Providing Quality Mass Higher Education: the Egyptian Experience - Mostafa Radwan
PROVIDINGQUALITY MASS HIGHER EDUCATION, THE EGYPTIAN EXPERIENCE MOSTAFA MOHSEN RADWAN, RASHA SAAD SHARAF & DOAA KHALIL IBRAHIM HE REFORM PROJECTS MANAGEMENT UNIT, MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION, EGYPT http://www.qaap.edu.eg/sc/
Overpopulation, A Problem or A Chance ? Egypt population: nearly 87 million. Large youth population in an ageing world: 39%(< 15 years). Further youth surge is projected to flow through to higher education from 2024. Expected demand for HE will continue to grow strongly. Gross enrolment rate is projected to increase from 30.7% in 2010/11 to 37.5.0% in 2021/22 (a more optimistic scenario projects a rise to 40%). 1.1 million participants will need to be accommodated at an average growth rate of 3% per year (73 300) over 15 years. Egypt is facing the challenge of the need to expand higher education enrolment, both for meeting the growing demand and also the contribution of higher education in nation economic development.
Strategic Plan for Higher Education Use of Information and Communication TechnologyStrategic Quality Assurance Plan for Higher Technical and Vocational Higher EducationEducation Human Resource Development National Center for Measurements and Assessment
Use of Information and Communication Technology Network Infrastructure National Centre for e-Learning Providing access to Developing non-traditional ways of scientific and academic learning at all levels; resources (EULC). under/postgraduate and continuing Establishing televised professional development. and video conference Enhancing the quality of student network in universities. learning, promoting wider access Digital libraries to universitys courses, and improving teaching effectiveness. Automation of universities libraries. Union Catalogue for Universities Libraries.Overcrowded classrooms and lack of human resources wascompensated with the provision of self-learning opportunitiesand web-based student centred learning opportunities.
Quality AssuranceBy the end of 2007, an independent National Authority forQuality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE)was established as an accrediting body for all Egyptianeducational institutions.Over years 2007-2012, projects of Program of ContinuousImprovement and Qualifying for Accreditation (PCIQA) areexecuted in governmental Egyptian HE institutes with themission of reaching a self-activated institutional ability capableof carrying out continuous improvement, as well as achievingacademic and institutional quality assurance with highcompetitive ability and qualifying for accreditation.Massification issues are addressed while faculties aredeveloping their strategic plans and performing their continuousimprovement fulfilling the institutional capacity and educationaleffectiveness criteria and standards for accreditation.
Strategic Plan for Higher Education....cont. HR Development Technical and Vocational HE Training centre within each Declining numbers of enrolmentsuniversity. rather than massification. Staff training programs to Governments objective is toimprove teaching skills to cope increase enrolment and shiftwith large cohorts of students, enrolment from theoretical academicand the use of open, distance fields towards this sector in anand e-learning. attempt to respond dynamically to both the local, regional and National Center for international labour market needs Measurements & Assessment (establishing integrated technology Scenarios for the admission clusters, industrial colleges, to HE. introducing new divisions, Specialized training specializations, programs and programs in measurements, courses as well as reforming old evaluation and building ones, and establishing quality questions banks. assurance units).
Innovative Approaches to address Massification On On the National the InstitutionsStrategic Policies Level Practice Level
On the National Strategic Policies Level • National Qualification Framework: A modern NQF is proposed, that recognizes all types of education and1 training, formal or non-formal, as well as prior learning. • Geographical Distribution of Students in HE: Students placement using fully automated system based on the capacity of each HE institution and scores of2 candidates, to contribute clearly in decreasing students’ migration within the country and reducing the alienation and family reunification. • Expansion in Private Higher Education: - The share of private higher education in Egypt has3 increased from 14% in 2000 to 20.4% in 2010. - It is planned that the private HE is to reach 30% in 2022 from the overall enrolment in HE sector.
On the Institutions Practice Level • Funding and Diversifying funding Sources: establishing specialized centres to supply consultations and scientific1 solutions, some institutions have undertaken activities of renting of their premises, running a bookshop and printing press. • Tuition Fees for Non-Conventional Programs • Non-Traditional Academic Programs in Foreign Languages2 • Open Education Programs, Distance and Online Learning • New Programmes in Higher Education • Twinning Programs and Joint Degrees • Professional and Career Certificates: HE institutions provide3 array of professional and career certificates at partial fees contributing to the revenues and financing of public universities. • Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning: Most of HE4 institutions offer these programs that assist professionals along their careers for enhancing their knowledge and skills.
Egypt at the Cross Roads, and the Road Map- HE sector is considered - particularly after the revolution - as a major factor in development.- It is expected to provide HE opportunities that can contribute to resolving the problems of unemployment and changing economic map of Egypt.Evaluating and reconsidering public universities zero feespolicy.Encouraging of institutional differentiation.Seeking creative ways of attracting young and brilliant staffmembers thus curbing the problem of brain drain.The introduction of a funding formula or mechanism takesinto consideration individual institutions needs andperformance.Supporting the development and implementation of theNational Qualifications Framework.