1   1  Education at a Glance 2012                               Key findings from the 2012 edition of                     ...
2   2                                                    Highlights - UK                               • Educational oppor...
3   3                                                     Highlights - UK                               • Large advantages...
4   4  Education at a Glance 2012                                          Across the world                               ...
Australia   5   5      Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                           ...
Australia   6   6      Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                           ...
Australia   7   7      Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                           ...
Australia   8   8      Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                           ...
Australia   9   9      Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                           ...
Australia1010        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1111        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1212        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1313        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1414        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1515        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1616        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1717        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
Australia1818        Austria          Belgium          Canada                                                             ...
London, 10 September 2012                            Andreas Schleicher                                                 Ed...
2222Education at a Glance 2012                               Some progress towards reducing the share of                  ...
London, 10 September 2012                             Andreas Schleicher                                                  ...
3030Education at a Glance 2012                                             Because of its strong links to                 ...
Participation in higher education among students whose3131Education at a Glance 2012                                      ...
Intergenerational mobility in education (2009)3333                              Percentage of 25-34 year-old non-students ...
3535Education at a Glance 2012                               Investing in high-quality schooling for all appears          ...
No relationship between share of private financing and3636Education at a Glance 2012                                      ...
A close relationship between equity at school3737Education at a Glance 2012                                               ...
3838Education at a Glance 2012                               The socio-economic composition of UK schools poses           ...
Immigrant students and school profile (2009)4040                                                                          ...
Reading performance of immigrant students and school profile4141                             Correlation between their per...
4242Education at a Glance 2012                               In 2010, the UK had one of the highest enrolment             ...
London, 10 September 2012                       Andreas Schleicher                                              Education ...
4444Education at a Glance 2012                               A growing divide between the better- and less-educated       ...
London, 10 September 2012                       Andreas Schleicher                                            Education at...
London, 10 September 2012                          Andreas Schleicher                                                     ...
5252                                                The value of higher education for a man                               ...
Public cost and benefits of higher education5555Education at a Glance 2012                                    For a man ob...
London, 10 September 2012        Andreas Schleicher                             Education at a Glance 2012                ...
Average GDP growth (real percentage change from the previous5858                                  year) and labour income ...
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
Key findings from the 2012 edition of  Education at a Glance - United Kingdom
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Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance - United Kingdom

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Educational opportunities for people from poorly educated families are limited in most countries, but the UK does better than other countries in moving people up the social ladder.

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Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance - United Kingdom

  1. 1. 1 1 Education at a Glance 2012 Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance United Kingdom Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Embargo until 11 September 11:00 Paris Andreas Schleicher Advisor of the OECD Secretary-General on Education Policy Deputy Director for Education
  2. 2. 2 2 Highlights - UK • Educational opportunities for people from poorly educated Education at a Glance 2012 families are limited in most countries, but the UK does better than other countries in moving people up the social ladder – Some 41% of 25-34 year-olds in the UK have attained a higher level of education than their parents, compared with an OECD average of 37% • The socio-economic composition of UK schools poses significant challenges for disadvantaged and immigrant students – 80% of students with an immigrant background attend schools with a high percentage of immigrant students (OECD average 67%) – No country has a higher share of immigrant students with highly-educated mothers attending disadvantaged schools than the UK Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 • Enrolment rates among four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education is high, but annual expenditure per pre-primary student is below the OECD average • The demand for tertiary graduates in the UK‟s labour market continued to be strong, even during the global recession – The average employment rate of tertiary-educated individuals in the UK increased even during the crisis (by 0.1 percentage points) while the employment rate among individuals with lower levels of education decreased by 3.3 percentage points between 2008 and 2010 .
  3. 3. 3 3 Highlights - UK • Large advantages continue to accrue to both individuals and the Education at a Glance 2012 public from higher levels of education… – The earnings premium from tertiary education is large and has grown further over recent years. Tertiary graduates also generate an extra GBP 55 000 by paying higher income tax and social contributions – far outweighing the public cost of their education … and rising penalties for those without baseline qualifications – Individuals without an upper secondary qualification saw a marked drop in the employment rate by 3.3 percentage points, from 59.3% in 2008 to 56% in 2010 – greater than the OECD average decrease of 2.5 percentage points – The impact of educational disparities on life outcomes has grown. • Rising spending levels Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 – Expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP increased from 3.6% in 1995 to 4.5% in 2009 in the UK, from below the OECD average to a level that is now clearly above the OECD average of 4.0% – No country saw a steeper increase in spending on tertiary education than the UK, but most of that was funded from private sources – The costs for lower secondary education are driven by more hours of instruction, small classes and attractive teacher compensation • A notably young teaching force • High but declining levels of school autonomy .
  4. 4. 4 4 Education at a Glance 2012 Across the world more people obtain better qualifications but the pace of change varies hugely across countries Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012
  5. 5. Australia 5 5 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 1995 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea Cost per student 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland 0 Graduate supply Turkey United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%)
  6. 6. Australia 6 6 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 1995 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy United States Japan Korea Cost per student 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland 0 Graduate supply Turkey United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%)
  7. 7. Australia 7 7 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2000 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand United Kingdom 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  8. 8. Australia 8 8 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2001 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  9. 9. Australia 9 9 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2002 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  10. 10. Australia1010 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2003 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  11. 11. Australia1111 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2004 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  12. 12. Australia1212 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2005 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  13. 13. Australia1313 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2006 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  14. 14. Australia1414 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2007 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  15. 15. Australia1515 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2008 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  16. 16. Australia1616 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  17. 17. Australia1717 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Denmark Japan United Kingdom Korea 15,000 Australia Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand New Zealand Finland 10,000 Iceland Norway Poland Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Australia Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  18. 18. Australia1818 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel US Italy Japan UK Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands UK New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  19. 19. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 19 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 0 Korea % Japan Canada IrelandChart A1.1 Norway New Zealand United Kingdom Australia Luxembourg Israel Belgium France United States Sweden Netherlands Switzerland Finland 25-34 year-olds Spain Chile Estonia OECD average Denmark Poland Iceland Slovenia attained tertiary-type A education 55-64 year-olds Greece Germany Hungary Portugal Slovak Republic Czech Republic Mexico Austria Italy Growth in university-level qualifications (2010) Turkey Brazil Estimates of the percentage of the 25-34 year-old and 55-64 year-old population that has
  20. 20. 2222Education at a Glance 2012 Some progress towards reducing the share of workers without baseline qualifications A quarter of working-age individuals in the UK still do not have an upper secondary qualification; but the UK has been more successful than many other countries in reducing this share. Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012
  21. 21. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 23 23 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 100 % Korea Czech Republic Slovak RepublicChart A1.2 Poland Slovenia Canada Sweden Finland Switzerland United States Israel Austria Ireland Chile Germany 25-34 year-olds Estonia Hungary Australia Luxembourg France Norway United Kingdom Percentage, by age group (2010) Netherlands Belgium OECD average 55-64 year-olds Denmark New Zealand Greece Iceland Italy Spain Brazil Portugal Mexico Population that has attained at least upper secondary education Turkey
  22. 22. 3030Education at a Glance 2012 Because of its strong links to earnings, employment, wealth and the well-being of individuals and nations, education is a powerful lever to combat inequalities but the educational opportunities for people from poorly educated families are limited in most countries The playing field is far from level in the UK, but compared with Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 other OECD countries students in the UK enjoy relatively fluid intergenerational upward mobility
  23. 23. Participation in higher education among students whose3131Education at a Glance 2012 parents have low levels of education (2009) Percentage of 20-34 year-old students in higher education whose parents have low levels of education Percentage of parents with low levels of education in the total parent population Odds of being a student in higher education if parents have low levels of education (right axis) Odds ratio 100% 1.0 90% 0.9 80% 0.8 70% 0.7 60% 0.6 50% 0.5 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 40% 0.4 30% 0.3 20% 0.2 10% 0.1 0% 0.0 Hungary Denmark Austria Sweden Germany Turkey Portugal Netherlands Greece Poland Luxembourg Belgium Finland Australia Switzerland New Zealand Spain Iceland Ireland OECD average Norway Slovenia United States Canada Italy France Czech Republic United Kingdom Chart A6.1
  24. 24. Intergenerational mobility in education (2009)3333 Percentage of 25-34 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than their parents‟ (upward mobility), lower (downward mobility) or the same (status quo) and status quo by parents educational level (low, medium, high) Education at a Glance 2012 High Medium Low Downward mobility Upward mobility „Status quo by parents educational level 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Turkey Germany Norway Luxembourg Sweden Austria Greece Australia Portugal France OECD average Spain Hungary Switzerland Ireland Slovenia Italy Estonia Belgium Netherlands Canada Denmark Czech Republic Poland New Zealand Iceland United Kingdom Finland Slovak Republic United States Chart A6.5
  25. 25. 3535Education at a Glance 2012 Investing in high-quality schooling for all appears to be the best way to enhance educational mobility later in life Inequalities in early schooling attributable to different socio- economic backgrounds are strongly linked to inequalities at the tertiary level of education. There is no cross-country relationship between the level of tuition fees for higher education and the Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 participation of disadvantaged youth in this level of education.
  26. 26. No relationship between share of private financing and3636Education at a Glance 2012 educational mobility in higher education Percentage of private sources in higher education finance 80 United Kingdom 70 Higher share of private financing in higher education United States 60 Australia 50 40 Canada New Zealand Italy Poland Portugal Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 30 Netherlands Czech Republic Spain 20 France Germany Ireland Slovenia Austria Belgium Sweden 10 Iceland Finland Norway Denmark Hungary Higher degree of educational mobility 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Percentage of students in higher education whose parents have low education
  27. 27. A close relationship between equity at school3737Education at a Glance 2012 and equity in higher education 0.80 The odds of a 20-34 year-old attending higher education if parents have low levels of Iceland 0.70 …the more likely it is that people with disadvantaged Portugal Ireland 0.60 Denmark backgrounds make it into higher education Sweden 0.50 Spain Australia 1 education (2009) Italy Finland Poland Germany 0.40 Austria Greece Norway Switzerland Belgium Hungary Czech Republic Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 0.30 United States 2 0.20 Canada 2 New Zealand 1 R² = 0.37 0.10 The weaker the influence of social background on learning outcomes at school (PISA) 0.00 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Impact of PISA index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) on student reading performance (2000) Note: The number of students attending higher education are under-reported for Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States compared to the other countries as they only include students who attained ISCED 5A, while the other countries include students who attained ISCED 5A and/or 5B. Therefore, the omission of data on 5B qualifications may understate intergenerational mobility in these countries. 1. Data source from Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) of 2006.
  28. 28. 3838Education at a Glance 2012 The socio-economic composition of UK schools poses significant challenges for disadvantaged students and students with an immigrant background Immigrant children‟s performance on PISA is more strongly, and negatively, associated with a concentration of disadvantage in schools than with the size of the population of immigrant students in a school or the concentration of students who speak a different Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 language at home than the language of instruction at school
  29. 29. Immigrant students and school profile (2009)4040 Percentage of immigrant students who are in the quartile of schools with the highest concentration of students from a particular background Education at a Glance 2012 Concentration of immigrant students in schools Concentration of immigrant students speaking another language at home Concentration of students with low-educated mothers 100 90 Percentage of immigrant students who are in the top quartile 80 70 60 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 50 40 30 20 10 Even immigrant students with highly-educated mothers are more 0 than twice as likely to be in disadvantaged schools than non- S… U… L… S… S… S… U… P… B… R… F… F… M… B… I… N… I… I… A… N… I… A… A… N… E… C… C… O… G… G… D… H… immigrant students, in no other country is their share higher
  30. 30. Reading performance of immigrant students and school profile4141 Correlation between their performance and the percentage of students from a particular background in the school (2009) Education at a Glance 2012 Concentration of immigrant students Concentration of immigrant students with a foreign language Correlation coefficent Concentration of students with low-educated mothers 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.3 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 -0.5 -0.7 United Kingdom Switzerland Germany Portugal Hungary Netherlands Sweden Luxembourg Israel Belgium Denmark Finland Estonia Austria Mexico Slovenia Argentina Greece Australia Norway OECD average United States Spain Brazil Iceland Italy Ireland France Russian Federation New Zealand Czech Republic Canada Chart A5.1
  31. 31. 4242Education at a Glance 2012 In 2010, the UK had one of the highest enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education among four-year-olds… …even if annual expenditure per pre-primary student Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 is less than the OECD average.
  32. 32. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 43 43 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 100 % France Netherlands SpainChart C2.1 Mexico Belgium Denmark Japan Norway United Kingdom Italy Luxembourg Iceland Germany New Zealand Sweden Hungary Estonia Austria 2010 Slovenia Israel Portugal 2005 Czech Republic OECD average Korea Chile ArgentinaRussian Federation Slovak Republic United States Ireland Poland Finland among four-year-olds (2005 and 2010) Brazil Greece Australia Canada Switzerland Indonesia Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education Turkey
  33. 33. 4444Education at a Glance 2012 A growing divide between the better- and less-educated The earnings premium from tertiary education is large and has grown further over recent years. Tertiary graduates also generate an extra GBP 55 000 by paying higher income tax and social contributions – far outweighing the public cost of their education. In turn, individuals without an upper secondary qualification, equivalent to five good GCSEs or an equivalent vocational qualification, saw a marked drop Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 in the employment rate by 3.3 percentage points, from 59.3% in 2008 to 56% in 2010 – greater than the OECD average decrease of 2.5 pct points
  34. 34. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 45 45 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 100 % Norway Iceland Switzerland SwedenChart A7.1 Netherlands Slovenia Germany Tertiary education Denmark Austria Brazil PortugalUnited Kingdom Luxembourg Poland Finland Australia Belgium New Zealand FranceCzech Republic OECD average IsraelSlovak Republic Canada Ireland Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Mexico United States Estonia Greece Spain Japan Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (2010) Chile Hungary Italy Below upper secondary Korea Positive relationship between education and employment Turkey
  35. 35. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 51 51 USD 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 10,000 0 LuxembourgChart A10.4 United States Austria Ireland Netherlands Australia United Kingdom Canada Korea Norway Germany Net income 3-year-average exchange rate Italy Sweden OECD Average Czech Republic New Zealand Denmark Finland Iceland France (2009 or latest year available) Belgium Spain Israel Slovenia Portugal Greece Comparing net income of highly educated adults Slovak Republic Net income (Purchasing Power Parity-adjusted) Hungary Net income, in USD, for 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education Poland Estonia
  36. 36. 5252 The value of higher education for a man Components of the private net present value of higher education for a man (2008 or latest available year) Education at a Glance 2012 Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Unemployment effect Grants effect Portugal $373,851 United States Czech Republic $249,679 $329,552 Poland $230,630 Slovenia $225,663 Austria $225,048 Ireland $223,821 Slovak Republic $208,883 Hungary $208,386 Korea $189,766 OECD average $161,625 France $159,950 Italy Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 $155,346 Canada $153,520 Netherlands $145,886 Finland $145,608 Germany $144,682 Israel $143,582 United Kingdom $143,394 Japan $143,018 Belgium $116,225 Australia $115,287 Net Spain present $102,975 Norway $82,076 Estonia $74,213 value in Turkey Sweden $64,177 $61,454 USD Denmark $56,369 equivalent New Zealand $52,471 -400,000 -200,000 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 USD equivalent Chart A9.3
  37. 37. Public cost and benefits of higher education5555Education at a Glance 2012 For a man obtaining tertiary education (2008 or latest available year) Public benefits Public costs In equivalent USD Hungary $254,984 United States $232,779 Ireland $172,602 Italy $168,693 Belgium $166,477 Germany $156,125 Slovenia $155,664 Netherlands $133,560 Austria $132,103 Poland $118,266 Czech Republic $115,790 Israel $107,436 OECD average $101,116 Finland $95,947 Australia $93,236 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 Portugal $89,464 United Kingdom $86,550 France $81,545 Japan $67,411 Canada $66,845 Net present Slovak Republic $58,159 value Korea $55,367 Norway $55,318 Sweden 43,419 Denmark $38,421 New Zealand $33,912 Spain $25,591 Turkey $21,724 Estonia $4,587 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 Chart A9.5
  38. 38. London, 10 September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 57 57 Education has been a key driver for economic progress
  39. 39. Average GDP growth (real percentage change from the previous5858 year) and labour income growth in GDP, by educational categories Countries with at least five years of growth estimates by educational categories; GDP growth Education at a Glance 2012 estimates are matched with years of education growth estimates (2000-2010) GDP Growth ISCED 5B/5A/6 ISCED 3/4 ISCED 0/1/2 5% 4% 3% 2% Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10 September 2012 1% 0% -1% Czech Republic United States Germany Switzerland Austria Norway Israel Ireland France New Zealand Sweden Hungary Denmark Korea Canada Finland Country average United Kingdom Chart A10.1

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