Pisa 2012 Financial Literacy

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This sixth volume of PISA 2012 results examines 15-year-old students’ performance in financial literacy in the 18 countries and economies that participated in this optional assessment. It also discusses the relationship of financial literacy to students’ and their families’ background and to students’ mathematics and reading skills. The volume also explores students’ access to money and their experience with financial matters. In addition, it provides an overview of the current status of financial education in schools and highlights relevant case studies. For more information see http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-volume-vi.htm

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  • I need to remind you that the material remains under embargo until Wednesday 9 July 2014, 10AM Paris Time.

  • “Financial literacy in PISA is primarily conceived of as personal financial literacy, distinguished from economic literacy, which includes both broader concepts, such as the theories of demand and supply, market structures and so on. Financial literacy is concerned with the way individuals understand, manage and plan their own and their households’ financial affairs, and with their awareness and understanding of the overall financial and economic landscape they live in. It is also recognised that good understanding, management and planning on the part of individuals has some collective impact on the wider society in contributing to national and even global stability, productivity and development.”
  • And many have a phone contract or pay as you go to manage
  • In practice a 15-year-olds’ might…
    - Estimate the amount of change they should get when they pay for something in cash, and remember to check
    - Make decisions about what to spend their money on, taking into account the things that they might really need to pay for. For example, if they go to the cinema, will they still have enough money for the bus fare home? If not, maybe they should buy pizza and invite friends round to theirs to watch a DVD instead?
    - Remember that some of the things that they buy will have ongoing costs. A games console will need new games, a motorbike will need fuel and tyres and services and so on.
    - Some emails that look like they came from their bank might not be legitimate , but they will know what to do if they are not sure. 
    - If their phone gets stolen, they will ask their parents if it is covered by their household insurance

    - Make an informed decision about credit: (those with higher levels of proficiency) …will know that if they use credit to buy a computer, they will have to pay interest on the loan as well as paying the advertised price for the computer. ..and they will realise that the less they repay of that loan each month, the more they will pay in interest
    - Understand risk diversification …they will be able to explain why the saying ‘don’t put all your eggs in one basket’ might apply to investment.

    Realise that buying something on credit is likely to make an item cost more in the long run. They will understand why the saying ‘don’t put all your eggs in one basket’ might apply to investment.

  • This chart illustrates the financial literacy scale, from below the OECD average, marked in red, to around the OECD average, marked in yellow, to high performance, marked in green
  • And, among students with comparable performance in mathematics and reading, boys perform better than girls in financial literacy in 11 out of 18 countries and economies.
  • DELETED NOTE WHICH WAS ALL PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Note these are based on reports from school principals in the schools that participated and decided to answer the school questionnaire.
  • Note these are based on reports from school principals in the schools that participated and decided to answer the school questionnaire.
  • Some countries that have introduced financial education in the curriculum using a cross-curricular approach. This means integrating financial literacy into other subjects and existing courses. This approach makes it possible to use financial literacy to reinforce other skills, such as reading and mathematics, and provides a real-life application for other learning areas.
  • Some countries that have introduced financial education in the curriculum using a cross-curricular approach. This means integrating financial literacy into other subjects and existing courses. This approach makes it possible to use financial literacy to reinforce other skills, such as reading and mathematics, and provides a real-life application for other learning areas.
  • % of students in schools where the principal reports that financial literacy is available for at least 2 years
  • Average % of students in schools where principals report students receive no instruction in financial literacy as a separate course or in other courses
  • Note these are based on reports from school principals.
  • Pisa 2012 Financial Literacy

    1. 1. OECD EMPLOYER BRAND Playbook 1 PISA 2012 Students and Money Financial literacy skills 9 July 2014 Launch
    2. 2. 2 PISA in brief • Over half a million students… – representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 65 countries/economies … took an internationally agreed 2-hour test… – Goes beyond testing whether students can reproduce what they were taught… … to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively apply their knowledge in novel situations – Mathematics, reading, science, problem solving (financial literacy) … and responded to questions on… – their personal background, their schools and their engagement with learning and school • Parents, principals and system leaders provided data on… – school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain performance differences . …“knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and risks, and the skills, motivation and confidence to apply such knowledge and understanding in order to make effective decisions across a range of financial contexts … to enable participation in economic life”. 29 000 of these students in 18 economies took the PISA test on financial literacy
    3. 3. 3 Why is financial literacy relevant for 15-year-old students? Why is financial literacy relevant for 15-year-old students? More students are enrolling into higher education. In the US young adults owed more in 2012 than before the financial crisis And they were more likely to be falling into arrears (% of all loans- some of which are not yet in repayment phase)
    4. 4. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Poland Slovak Republic Israel Italy Croatia Czech Republic Latvia United States Shanghai-China OECD average-13 Spain Flemish Community (Belgium) France Australia Estonia New Zealand Slovenia Percentage of students with a bank account 4 % of students with a bank account %
    5. 5. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shanghai-China Poland Israel Latvia United States Flemish Community (Belgium) Croatia Italy Slovak Republic OECD average-10 France Slovenia Russian Federation Estonia Czech Republic Percentage of students with a prepaid debit card 5 % with a prepaid debit card %
    6. 6. PISA financial literacy assessment framework Content Money and transactions Planning and managing finances Risk and reward Financial landscape Processes Identifying financial information Analyse information in a financial context Evaluate financial issues Apply financial knowledge and understanding Contexts Education and work Home and family Individual Societal 8 8
    7. 7. 12 Examples of what this might mean for 15 year olds • …if they go to the cinema, will they still have enough money for the bus fare home? Or would it be better to buy pizza and invite friends home? Balance their priority and plan what to spend money on • …a games console will need new games, a motorbike will need fuel and tyres and services and so on. Remember that some of the purchases have ongoing costs • …Some emails that look like they came from their bank might not be legitimate, they should know what to do if they are not sure Being alert to possible fraud • …If their phone gets stolen, they should ask their parents if it is covered by their household insurance Knowing what risk is and what insurance is meant for • …they should know that if they buy a computer on credit they will have to pay interest on the loan as well as paying the advertised price for the computer • …and they will realise that the less they repay of that loan each month, the more they will pay in interest Make an informed decision about credit 12
    8. 8. How well prepared are 15-year-olds to make financial decisions? 1313
    9. 9. Strong performance in financial literacy Low performance in financial literacy Average performance of 15-year-olds in financial literacy Figure VI.2.2 14 Shanghai-China Flemish Community (Belgium) EstoniaAustralia New Zealand Czech Republic Poland Lativa United States France Russian FederationSlovenia Spain Croatia Israel Slovak Republic Italy Colombia375 385 395 405 415 425 435 445 455 465 475 485 495 505 515 525 535 545 555 565 575 585 595 605 Mean score
    10. 10. 18% 26% 27% 19% 9% United States Distribution of performance 2% 5% 19% 32% 43% Shanghai-China Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 or below Financial literacy Performance levels Top performers Baseline Students can apply their understanding of a wide range of financial terms and concepts to contexts that may only become relevant to their lives in the long term. They can analyse complex financial products and can take into account features of financial documents that are significant but unstated or not immediately evident, such as transaction costs. They can work with a high level of accuracy and solve non-routine financial problems, and they can describe the potential outcomes of financial decisions, showing an understanding of the wider financial landscape, such as income tax. Students begin to apply their knowledge of common financial products and commonly used financial terms and concepts. They can use given information to make financial decisions in contexts that are immediately relevant to them. They can recognise the value of a simple budget and can interpret prominent features of everyday financial documents. They can apply single basic numerical operations, including division, to answer financial questions. They show an understanding of the relationships between different financial elements, such as the amount of use and the costs incurred. 15
    11. 11. 18% 26% 27% 19% 9% United States Distribution of performance 2% 5% 19% 32% 43% Shanghai-China Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 or below Financial literacy Performance levels Top performers Baseline Students can apply their understanding of a wide range of financial terms and concepts to contexts that may only become relevant to their lives in the long term. They can analyse complex financial products and can take into account features of financial documents that are significant but unstated or not immediately evident, such as transaction costs. They can work with a high level of accuracy and solve non-routine financial problems, and they can describe the potential outcomes of financial decisions, showing an understanding of the wider financial landscape, such as income tax. Students can apply their understanding of commonly used financial concepts, terms and products to situations that are relevant to them. They begin to consider the consequences of financial decisions and they can make simple financial plans in familiar contexts. They can make straightforward interpretations of a range of financial documents and can apply a range of basic numerical operations, including calculating percentages.Students begin to apply their knowledge of common financial products and commonly used financial terms and concepts. They can use given information to make financial decisions in contexts that are immediately relevant to them. They can recognise the value of a simple budget and can interpret prominent features of everyday financial documents. Students can only identify common financial products and terms and interpret information relating to basic financial concepts. They can recognise the difference between needs and wants and can make simple decisions on everyday spending. 16
    12. 12. 18 Sara receives this invoice in the mail Sample Question: INVOICE Question 1: Why was this invoice sent to Sarah? A. Because Sarah needs to pay the money to Breezy Clothing. B. Because Breezy Clothing needs to pay the money to Sarah. C. Because Sarah has paid the money to Breezy Clothing. D. Because Breezy Clothing has paid the money to Sarah.
    13. 13. 19 Sara receives this invoice in the mail Sample Question: INVOICE Question 2: How much has Breezy Clothing charged for delivering the clothes? Delivery charge in zeds: …….............................……………………………………………... 10 zeds
    14. 14. 20 Sara receives this invoice in the mail Sample Question: INVOICE Question 3: Sara notices that Breezy Clothing made a mistake in the invoice. Sara ordered and received two T-shirts, not three. The postage fee is a fixed charged. What will be the total of the new invoice? 131 zeds
    15. 15. 23 NEW OFFER Mrs Jones has a loan of 8000 zeds with FirstZed Finance. The annual interest rate on the loan is 15%. Her repayments each month are 150 zeds. After one year Mrs Jones still owes 7400 zeds. Another finance company called Zedbest will give Mrs Jones a lona for 10 000 zeds with an annual interest rate of 13%. Her repayments each month would also be 150 zeds NEW OFFER- Question 1. If she takes the Zedbest loan, Mrs Jones will immediately pay off her existing loan. What are two other financial benefits for Mrs Jones if she takes the Zedbest loan? 1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Sample Question: NEW OFFER She will be paying lower interests She will have more money available
    16. 16. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Shanghai-China41.2 Fl.Com.(Belgium)16.7 NewZealand15.4 Australia11.7 Estonia9.5 CzechRepublic7.5 OECDaverage-137.9 UnitedStates7.3 Israel6.7 France7.1 Poland6.4 Slovenia5.2 SlovakRepublic4.6 Latvia3.9 RussianFederation2.6 Spain2.5 Croatia3.1 Italy1.8 Colombia0.4 Top performers … among boys … among girls Top performers in financial literacy, by gender Tab V.4.6 26 9.7% of students are top performers in financial literacy(OECD average): they can solve problems such as sample task NEW OFFER– and possibly harder problems as well Boys are more likely to be top performers than girls, particularly in New Zealand, Israel, Poland, France and the Flemish Community (Belgium) Percentage of top performers in financial literacy and at least in one other domain
    17. 17. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Shanghai-China Estonia FlemishCommunity (Belgium) Latvia Poland CzechRepublic Australia OECDaverage-13 NewZealand Croatia Spain RussianFederation Slovenia UnitedStates France Italy SlovakRepublic Israel Colombia % Low performers … among boys … among girls Percentage of low-performing students in financial literacy Tab V.2.1 27 Across the OECD on average, 15% of students do not reach the baseline level of financial literacy – meaning that they can solve only simple tasks such as sample task INVOICE (if any) Boys are more likely to be low performers than girls, particularly in France, Israel, Slovenia and the Slovak Republic
    18. 18. Skill gaps within countries 190 290 390 490 590 690 Colombia Israel SlovakRepublic France Italy NewZealand UnitedStates Slovenia RussianFederation Spain OECDaverage-13 Croatia Australia CzechRepublic Poland Latvia FlemishCommunity(Belgium) Estonia Shanghai-China 95% 90% 75% 50% 25% 10% 5% Top Bottom Countries ranked by 10th percentile of financial literacy performance 29
    19. 19. How does financial literacy relate to other skills? 30
    20. 20. 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Patterns of relative performance in financial literacy Financial literacy performance relative to mathematics performance Mathematics performance Average relationship between financial literacy and mathematics performance Australia performs better-than-expected in financial literacy. The difference between observed and expected performance is larger among strong performers in mathematics The Czech Republic perform better- than-expected in financial literacy. The difference between observed and expected performance is larger among low achievers in mathematics France’s performance is lower-than-expected in financial literacy. The gap between observed and expected performance is similar at all levels of mathematics performance. 34 Italy’s performance is lower-than- expected in financial literacy. The gap between observed and expected performance is wider among high achievers in mathematics. Students in Israel perform as expected in financial literacy at all levels of mathematics performance
    21. 21. Israel Colombia Shanghai-China Latvia UnitedStates OECDaverage-13 Croatia Poland SlovakRepublic Spain Estonia FlemishCommunity(Belgium) NewZealand RussianFederation Australia CzechRepublic France Italy Slovenia -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30% Relative performance in financial literacy Students' performance in financial literacy is lower than their expected performance Students' performance in financial is higher than their expected performance 35 Taking performance in mathematics and reading into account
    22. 22. How are learning opportunities distributed? 4141
    23. 23. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Estonia Italy RussianFederation Croatia Australia Fl.Com.(Belgium) Poland Shanghai-China Colombia Latvia CzechRepublic OECDaverage-13 Israel Spain France Slovenia UnitedStates SlovakRepublic NewZealand Financial literacy Mathematics Reading Percentageofvariationinperformance explainedbysocio-economicstatus Relationship between socio-economic status and performance in financial literacy, mathematics and reading Figure VI.3.6 42
    24. 24. What can be done to enhance financial literacy Improving the quantity/quality of teaching of… …financial literacy as a cross-curricular domain ? …financial literacy education as a separate subject ? …conceptual foundations of math ? …applied math ? …other types of education? …or is it all about out-of-school experiences?
    25. 25. -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 SlovakRepublic Latvia Italy Croatia Israel Shanghai-China CzechRepublic Spain UnitedStates Australia Poland France OECDaverage-13 Estonia Fl.Com.(Belgium) Slovenia NewZealand Financial literacy by bank account holding (accounting for socio-demographic status) Table VI.4.26 On average across OECD countries and economies, students who hold a bank account score 21 points higher than students with similar socio-economic status who do not. 44
    26. 26. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Spain Estonia Israel Slovenia Croatia Italy France Poland Colombia Shanghai-China OECDaverage-13 RussianFederation UnitedStates NewZealand Latvia Australia Fl.Com.(Belgium) CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Not available Available < 2 years Available ≥ 2 years Student exposure to financial education46
    27. 27. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Not at all 1-4 hours a year 5-19 hours year 20-49 hours a year 50 or more hours a year School curriculum Financial literacy taught as a separate subject (100) (80) (60) (40) (20) 0 Poland Spain Estonia Latvia Croatia Slovenia Italy Slovak Republic Israel OECD average-13 Shanghai-China France Czech Republic Flemish Community… Australia Russian Federation Colombia New Zealand United States Financial education taught as a cross-curricular subject 47
    28. 28. Exposure and financial literacyPerformanceinfinancialliteracy51 Australia Colombia Czech Republic Flemish Community (Belgium) Latvia New Zealand OECD average-13 Poland Russian Federation Shanghai-China Slovak Republic United States 375 425 475 525 575 625 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % of students in schools where the principal reports that financial literacy is available for at least 2 years
    29. 29. Australia Colombia Croatia Czech Republic Estonia Flemish Community (Belgium) France Israel Italy Latvia New Zealand OECD average-13 Poland Russian Federation Shanghai-China Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain United States -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % of students in schools where the principal reports that financial literacy is available for at least 2 years Exposure and relative performance Students' performance in financial is higher than their expected performance Students' performance in financial literacy is lower than their expected performance Relativeperformanceinfinancialliteracy,taking performanceinmathematicsandreadingintoaccount52
    30. 30. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NewZealand UnitedStates Latvia FlemishCommunity(Belgium) SlovakRepublic Australia OECDaverage-13 Estonia CzechRepublic Colombia Slovenia Shanghai-China Poland Israel RussianFederation Croatia France Spain Italy %ofstudentsinschoolswhere… Teachers People from the private sector People from the public sector People from NGOs Providers of financial education in schools55
    31. 31. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Spain Poland RussianFederation Israel Croatia Colombia Shanghai-China Estonia OECDaverage-13 Australia SlovakRepublic NewZealand UnitedStates Latvia Slovenia CzechRepublic Fl.Com.(Belgium) 50% OR MORE OF TEACHERS attended professional development in financial education UP TO 50% OF TEACHERS attended professional development in financial education NO TEACHERS attended professional development in financial education Teachers professional development56
    32. 32. Thank you ! Find out more about PISA at www.pisa.oecd.org • All national and international publications • The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@oecd.org
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