Raising the Effectiveness of Official Development Assistance in Education


Published on

Presentation by Barbara Ischinger, Director for Education, OECD, at the International Forum on Education ODA jointly organised by the Korean Ministry of Education, KEDI (Korean Education Development Institute), OECD, UNESCO and World Bank, 28 November, Busan, Korea.

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Raising the Effectiveness of Official Development Assistance in Education

  1. 1. Raising the Effectivenessof Official DevelopmentAssistance in Education Barbara Ischinger Director for Education OECD
  2. 2. Outline• The value of education• How much aid has gone to education since 2005?• Which kinds of education have received the support of donors in these years and how has this been provided?• Has the aid to education been any use?• What needs to change to make aid to education more effective in the future?• Education quality and the role of OECD 2
  3. 3. Value of education Human capital development Sustained economicSocial rights growth Education pays off for individuals and states, sociallyPolitical and and economically Poverty social reductionparticipation Social integration
  4. 4. How Much Aid to Education? Total Bilateral ODA vs. Expenditures on Education4 Source: Creditor Reporting System (CRS), OECD
  5. 5. Which kinds of education have received the support of donors? ODA to education by subsector 2005-20091400012000 Post-Secondary Education10000 Secondary Education 8000 Basic Education 6000 Education, Level Unspecified 4000 2000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 5
  6. 6. Top Ten Education Donors in 2008
  7. 7. Which kinds of education is aided? Despite the international commitments: most education aid goes to MICs and to post-basic education 100%Proportion of Education ODA to MICs 80% Japan France 60% EC (%) Germany United States 40% Canada Italy IDA 20% UK 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Proportion of Education ODA to LICs (%)
  8. 8. What needs to change to make aid toeducation more effective in the future?• How much aid to education? – Enough to bridge the financing gap for achieving EFA.• Which kinds of education should be aided? – Prioritise basic and secondary education, particularly for girls …emphasise policies aimed at improving quality• Through which channels? – Harmonised and aligned ones: Sector budget support, combined with policy dialogue and technical co-operation 8
  9. 9. Education quality and economic growth 9
  10. 10. Wealth matters - but effective policies matter more 560 Shanghai-China 540 Finland Singapore Canada New Zealand 520 Japan Australia Netherlands Poland Estonia Iceland BelgiumMean reading performance in PISA 2009 500 Sweden United StatesDenmark Hungary Portugal UK Germany France Chinese Taipei Latvia Croatia Czech Rep Greece 480 Italy Macao-China Ireland Lithuania Slovenia Russian Federation Slovak Republic Israel Spain 460 Austria Chile Serbia 440 Bulgaria Thailand Mexico Uruguay 420 Colombia Romania y = 0.001x + 435.4 Tunisia Brazil Jordan Argentina Trinidad and Tobago 400 Indonesia R² = 0.243 Albania Kazakhstan 380 Peru Panama 360 Azerbaijan 340 320 Kyrgyzstan 300 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 GDP per capita (current USD) 10
  11. 11. Participation of ODA recipients in OECD activities National capacities International support• Participation will depend • International support is on national capacities provided for ODA and adjustment of survey recipients to enable techniques participation and analysis, and could be further expanded 11
  12. 12. Prospects for PISA as a global-initiative • PISA is the largest and most rigorous survey on students’ performance • Tool to compare the efficiency and equity of countries’ education systems in an international perspective • Many of the countries and economies covered in PISA are non-OECD members and are at various stages of development
  13. 13. A map of PISA countries and economies 13
  14. 14. ODA recipients in PISA 14
  15. 15. Performance and spending in ODA countries PISA reading performance Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure) 500 25 Public spending on education (% of governmentMean reading performance in PISA 2009 480 OECD average 460 20 440 420 15 expenditure) 400 OECD average 380 10 360 340 5 320 300 0 Source: OECD PISA 2009 Database; 15 Education at a Glance (2011); World Bank Indicators 2011 (Data from 2008 or last year for which data is available)
  16. 16. What makes PISA attractive for ODA recipients? • PISA participation can be supported by other international organisations or be covered by aInternational country without direct donor involvement support • High flexibility due to options of including additional test batteries/questionnaires, e.g. test Flexibility questions aimed at assessing performance at very low levels of proficiency (e.g. Colombia 2009) • International benchmarks • OECD provides additional policy support throughData analysis secondary PISA analysis (e.g. Kyrgyzstan 2010)
  17. 17. Challenges of PISA for ODA recipients • Low levels of enrolment at age 15 in ODA countries Relevance • Large share of students perform at lowest levels of proficiency • Reliability of measurement is much lower at the bottom of the performance distribution Reliability • Background questionnaires (student, school Policy principal, parents) would have to be adjusted to reflect different policy realities in ODA countries priorities • Value added gained from participation: very Value costly and capacity intensive added
  18. 18. New education indicatorsThe Millennium Development Goals uses three educationindicators:• Enrolment rates in primary education• Completion rates in primary education• Literacy ratesUse of new indicators to assess country’s progress towardsdevelopment, which can be implemented in surveys alreadyconducted by national statistical offices
  19. 19. New education indicatorsEducational inputs• Proportion of schools with less than 45 students per class or average classroom size or teacher student ratio• Average teacher salary (as a percentage of GDP per capita)• Proportion of schools meeting minimum infrastructure and material resource standardsEducational outcomes• Educational attainment (how far students go in the educational system) • Enrolment and completion rates by educational level • Tertiary enrolment in relation to the market relevance and strategic development needs • School-to-work transition, e.g. unemployment by educational level• Educational achievement (how much students know) • International student assessments (PISA, TIMMS, PIRLS)Relevance and lost potential of education• Measuring equity in the distribution of literacy and educational achievement by gender and background characteristics• The migration of highly educated students out of ODA receiving countries (brain drain) should be monitoredStructure of national school systems• Promoting the dialogue and collaboration of school systems with similar characteristics
  20. 20. Skills StrategyMismatch between educational supply and employmentdemand in many ODA receiving countries• Misallocation and waste of resources• Need for new strategies and approaches  Focus on the link between investments in skills development, employment and productivitySeoul Summit 2010, G20 Action Plan envisages• To create internationally comparable skills indicators• OECD, ILO, UNESCO and World Bank are collaborating on the development of a set of internationally comparable indicators of skills for ODA recipients• To enhance national employable skills strategies• OECD Pilot Policy Reviews of emerging economies are planned for 2012/2013 20
  21. 21. Challenges for ODA recipients(some common to all, others more country-specific) • Absorption challenges of large cohort effects • Weaknesses in basic education • Rural-urban divides, the informal economy and entrepreneurship climate • Weak infrastructure and institutions for bridging education and the labour market 21
  22. 22. OER (Open Educational Resources)“OER are teaching, learning, and researchmaterials in any medium that reside in the publicdomain or have been released under an openlicense that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. An open license is one thatallows anyone to access, reuse, modify andshare the OER.” (Hewlett Foundation) 22
  23. 23. Reviews of National Policies for Education Since 1992 more than 70 OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education, some in collaboration with the World Bank Large geographical coverage: Southeast Europe, CIS region, Asia, Latin America and the MENA region Principles of ownership and tailored policy analysis: methodology is set-up around a joint effort of national authorities and the OECD Findings and recommendations can be used for planning development aid 23
  24. 24. Integrity of Education Systems (INTES)Assesses the integrity of education systems and canprovide forecasts of corruption incidenceDelivers sector level policy recommendations foreliminating and preventing corruption, strengtheningintegrity, and linking national anti-corruption instrumentsto sector needs.A first round of pilot assessments is being carried outin the framework of the OECD Anti-Corruption Networkfor Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ACN) 24
  25. 25. Priorities for enhancing aid effectiveness1. The importance of transparency for improving mutual accountability2. Using comprehensive ownership and leadership3. Building a public system4. Human and institutional capacity development5. Expanding agendas for ODA countries and building partnerships6. The importance of civil society and National Assembly for improvingdemocratic responsibility and transparency 25
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention! oecdeducationtoday.blogspot.com oecdmybrochure.org/eduFollow us on Twitter Youtube Slideshare @OECD_Edu @EduContact @OECDEDU