy General context (3) Dimension of the higher education systems in the EU-15 Public universities Ratio Country Population Research Applied Total PRU/Mhab Hab/PRU Hab/PU Catalonia 7,290,292 7 7 0.96 1,041,470 1,041,470 Spain 45,828,172 47 47 1.03 975,067 975,067 Italy 60,045,068 61 61 1.02 384,345 984,345 France 64,369,147 80 80 1.24 804,614 804,614 Denmark 5,511,451 9 9 1.63 612,383 612,383 Luxemburg 493,500 1 1 2.03 493,500 493,500United Kingdom 61,191,951 124 124 2.03 493,483 493,483 Germany 82,002,356 88 106 194 1.07 931,845 422,693 Sweden 9,256,347 17 11 28 1.84 544,491 330,584The Netherlands 16,485,787 13 39 52 0.79 1,268,137 317,034 Greece 11,260,402 24 16 40 2.13 469,183 281,510 Belgium 10,839,905 15 34 49 1.38 722,660 221,223 Ireland 4,450,030 7 14 21 1.57 635,719 211,906 Austria 8,355,260 21 21 42 2.51 397,870 198,935 Portugal 10,267,250 16 40 56 1.51 664,203 189,772 Finland 5,326,314 16 25 41 3 332,895 129,910 UE 15 350,214,768 492 306 798 1.4 712,712 438,866
The Impacts of Universities on Society and EconomyGeneral context (4)Public university system of Catalonia (2009)
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy The Study• Aims analyse the impact of the public universities in Catalonia’s economy and society, to communicate the results and improve where necessary.• Offers approach of the indicators that could best show the trends.• But measuring the impact of university activity on society is still a recent field and it does not yet have, at a comparative level, a system, terminology and set of shared indicators that allow the different parameters of these impacts on higher education systems in Europe to be measured.• Published in Spanish and Catalan, and has a specific on-line shorter version (http://www.universitat-societat.cat/)
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Rationale (1)• During harsh economic recession periods public investment is revised in depth and value for money must be met.• Accountability strengthens the legitimacy of the institutions.• Informing about the impacts of university activity is also an exercise of institutional responsibility and correct management: – obliges the universities to critically examine their own action – subjects them to critical reviews from stakeholders and society
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Rationale (2)• The Impacts of the public universities of Catalonia is a bottom- up initiative and seeks to: – present a system wide report on the direct and indirect impacts of the public universities on society and the economy of Catalonia – fill the gap in the current accountability mechanisms
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Methodology• The study analyses the impact of the university activities around four major impact areas: – Education and human capital – Scientific research – Social and cultural development – Innovation and economic progress• The study is based on already existing data and recent studies (only new data was created for the last chapter).
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy FindingsEducation and human capitalScientific researchSocial and cultural developmentInnovation and economic progress
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Education and human capital (1)• Attracting talent and highly-qualified human capitalAlmost 30% of the thesis defended in the public universities of Catalonia were submitted by foreigners, higherthan the Spanish average (20%).• Better and more highly trained citizensIn 1977, 3% of Catalan people of working age had a university degree. In 2007, this had risen to 15%. Atpresent, the percentage of university access for each generation of young people is around 40%, one of thehighest ones in the OECD.Percentage of the population between 25 and 65 years old holding higher education degrees, international comparative (2008) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: Eurostat. 25-64 years 25-34 years
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Education and human capital (2)• Creating quality employmentThe Catalan public universities create more than 40,000 jobs, 1.1% of all the jobs that are part of the Catalaneconomy. Employment situation of the Catalan university graduates, by discipline (percentage 2010 and 2011) % employed % inactive % unemployed Àrees /Year 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 Humanities 89.44 81.51 4.81 5.57 5.75 12.93 Social Sciences 94.15 89.85 2.92 3.32 2.93 6.83 Science 90.44 86.45 6.6 4.98 2.95 8.87 Health 95.28 92.49 2.63 2.4 2.09 5.11 Technical 95.02 89.11 2.63 3.24 2.35 7.65 Source: AQU, 2011 .• The success of lifelong learning educationIn 2004, 75% of university graduates continued studying at Catalan public universities. 40% of the offer oflifelong learning education in Spain takes place in Catalan public universities.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Education and human capital (3)• Training of highly qualified doctors with difficulties in finding employment in the private sectorIn recent courses, an average of 1,500 doctoral thesis have been defended in Catalan publicuniversities and they are the leaders in high-quality doctoral programmes. At the same timehowever, the labour insertion of doctors in the private sector is 16%, compared to the 44% in theUnited States.• High employability of university graduates and satisfaction with the chosen academic programmesThe employment level of university graduates is around 80%, almost 30% above the total of thepopulation. In 2011, 73% of the degree holders said that they felt satisfied with the degrees theyhad followed and that they would repeat the choice.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Scientific research (1)• Quality researchCatalan public universities have a scientific impact of 34% more than the worldaverage, in front of Germany, France and Finland, and above the EU-15 average.• Catalan public universities leading the countrys researchBetween 2004 and 2008, 20% of the scientific production in Catalonia was produced inpublic universities. If the research carried out in university hospitals and researchcentres linked to public universities is added to this, a figure of 90% is reached.• Catalonia, a race towards international scientific excellenceThe countrys university scientific production in terms of population, is ahead ofGermany, Japan and France, and is leader in Spain.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Scientific research (2)• Leaders in obtaining resources for scientific researchThe Catalan public universities were in fourth position in obtaining grants from the EU FrameworkProgramme for R&D between 2007 and 2010. At the same time, between 2007 and 2010, Cataloniareceived 57% of the total ERC awards in Spain. ERC awards by country in the five calls (M/hab., 2007-2010) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 C… 7… IT PT NL IS HU FI BG FR NO DK ES- AT CZ PL ES+ IL SE CY EL UK IE EE CH BE DE Source: Generalitat de Catalunya, 2010.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Scientific research (3)• At the head of applications for university patentsThe increase in the application of patents by Catalan universities between 2000 and 2009 was 89% and placesit in the group of countries with the greatest proportion of worldwide applications for patents from theuniversity sector. Patent petition increase EU-15, world and universities of Catalonia (PCT 2000-2009) 100% 88.89% 80% 67.00% 60% 43.16% 40% 20% 0% EU-15 World Universities in Catalonia Source: ACUP, 2011
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Scientific research (4)• Closely collaborating with companies and promoting knowledge transferCatalan public universities invoiced a total of 125.7 thousand/million€ to companies for specialtechnical services and studies in 2009.• Research groups and centres par excellenceCatalan public universities have 684 consolidated research groups and have fuelled most of theresearch centres promoted by the Generalitat of Catalonia. They also closely participate inuniversity hospitals’ research.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Social and cultural development• A university for everyone, that promotes the improvement of social statusThe proportion of students in higher education whose parents do not have universityeducation is 40% in Catalonia, the highest figure in OECD countries. In 1973, 37% ofstudents in public universities were women. In 2010, this percentage was 54%.• Promoting a more participative, plural and culturally rich societyThe statistics corroborate that the higher the level of education, the greater civic andpolitical participation, tolerance and cultural consumption.• A university system with a greater need for scholarships and grants for studentsPublic spending on scholarships and grants for students in Spain as part of the totalexpense on education is very low (8.2%), far from the OECD average (17.3%) and thatof countries such as the United Kingdom (25.8%) or Denmark (30.8%). InCatalonia, 80% of young people study without grants, a percentage that is muchhigher than the most advanced European countries.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Social and cultural development• An impulse to social sciences and humanities and to Catalan cultureIn 2009, 24.32% of all the funding granted to research groups wasdestined to these areas. The Catalan public universities were clearlynotable thanks to their contribution to studying and promoting theCatalan language, culture and nation.• At the forefront of international cooperationCatalan public universities are the most active ones in Spain in matters ofuniversity cooperation for development. Catalonia coordinates 17UNESCO chairs, as opposed to 19 in France, 11 in Italy and 15 in theUnited Kingdom and the United States.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Innovation and economic progress• A notable impact on the countrys economyThe short-term direct and indirect benefits of the existence of eight Catalan public universities is around 0.6% ofCatalonias GDP and around 1% of the GDP if we include the institutions linked to universities.• Catalan public universities, among the most efficient in scientific research in EuropeMeasuring efficiency (publications per researcher depending on resources) and impact, the Catalan public universitysystem is above the European average and is comparable to countries such as Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Expenditure in R+D (%)/ GDP in Europe and Catalonia (2006) 0.05 0.045 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 DE BE CZ DK IE FR CY CAT HU IT ES NL BG Source: Eurostat
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Innovation and economic progress• A decisive impulse towards innovation and entrepreneurshipIn 2009, there were 2,165 innovative, technology-based companies in Catalan scientific parks, of which81.38% were small enterprises and micro companies. In 2008, Catalan public universities created 21spin-off companies. Expenditure in Technologic Innovation. Catalonia 2003-2009 4,500 3926.94 3780.644 4,000 3490.488 3539.799 3494.868 3,500 3073.661 3389.477683 3,000 3230.294258 3186.701786 3211.815499 2933.830842 M€ 2916.821 2966.854247 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Nominal Source: ACUP, 2011.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Innovation and economic progress• A nexus between Catalonia and the worldMore than 6,700 students attended Catalan public universities during the 2007-2008 academicyear, whilst 3,600 Catalan people went abroad to study.• Every euro invested in universities in the economy produces 1.88 eurosFor every euro invested in higher education the economy receives 1.88 euros, making highereducation institutions crucial economic agents.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Conclusions (1)• Evidence that public universities in Catalonia are are dynamic, high- performing institutions creating a higher education and research system that can compete at an international level and with a key impact on the social and cultural development and economic progress of Catalonia.• Indirect outcomes, the need to: – Develop follow-up studies on university graduates and their professional careers upon entering the labour market; – identify appropriate indicators that can provide accurate information for future analysis of this kind to reflect the impact of the social and cultural dimension of the universities on society and economy, and, the need to systematically gather and analyse the data; – engage in further research on how innovation and technological activities impact; and – in-depth research on the skills and capacities that the labour market values, and those that the university aims to provide students with.
The Impacts of Universities on Society and Economy Conclusions (2)• The study concludes that universities are probably the institutions with most impact and that bring most value to the territory, whether through training and human capital, scientific research, social and cultural development or innovation and economic progress.
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