Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance - United States

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The U.S. ranks 14th in the world in the percentage of 25-34 year-olds with higher education (42%)
Tertiary completion pays high dividends. Over the course of his working life, a tertiary-educated man in the U.S. can expect to earn almost USD 675 000 more than a man with no more than an upper secondary or postsecondary non-tertiary education – far more than in any other country.

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Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance - United States

  1. 1. 1 1 Education at a Glance 2012 Key findings from the 2012 edition of Education at a Glance United States Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Embargo until 11 September 11:00 Paris Andreas Schleicher Advisor of the OECD Secretary-General on Education Policy Deputy Director for Education
  2. 2. 2 2 Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights - US • The U.S. ranks 14th in the world in the percentage of 25-34 year- olds with higher education (42%) – Tertiary completion pays high dividends. Over the course of his working life, a tertiary-educated man in the U.S. can expect to earn almost USD 675 000 more than a man with no more than an upper secondary or postsecondary non- tertiary education – far more than in any other country. • The odds that a young person in the U.S. will go on to higher education if his or her parents do not have a high school degree are just 29% - one of the lowest levels among OECD countries Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 • A significant share of students still don’t complete high-school, the baseline qualification in today’s economies. – The US ranks 22 out of 27 countries – But the graduation rate has grown from 70% in 2000 to 77% in 2010 • The U.S ranks 28th in the percentage of 4-year-olds in early childhood education, with a 69% enrolment rate .
  3. 3. 3 3 Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights - US • The U.S. spends a large proportion of its national wealth on education – particularly higher education – and yet, teachersalaries in the U.S. compare poorly to salaries for other workers with higher education, teachers in the U.S. spend much more time teaching than in other countries while student-teacher ratios hover around the OECD average. Class size reduction have been the major cost driver over the last decade • Teachers in the U.S. spend between 1050 and 1100 hours a year teaching – much more than in almost every country Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 • Schools in the U.S. have much less of a say than in many other countries .
  4. 4. 4 4 Education at a Glance 2012 Across the world more people obtain better qualifications but the pace of change varies hugely across countries Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012
  5. 5. Australia 5 5 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 1995 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea Cost per student 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland 0 Graduate supply Turkey United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%)
  6. 6. Australia 6 6 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 1995 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy United States Japan Korea Cost per student 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland 0 Graduate supply Turkey United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate (%)
  7. 7. Australia 7 7 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2000 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  8. 8. Australia 8 8 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2001 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  9. 9. Australia 9 9 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2002 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  10. 10. Australia1010 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2003 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  11. 11. Australia1111 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2004 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  12. 12. Australia1212 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2005 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  13. 13. Australia1313 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2006 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  14. 14. Australia1414 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2007 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  15. 15. Australia1515 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2008 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  16. 16. Australia1616 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  17. 17. Australia1717 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel Italy Denmark Japan United Kingdom Korea 15,000 Australia Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand New Zealand Finland 10,000 Iceland Norway Poland Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Australia Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  18. 18. Australia1818 Austria Belgium Canada A world of change – higher education Education at a Glance 2012 Chile Czech Republic Denmark 30,000 Estonia Finland France 2009 Germany 25,000 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland 20,000 Israel US Italy Japan Korea 15,000 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand 10,000 Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia 5,000 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey 0 United Kingdom 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 United States Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  19. 19. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 19 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 0 Korea % Japan Canada IrelandChart A1.1 Norway New Zealand United Kingdom Australia Luxembourg Israel Belgium France United States Sweden Netherlands Switzerland Finland 25-34 year-olds Spain Chile Estonia OECD average Denmark Poland Iceland Slovenia attained tertiary-type A education 55-64 year-olds Greece Germany Hungary Portugal Slovak Republic Czech Republic Mexico Austria Italy Growth in university-level qualifications (2010) Turkey Brazil Estimates of the percentage of the 25-34 year-old and 55-64 year-old population that has
  20. 20. 2222Education at a Glance 2012 Despite some progress, a significant share of students still don’t complete high-school, the baseline qualification in today’s economies Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012
  21. 21. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 23 23 % 0 100 20 40 60 80 Portugal JapanChart A2.1 Greece Korea Slovenia Ireland Finland Israel Total United Kingdom Iceland Norway Germany Denmark of which ≧ 25 Slovak Republic Hungary OECD average Poland Percentage, by age group Chile Italy of which < 25 Canada But up from 70% in 2000 Spain Czech Republic United States Upper secondary graduation rate (2010) Sweden OECD average Luxembourg China Turkey Mexico
  22. 22. 2525Education at a Glance 2012 Because of its strong links to earnings, employment, wealth and the well-being of individuals and nations, education is a powerful lever to combat inequalities Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 But the odds that a young person will be in higher education if his or her family did not complete high school are particularly small and upward mobility is low
  23. 23. Intergenerational mobility in education (2009)2828 Percentage of 25-34 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than their parents’ (upward mobility), lower (downward mobility) or the same (status quo) and status quo by parents educational level (low, medium, high) Education at a Glance 2012 High Medium Low Downward mobility Upward mobility ‘Status quo by parents educational level 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Turkey Germany Norway Luxembourg Sweden Austria Greece Australia Portugal France OECD average Spain Hungary Switzerland Ireland Slovenia Italy Estonia Belgium Netherlands Canada Denmark Czech Republic Poland New Zealand Iceland United Kingdom Finland Slovak Republic United States Chart A6.5
  24. 24. 3030Education at a Glance 2012 Investing in high-quality schooling for all appears to be the best way to enhance educational mobility later in life Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Inequalities in early schooling attributable to different socio- economic backgrounds are strongly linked to inequalities at the tertiary level of education. There is no cross-country relationship between the level of tuition fees for higher education and the participation of disadvantaged youth in this level of education.
  25. 25. A close relationship between equity at school3232Education at a Glance 2012 and equity in higher education 0.80 The odds of a 20-34 year-old attending higher education if parents have low levels of Iceland 0.70 …the more likely it is that people with disadvantaged Portugal Ireland 0.60 Denmark backgrounds make it into higher education Sweden 0.50 Spain Australia 1 education (2009) Italy Finland Poland Germany 0.40 Austria Greece Norway Switzerland Belgium Hungary Czech Republic Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 0.30 United States 2 0.20 Canada 2 New Zealand 1 R² = 0.37 0.10 The weaker the influence of social background on learning outcomes at school (PISA) 0.00 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Impact of PISA index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) on student reading performance (2000) Note: The number of students attending higher education are under-reported for Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States compared to the other countries as they only include students who attained ISCED 5A, while the other countries include students who attained ISCED 5A and/or 5B. Therefore, the omission of data on 5B qualifications may understate intergenerational mobility in these countries. 1. Data source from Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) of 2006.
  26. 26. Immigrant students and school profile (2009)3333 Percentage of immigrant students who are in the quartile of schools with the highest concentration of students from a particular background Education at a Glance 2012 Concentration of immigrant students in schools Concentration of immigrant students speaking another language at home Concentration of students with low-educated mothers 100 90 Percentage of immigrant students who are in the top quartile 80 70 60 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 50 40 30 20 10 0 S… U… L… S… S… S… U… P… B… R… F… F… M… B… I… N… I… I… A… N… I… A… A… N… E… C… C… O… G… G… D… H…
  27. 27. 3535Education at a Glance 2012 Early childhood education is not as well-developed in the U.S. as in much of the industrialised world On average across OECD countries, 84% of pupils in early childhood education attend programs in public schools or government-dependent private institutions, while in the Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 U.S., 55% of early childhood pupils attend programs in public schools, and 45% attend independent private programs.
  28. 28. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 36 36 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 100 % France Netherlands SpainChart C2.1 Mexico Belgium Denmark Japan Norway United Kingdom Italy Luxembourg Iceland Germany New Zealand Sweden Hungary Estonia Austria 2010 Slovenia Israel Portugal 2005 Czech Republic OECD average Korea Chile ArgentinaRussian Federation Slovak Republic United States Ireland Poland among 4-year-olds (2005 and 2010) Finland Brazil Greece Australia Canada Switzerland Indonesia Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education Turkey
  29. 29. 3737Education at a Glance 2012 Strong dividends for the better educated Over the course of his working life, a tertiary-educated man in the U.S. can expect to earn almost USD 675 000 more than a man with no more than an upper secondary or postsecondary non-tertiary education – far more than in any other country Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Over the last decade, the earnings advantage of tertiary graduates over high school graduates has increased in the US has risen slightly from 181 to 184%, while the earnings penalties of those who do not complete high school have grown too.
  30. 30. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 43 43 USD 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 10,000 0 LuxembourgChart A10.4 United States Austria Ireland Netherlands Australia United Kingdom Canada Korea Norway Germany Net income 3-year-average exchange rate Italy Sweden OECD Average Czech Republic New Zealand Denmark Finland Iceland France (2009 or latest year available) Belgium Spain Israel Slovenia Portugal Greece Comparing net income of highly educated adults Slovak Republic Net income (Purchasing Power Parity-adjusted) Hungary Net income, in USD, for 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary education Poland Estonia
  31. 31. 4444 The value of higher education for a man Components of the private net present value of higher education for a man (2008 or latest available year) Education at a Glance 2012 Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Unemployment effect Grants effect Portugal $373,851 United States Czech Republic $249,679 $329,552 Poland $230,630 Slovenia $225,663 Austria $225,048 Ireland $223,821 Slovak Republic $208,883 Hungary $208,386 Korea $189,766 OECD average $161,625 France $159,950 Italy Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 $155,346 Canada $153,520 Netherlands $145,886 Finland $145,608 Germany $144,682 Israel $143,582 United Kingdom $143,394 Japan $143,018 Belgium $116,225 Australia $115,287 Net Spain present $102,975 Norway $82,076 Estonia $74,213 value in Turkey Sweden $64,177 $61,454 USD Denmark $56,369 equivalent New Zealand $52,471 -400,000 -200,000 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 USD equivalent Chart A9.3
  32. 32. Public cost and benefits of higher education4747Education at a Glance 2012 For a man obtaining tertiary education (2008 or latest available year) Public benefits Public costs In equivalent USD Hungary $254,984 United States $232,779 Ireland $172,602 Italy $168,693 Belgium $166,477 Net present Germany $156,125 Slovenia $155,664 value Netherlands $133,560 Austria $132,103 Poland $118,266 Czech Republic $115,790 Israel $107,436 OECD average $101,116 Finland $95,947 Australia $93,236 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 Portugal $89,464 United Kingdom $86,550 France $81,545 Japan $67,411 Canada $66,845 Slovak Republic $58,159 Korea $55,367 Norway $55,318 Sweden 43,419 Denmark $38,421 New Zealand $33,912 Spain $25,591 Turkey $21,724 Estonia $4,587 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 Chart A9.5
  33. 33. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 48 48 Education has also been a key driver for economic progress
  34. 34. Average GDP growth (real percentage change from the previous4949 year) and labour income growth in GDP, by educational categories Countries with at least five years of growth estimates by educational categories; GDP growth Education at a Glance 2012 estimates are matched with years of education growth estimates (2000-2010) GDP Growth ISCED 5B/5A/6 ISCED 3/4 ISCED 0/1/2 5% 4% 3% 2% Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 1% 0% -1% Czech Republic United States Germany Switzerland Austria Norway Israel Ireland France New Zealand Sweden Hungary Denmark Korea Canada Finland Country average United Kingdom Chart A10.1
  35. 35. 5151Education at a Glance 2012 The U.S. spends a large proportion of its national wealth on education – particularly higher education As a percentage of GDP, public and private spending on education in the U.S. is slightly below the OECD average for early childhood education (U.S. 0.4%; OECD Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 0.5%), significantly above average for primary and lower secondary education (U.S. 3.2%; OECD 2.6%), and below average for upper secondary education (U.S. 1.1%, OECD 1.3%). The big difference is in higher education, on which the U.S. spends 2.6% of its GDP – much more than the OECD average (1.6%), and more than every other country but Korea (also 2.6%).
  36. 36. London, 10. September 2012 Andreas Schleicher Education at a Glance 2012 52 52 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Iceland Korea % of GDP DenmarkChart B2.1 New Zealand United States Israel Argentina Chile Sweden Belgium Finland Ireland 2009 France Estonia Mexico OECD average 2000 Netherlands Norway Canada United Kingdom 1995 Australia Slovenia Switzerland Portugal Austria Poland All levels of education (1995, 2000, 2009) as a percentage of GDP Spain OECD Total Brazil Russian… Germany Japan Italy Expenditure on educational institutions Hungary Czech Republic South Africa Slovak Republic Indonesia India
  37. 37. Changes in student numbers and expenditure5555Education at a Glance 2012 Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Index of change between 2000 and 2009 (2000=100, 2009 constant prices) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Index of change (2000 = 100) Change in expenditure per student 240 220 200 180 160 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 140 120 100 80 60 Australia Switzerland Japan Brazil Iceland Finland Spain Ireland Norway Portugal Austria Germany Korea Sweden France Italy Hungary Netherlands Belgium Denmark Slovak Republic Czech Republic United Kingdom Canada Estonia Poland Israel OECD average United States Mexico
  38. 38. Changes in student numbers and expenditure5656 Tertiary education Index of change between 2000 and 2009 (2000=100, 2009 constant prices) Education at a Glance 2012 Change in expenditure Index of change Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) (2000 = 100) Change in expenditure per student 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 Andreas SchleicherLondon, 10. September 2012 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 Switzerland Japan United Kingdom Austria Norway Spain Hungary Portugal Brazil Iceland Ireland Germany France Italy Poland Belgium Sweden Netherlands Denmark Israel Korea Czech Republic Estonia Finland Mexico OECD average United States Slovak Republic

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