TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Survey)


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Effective teaching and teachers are key to producing high performing students. TALIS is the first international programme to focus on the learning environment and the working conditions of teachers in schools. TALIS fills important information gaps in the international comparisons of education systems. It offers an opportunity for teachers and school principals to give their input into education analysis and policy development in some key policy areas. Cross-country analysis from TALIS allows countries to identify other countries facing similar challenges and to learn from other policy approaches.

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  • Classroom climate not only has been shown to affect student outcomes and attainment but is a prominent policy issue. Student behaviour and the creation of a safe and productive learning environment can be a challenging dimension of teachers’ work. How successful teachers feel they are with regard to their students’ education can be linked to productivity and can influence people’s actions in the workplace. When teachers envisage effective teaching as a skill that can be acquired, this feeling of self-efficacy can help them better analyse and solve problems. Conversely, those teachers confronting a low feeling of self-efficacy can experience self-doubt and become preoccupied with evaluative concerns if efforts proved unsuccessful.Of course each one of these factors is influenced by many others – some of which were included in TALIS. We will examine them in turn.
  • Percentage of teachers whose school principal considered the following student behaviours to hinder instruction “a lot” or “to some extent” in their school.1 teacher in 4 in most countries losses at least 30% of lesson time because of disruptive student behaviour or administrative tasks.
  • Teachers in the same school vary in terms of job satisfaction and belief in their effectiveness.
  • TALIS also offers important insights into teaching practices. Many factors can influence teaching practices in the classroom and many of the themes explored in TALIS are important contributors. In this section, I focus specifically on the beliefs and practices reported by teachers. Teachers who hold stronger beliefs about teaching methods, report more collaborative behaviour with colleagues and report more positive teacher-student relations feel more effectiveTo improve teaching practice, teachers need first to become aware of how their own practice can be improved, and this requires principals, colleagues and support systems that help them in their diagnosis. And it is not just about building awareness of what they do, but also about the mindset underlying it. Teachers then need to gain a good understanding of specific best practice, which can generally only be achieved through the demonstration of such practices in authentic settings. Last but not least, individual teachers need to be motivated to make the necessary improvements.this also requires a deeper change that goes beyond material incentives and can only come about when teachers have high expectations, a shared sense of purpose, and above all, a collective belief in their common ability to make a difference to the education of the children they serve.
  • Two alternative views of teaching emphasise, on the one hand, the teacher’s role in transmitting knowledge and providing correct solutions, and on the other, the teacher’s role as a facilitator of active learning by students who seek out solutions for themselves. This “constructivist” view of teaching generally has more support among the teachers surveyed than the former “direct transmission” view.Teachers tend to be more inclined to see their role as supporting active learning rather than directly transmitting information. In Bulgaria and Italy, this preference in a constructivist approach is less marked than in other countries like Iceland and Australia.
  • Nevertheless, structured practices are more common than student-oriented practices, or project work.We see that teachers are using traditional practices aimed at transmitting knowledge in structured settings much more often than they use student-oriented practices, such as adapting teaching to individual needs. The factors that prevent teachers from putting their beliefs about teaching into practice require further investigation but this may nevertheless be a source of frustration for teachers. Changing this balance holds they key to improving learning outcomes.
  • TALIS also shows that we need more effective mechanisms to assess and reward good teaching in ways that motivates teachers. While the majority of teachers receive feedback from their school principals, from other teachers or from an external body at least once a year, there are still nearly one in 4 (22%) teachers who report that they never receive feedback from their school principal, nearly a third (29%) who report that they never receive feedback from other teachers, and a half (51%) who report that they never receive feedback from an external individual or body. TALIS also shows that, on average across countries, just under one-third of teachers across TALIS countries worked in schools that had not seen an external evaluation in the last five years and one-fifth worked in schools that had not even conducted a self-evaluation. TALIS shows that in schools that are not evaluated, teachers are less likely to benefit from appraisal or feedback.
  • Feedback is not just a bureaucratic exercise but a powerful lever for improvement. This chart shows you the percentage of teachers who report that the appraisal and feedback they received led to a moderate or large change in their development and training plan, shown here by the light yellow bar, the emphasis teachers place on improving student test scores, shown by the orange bar, their approach to teaching students with special needs, shown here by the blue dot, or their teaching of students in multi-cultural settings, shown by the red dot. The generally positive reception by teachers of the appraisal and feedback which they receive on their work indicates a willingness in the profession to move forward. All this shows that it is possible to overcome concerns about such practices.Another piece of good news is that most teachers report that the feedback they receive is fair and helpful for their work and that it increases their job satisfaction and their development as teachers.
  • We can do better in ensuring that good teaching is recognised.On average across countries, three-quarters of teachers report that they would receive no recognition for increasing the quality of their teaching, shown here by the blue bars, or for being more innovative in their teaching, shown by the grey bars.
  • Poor teaching also goes largely unheeded. In most countries, few teachers think that a persistently underperforming teacher will face a pay cut, shown by the blue bar, or risk being dismissed, shown by the grey bar. It will be worth for many countries to re-think the incentive structures for teachers. An appraisal system and a career structure that focuses upon and promotes innovation and effectiveness would better assist school improvement programmes and efforts to increase school effectiveness. I am saying this because TALIS shows that the appraisal and feedback which teachers receive is mirrored in the beliefs in their own teaching abilities. The more feedback they receive on specific aspects of their work, the more they trust in their abilities to address the respective teaching challenges. In a number of countries teachers also report higher levels of self-efficacy when they had received public recognition for the improvements and innovations in connection with the appraisal or when innovative practices were part of appraisal and feedback. These are things that do not cost much money but can make a difference.
  • Education systems seek to provide teachers with opportunities for on-going professional development to fully prepare them for their work and to retain a high-quality teacher workforce. TALIS examined the take-up of professional development, the degree of unsatisfied demand for development and the factors that support or hinder meeting development needs.
  • Nearly nine teachers in ten report taking part in a structured professional development activity during the 18 months preceding the survey.
  • Despite the high participation rates there is a high percentage of teachers reporting that they would have liked to receive more development than they did.
  • Teachers’ demand for more professional development appears concentrated in certain areas. In particular, one teacher in three reports a high level of need for teaching students with special learning needs. This indicates a serious issue in terms of teachers’ capacity to deal with heterogeneous learning groups.
  • Some reasons cited as barriers for participating in PD include the following.
  • The proposed content and policy focus for TALIS 2013 attempts to integrate in a coherent fashion countries’ stated wish to investigate trends between the first two rounds of TALIS while incorporating new material that will allow to examine further findings from the first round of TALIS and previous PISA cycles while addressing countries’ stated priorities, as per the analysis of the priority rating exercise.
  • Since its inception as a component of the INES programme, the main goal of the TALIS programme has been to increase the international information available to OECD countries on teachers, teaching, and the impact that teachers can have on student learning. The first round of TALIS has succeeded in fulfilling this goal, especially as it pertains to filling gaps in the international (and national) evidence base on the teaching workforce, the conditions of teaching, and also provided a first insight on teachers’ beliefs, attitudes and practices.TALIS 2013 aims to provide participating countries with an internationally comparative perspective that complements information on the teaching workforce and conditions of teaching with an increased emphasis on how these conditions affect the pedagogical aspects of teachers’ work, as well as schools’ and teachers’ effectiveness. In doing so, TALIS 2013 will provide insights into some of the factors that help to understand school level differences in learning outcomes that the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has revealed. Indeed, an ultimate objective is for the TALIS programme and PISA to become increasingly interlinked to allow for a more nuanced analysis of the impact that teachers have on student outcomes.It is proposed that these form the two main dimensions of TALIS 2013. The main themes and indicators will fall within the following these two dimensions and relationships between these dimensions (and with background information about the teaching workforce) will be investigated
  • Benefits for TALISThe most important benefit the PISA connection could bring to TALIS is a greater understanding of the variation in teacher attitudes, beliefs and practices. In other words, the linkage could provide a context for teacher and principal responses in TALIS where student characteristics become also relevant. PISA includes valuable information on the socio-economic status (SES), performance, and views on the school climate and the learning environment of the student population within schools. This will allow the policy issues that are the objectives of TALIS to be analysed in the context of student performance and equity. The link would allow for the investigation of the relationship between the instructional environment in the schools of 15-year-olds and other school-level factors such as the ethnic and social composition of the student population. For example, it would permit analysis of the variation in use of different instructional practices, school leadership and teacher training between high and low SES and high and low performing PISA schools. The link could also address how the instructional environment relates to student engagement and participation.Benefits for PISAFurthermore, teacher information collected in TALIS can strengthen the knowledge base about school-level variables in PISA and include new variables related to principals, teachers and conditions of teaching. Currently, there is no dedicated teacher questionnaire in PISA. The inclusion of TALIS data would be relevant in the analysis of issues such as school climate, school leadership, professional consensus and parental involvement within schools. Difficulties arise in analysing these issues without information from teachers. This would improve the measurement of the instructional environment in schools.
  • An important goal of TALIS is to provide a comprehensive appreciation of teachers, teaching and learning as they shape learning outcomes. A survey approach, though valuable, can only partly address the data gaps that countries want to fill. To progress towards this goal, TALIS needs to get closer to the quality of teachers and teaching and to obtain more objective information on teaching practices. A first round of TALIS gave some tantalising glimpses about preferred and actual teaching practices but it is clear that much more could be learned through more direct observation of classroom activities. This lead to the development of the idea to include an international video study of teaching practices component to the next round of TALIS.The need for such a study today is similar to what it was a decade ago when TIMSS was conducted: to build new understandings of teaching, and how teaching relates to learning outcomes of the sort measured by the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
  • TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Survey)

    1. 1. TALISTeaching and LearningInternational Survey
    2. 2. Outline• Why TALIS?• TALIS 2008 – Overview – Findings: International report • Conditions for effective learning • Improving teaching practices • Supporting high quality teaching (Teacher feedback and Teacher professional development)• TALIS 2013 – Innovations (Coverage, indicators, link to PISA, video study) – Timelines 2
    3. 3. WHY TALIS? 3
    4. 4. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT LearningResources Teaching outcomesStudents Learning Attainment 4
    5. 5. PROCESS School OUTPUTINPUT Teachers Black box Leadership Parents Stakeholders 5
    6. 6. TALIS within EDU• OECD/EDU has a lot of knowledge on – Input – Outputs: attainment level, learning outcomes• And some knowledge on – School characteristics – Teaching workforce – Leadership• But very little knowledge – On what actually happens in the ‘black box’ of the teaching/learning interaction 6
    7. 7. TALIS brief• International survey of teachers and principals• Goal: Fill key international (and national) data gaps: – Teachers – Teaching – The impact that teachers can have on student learning• Representative samples – 200 schools; 20 teachers – Randomly selected 7
    8. 8. TALIS 2008 8
    9. 9. Overview of TALIS 2008• School year 2007-08• Teachers and principals of lower secondary education• Focus - Policies and practices to support effective teaching and learning: – Appraisal of teachers and feedback to teachers – Teaching practices, attitudes and beliefs – School leadership – Professional development of teachers 9
    10. 10. Coverage: 24 Countries• Australia • Iceland • Netherlands• Austria • Ireland • Norway• Belgium (Fl) • Italy • Poland• Brazil • Korea • Portugal• Bulgaria • Lithuania • Spain• Denmark • Malta • Slovak• Estonia • Malaysia Republic• Hungary • Mexico • Slovenia • Turkey 10
    11. 11. TALIS 2008 RESULTS 11
    12. 12. TALIS 2008 Outputs • One general report: Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments (2009) • Three thematic reports: – Teachers’ professional development (EC) – Experience of new teachers – Teaching practices and innovation in schools 12
    13. 13. Teachers’ belief in their own effectiveness Conditions for effective learning Classroom Job climate & satisfaction disciplineConditions for effective learning 13
    14. 14. School climate – Student Factors100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 14
    15. 15. Country means of teacher self- efficacy and job satisfaction 3.5 3.4 Norway Belgium (Fl.) 3.3 AustriaJob satisfaction 3.2 Denmark Slovenia Ireland Iceland Spain Malta Italy Malaysia 3.1 Poland Korea Bulgaria Estonia Portugal Turkey Mexico Australia 3.0 Brazil Lithuania Slovak Republic 2.9 Hungary 2.8 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Self -efficacy: standardised factor scores
    16. 16. The quality of the classroom environment 90Percentage of lesson time spent Bulgaria Estonia Hungary teaching and learning 85 Slovak Republic Slovenia Lithuania Norway Denmark Poland Ireland 80 Spain Malta Korea Belgium (Fl.) Austria Portugal Turkey Italy 75 Australia Iceland Malaysia Mexico 70 Brazil 65 60 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 Classroom disciplinary climate: mean standardised factor score
    17. 17. Teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning Improving teaching practices Teachers’ Teaching professional practices activities usedTeaching practices and beliefs 17
    18. 18. Teachers’ beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning Direct transmission beliefsIpsative Constructivist beliefsmeans0.
    19. 19. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 Denmark Norway Iceland Malaysia Turkey Poland Mexico Brazil Enhanced teaching activities Austria Structuring teaching practices Australia KoreaSlovak Republic Estonia Spain Slovenia Belgium (Fl.) Lithuania Portugal Italy Bulgaria Teachers’ teaching practices Malta Student-oriented teaching practices Hungary Ireland
    20. 20. Frequency & type of teacher feedback Supporting high quality teaching Impact of Recognition teacher for good feedback teachingTeacher appraisal and feedback 20
    21. 21. Impact of teacher feedback A development plan to improve teaching Emphasis placed on improving student test scores Teaching students with special learning needs Teaching in a multicultural setting%100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Norway Australia Malaysia Korea Estonia Brazil Slovenia TALIS Average Austria Denmark Mexico Bulgaria Poland Malta Hungary Portugal Spain Italy Belgium (Fl.) Lithuania Turkey Slovak Republic Ireland Iceland
    22. 22. Teachers’ perceptions of feedback outcome60 Teachers would receive rewards for improved teaching quality50 Teachers would receive rewards for innovative40 teaching3020100 Belgium… Slovak… TALIS… Poland Estonia Hungary Slovenia Spain Denmark Iceland Australia Malta Ireland Norway Bulgaria Lithuania Malaysia Italy Mexico Brazil Turkey Portugal Austria Korea 22
    23. 23. Teachers’ perceptions of feedback outcome Principal would take steps to alter rewards of a persistently underperforming teacher Teachers will be dismissed because of sustained poor performance70605040302010 0 Belgium… Slovak… TALIS… Austria Norway Denmark Slovenia Hungary Poland Iceland Lithuania Australia Ireland Malta Malaysia Bulgaria Brazil Spain Estonia Mexico Korea Italy Portugal Turkey
    24. 24. Types & amount of professional development Supporting high quality teaching Impact of Needs and professional barriers developmentIn-service teacher professionaldevelopment and training 24
    25. 25. Comparison of the level and intensity ofparticipation in professional development 40 TALIS AverageAverage days of professional development Mexico 35 Italy Korea 30 Bulgaria Poland Spain 25 Portugal Brazil 20 TALIS Average 15 Hungary Turkey Iceland Estonia Denmark Lithuania Malaysia Austria 10 Norway Australia Slovak Republic Belgium (Fl.)undertaken Slovenia Ireland Malta 5 0 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Percentage of teachers undertaking professional development
    26. 26. 10 20 0 70 50 80 30 40 60 90 Mexico Brazil Malaysia Portugal Norway Bulgaria Spain Korea Italy Australia TALIS average Ireland Estonia Turkey Denmark Lithuania Austria Poland Malta Slovak Republic Hungary participate in more development Iceland Slovenia Percentage of teachers who wanted to27 Belgium (Fl.)
    27. 27. Percentage of teachers reporting a highlevel of professional development need%4540353025201510 5 0 Special ICT teaching Student Student Teaching in a learning needs skills discipline counselling multicultural setting 28
    28. 28. Barrier to participation504540353025201510 5 0 29
    29. 29. TALIS 2013 30
    30. 30. TALIS is growing! 33 confirmed countries - new in green Confirmed Australia France Poland Belgium (Fl.) Iceland Portugal Brazil Israel Romania Bulgaria Italy SerbiaCanada (Alberta) Japan Singapore Chile Korea Slovak Republic Croatia Latvia Spain Czech Republic Malaysia Sweden Denmark Mexico UK (England) Estonia Netherlands UAE (Abu Dhabi) Finland Norway USA 31
    31. 31. Innovations in TALIS 2013• Wider coverage: Elementary and upper secondary level options (ISCED 1 and 3)• Linking to student outcomes: Optional school- level link to PISA 2012• Getting closer to teaching practices: Pilot video study of teaching practices 32
    32. 32. International Options ISCED 1 ISCED 3 PISA linkBelgium (Fl.) Australia Australia Denmark Denmark Finland Finland Finland Latvia Mexico Iceland Mexico Norway Italy Portugal Poland Mexico Romania Norway Spain Singapore Singapore Abu Dhabi Poland 33
    33. 33. TALIS 2013 Content Countries’ stated priorities Trends Furtheringbetween findings from TALIS 1st round and rounds PISA Proposed content 34
    34. 34. TALIS 2013: Purpose & Dimensions Information on teaching workforce and conditions of TALIS goal: Increase the teaching international informationavailable to OECD countries on teachers, teaching, andthe impact that teachers can Increased emphasis on how have on student learning these conditions affect the pedagogical aspects of teachers’ work, as well as schools’ and teachers’ effectiveness 35
    35. 35. Main Themes  Initial teacher training Induction, mentoring, and professional development  Appraisal and feedback  School climate  School leadership Teaching practices and beliefs, student assessment • Mathematics module 36
    36. 36. Some New Indicators• School leadership: Distributed leadership• Principal PD• Initial teacher training and how well it prepares for teaching• Access to induction and mentoring• School climate: Parent-teacher and parent- school relations 37
    37. 37. Some New Indicators (cont.)• Teachers’ beliefs about student assessment practices• Profile of student assessment practices• Profile of teaching practices in mathematics 38
    38. 38. Why a link to PISA 2012? Provide a context for teacher and principal responsesBenefits of PISA link for TALIS Allow policy issues to be analysed in the context of student performance and equity 39
    39. 39. Opportunities for policy analysis Examine associations between teacher and school professional practices with student outcomes at the school level. For example:How is the academic profile of students in school related to teachers’ : – stated needs for professional development? – likelihood of participating in in-service training? – evaluation of the impact of their training on their work? 40
    40. 40. Video study• Why? – To get closer to the quality of teachers and teaching and to obtain more objective information on teaching practices.• Status: – Planning stage to lead to a proposal in 2012 for a 3-year pilot study 41
    41. 41. TALIS 2013 Timeline Activity DatePilot August - September 2011Field trial March/April 2012Main study- Southern Hemisphere Sept-December 2012Main study- Northern Hemisphere March-May 2013Initial report June 2014 42
    42. 42. Thank you! dirk.vandamme@oecd.orgkristen.weatherby@oecd.org julie.belanger@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/talis 43