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Integrity of education systems – a framework for assessment

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Education matters a lot in the fight against corruption in any country of the world. Corruption in education and lack of integrity have a wide reaching negative impact. They affect the quality, …

Education matters a lot in the fight against corruption in any country of the world. Corruption in education and lack of integrity have a wide reaching negative impact. They affect the quality, effectiveness and credibility of education, the efficiency of provision and the equity of opportunities for youth which is the biggest asset of any country and its social, cultural, scientific, and economic prosperity. There are numerous good reasons to treat corruption in the education sector as a priority problem. The Integrity of Education Systems (INTES) assessment aims to support governments in their effort to prevent corruption in the education sector, to help them uncover and address the underlying systemic causes of malpractice and inefficiency, and prevent these from happening. The INTES methodology includes a scan/perusal of system indicators and survey data (i.e. PISA), on-site visits and stakeholder interviews combined with qualitative analysis to identify areas of concern and reconstruct the landscape of root, systemic causes for malpractice and corruption in education.

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  • Good education outcomesGood teachersEquality and fairnessSound management
  • But:What is a good system?PISA and OECD research tells us...Equity; quality; teachers; management;Anti-corruption experts tell us:prevention and detection
  • INTES takes a student/teacher-centric approach and assumes that education corruption is caused by a demand situation, a shortcoming, a “market failure” in the system of education.
  • A typical list we compiled from a note on education corruption by one of the most respected think thanks on corruption.
  • Transcript

    • 1. INTEGRITY OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS(INTES):A framework for assessmentMihaylo Milovanovitch, Directorate forEducation, OECD
    • 2. Presentation outlineThe task at handThe conceptual frameworkImplementation and outcomes
    • 3. How to go for it?Occurrence why? EDUCATIONPreventative: Preventative: Focus on CORRUPTION Reactive/punitive:Focus on origin opportunity Focus on cases Teach & Prohibit & enforce Criminalise & ? mobilise why? punish Analysis and policy reaction? Milovanovitch
    • 4. LIMITATIONS: The “vicious circle” – corruption occurrence and impact Level 3: Corruption occurrencePhase I: Phase II:Causality Measuring Level 2: Preventive frameworklinks impact Level 1: System shortcomings
    • 5. How to go for it? INTES demand-focused approachLets assume: good education systems have no corruption
    • 6. How to go for it? INTES demand-focused approach But: What is a good system?• Quality of outcomes• Equity of access and success• Teachers and professors• Management• Prevention and detection
    • 7. Link of demand and corruption: quality Mean reading score in PISA 2009 adjusted for countrys socio-economic profile and the Global Corruption Barometer (extent do you perceive the education system in this country to be affected by corruption) 550 Mean reading score in PISA 2009 adjusted for countries socio-economic Finland Poland New Zealand Canada Hungary France 500 OECD average Turkey United States Australia Portugal Netherlands Ireland Germany Switzerland Greece Italy Spain Latvia UK Norway Denmark Slovenia Iceland Croatia Czech Republic Israel Russian Federation Chile Lithuania Austria Luxembourg profile Mexico 450 Thailand Brazil Colombia Serbia Romania Bulgaria Indonesia Peru Argentina 400 y = -32.38x + 564.3 R² = 0.217 Azerbaijan 350 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Global Corruption Barometer/ Transparency International : To what extent do you perceive the the education system in this country to be affected by corruption? (1- 5 strongest) Source: INTES Note: Excluding South Korea and Japan
    • 8. Link of staff policy and c.: teachersShare of all those in top quarter of PISA reading performance who want to become teachers and the Global Corruption Barometer (extent do you perceive the education system in this country to be affected by corruption) 2.2 Germany Ratio Share of all that want to become teachers/those in top quarter Austria Switzerland France 1.7 Finland Croatia Czech Republic Slovenia Canada Serbia United Kingdom Norway Latvia Hungary Netherlands of reading performance Ireland 1.2 Bulgaria Denmark Romania Australia Luxembourg Greece Italy Iceland Korea Azerbaijan Mexico New Zealand Spain Turkey Russian Federation Thailand Poland Argentina Indonesia Brazil Colombia 0.7 Israel Portugal Lithuania Chile y = -0.271x + 1.918 R² = 0.120 0.2 -0.3 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Global Corruption Barometer/ Transparency International : To what extent do you perceive the the education system in this country to be affected by corruption? (1- 5 strongest)
    • 9. How to go for it? INTES demand-focused approachIntegrity:The INTES assessments consider integrity in education to be the consistent applicationof such actions, values, methods and principles which lead to: •Fair access to education; •Better quality of education; •Fair and professional treatment of staff, and sound management; •Successful prevention and detection of malpractice/corruptionOrigins of corruption demand:Corruption addresses a persisting need of actors and stakeholders in education for a specificeducation service, which the system is not or is not properly providing. It is caused by thisneed, by an opportunity situation, or by both. Systems in which stakeholders feel that one or more of these “deliverables” is/are not satisfactory, have an integrity problem, and are prone to corruption
    • 10. How to go for it?Origins of corruption related demand System failing to deliver intended outcomes (system with integrity issues) Demand for fairer access to education; Demand for better quality of education; Demand for fair and professional treatment of staff, including sound management; Failure to ensure successful prevention and detection
    • 11. Education corruption – hypothetical sequence of occurrence Corruption CorruptionLevel 3: incidence incidenceCorruptionincidence Level 2: Preventive Regulatory Accountability Budget Civil society framework framework mechanisms monitoring and media Shortcoming 1 Shortcoming 2 Shortcoming 3 Opportunity, spotted byLevel 1: need or greedEducation systemshortcomings Sub- Sub- Sub- dimensions dimensions dimensions Key area 1: Key area 2: Key area 3: Milovanovitch teachers assessment XY
    • 12. How to go for it? FactorsDemand situations addressed Instances of corruption Instances of corruption Demand creating Demand related to equity Instances of corruption Good grades and exam passes obtained through bribes addressed Good grades and exam passes obtained through sold in advance Exam questions bribes demand (access) – Exam questions sold in advanceExam cheating countenanced or facilitated by education staff DA Exam cheating countenanced orRemoving the education staffof failing exams (re-admitting students under false names) facilitated by consequences Good grades and exam passes obtained through bribes Removing the consequences of failing exams (re-admitting students under false names) Exam questions sold in advance School places (for schools perceived to be “better”) „auctioned‟ out to the highest bidder. School places (for schools perceived to be “better”) „auctioned‟ out to the highest bidder. Demand related to quality ?(better quality education) – DA Private tutoring from class teacher outside schoolfacilitated byto paying pupils Exam cheating countenanced or hours given education staff Private tutoring from class teacher outside school hours given to paying pupils failing exams (re-admitting students under false Removing the consequences of Staff recruitment, promotion and postings influenced by factors not related to suitability, such as bribes or sexual favours or political DQ names) affiliation Staff recruitment, promotion and postings influenced by factors not related to suitability, such as High absenteeism (i. e. due to low motivation), affecting de facto student-teacher ratios. “better”) „auctioned‟ out to the highest School places (for schools perceived to be bribes or sexual favours or political affiliation ? Demand related to staff (prof. recognition, High bidder. Private tutoring, reducing teachers‟ motivation in ordinary classes DQ absenteeism (i. e. due to low motivation), affecting de facto student-teacher ratios. Inflated or adjusted student numbers (including Private tutoring from classpupils) quoted toschool hours given to paying pupils numbers of special needs teacher outside obtain better funding Private tutoring, reducing teachers‟ motivation in ordinary classesplacement, fair treatment) – material purchased due to manufacturers‟ bribes, instructors‟ copyrights, etc. Sub-standard educational DS Inflated or adjusted student numbers (including numbers of special needsfactors not related obtain Staff recruitment, promotion and postings influenced by pupils) quoted to to Embezzlement of funds intended for materials, school buildings, etc. better funding suitability, such as bribes or sexual favours or political affiliation Licences and authorisations for teaching obtained on false grounds via corrupt means High absenteeism (i. e. due to low motivation), affecting de facto student-teacher Sale/purchase of diplomas/qualifications ? DS Sub-standard educational material purchased due to manufacturers‟ bribes, instructors‟ copyrights, etc. ratios. Special attention given in class to favoured pupils tied to influence or payments Private tutoring, reducing teachers‟ motivation in ordinary classes Private tutoring Embezzlement of funds intended for student numbers buildings, etc. Inflated or adjusted materials, school (including numbers of special needs pupils) Opportunity – Licences and authorisations for teachingfunding on false grounds via corrupt means quoted to obtain better obtained O Sale/purchase ofSub-standard educational material purchased due to manufacturers‟ bribes, diplomas/qualifications Special attentioninstructors‟ copyrights, etc. given in class to favoured pupils tied to influence or payments Private tutoring Embezzlement of funds intended for materials, school buildings, etc. ? O Licences and authorisations for teaching obtained on false grounds via corrupt means Sale/purchase of diplomas/qualifications Special attention given in class to favoured pupils tied to influence or payments Private tutoring Milovanovitch
    • 13. Sources for country assessments Surveys (PISA; national and international corruption perception surveys) Data and Stakeholder information interviews; grid; nationalmedia reports data and indicators INTES assessment
    • 14. Level I - System level demand analysis Pre-university education and tertiary education Standardised entrance Salaries University admission exams Teachers Other admission Assessment and Motivation Textbooks and learningQuality of learning Academic work criteria examinations environment material Supply Understanding of Education standards Infrastructure Coursework Assessment Quality assurance academic integrity Budget formulation Professionalism – Recruitment and Continuous Curriculum and Awarding of Internal quality appointment Teacher Training Pre-School Staff career credentials Funding assessment teaching time assurance Execution and management disbursement, cash Research: Ethical Career developmentEducation coverage Primary and secondary flows Promotion exams Classroom climate standards (interest of Accreditation system Funds Parental and private education Financial management research) and provision involvement Private investments Representation and Salaries Research: Process Transition to tertiary Governance: academic competenciesGovernance: system LearningEducation Tertiary outcomes Spending (data/results) education boards management Vocational schools Performance Motivation incentives Autonomy and decentralisation Milovanovitch
    • 15. Level I Example Process of textbook production: selection; Textbooks and learning procurement; deliveryQuality of learning material Is the condition of school infrastructure environment known and recorded? Is this information Renewal of textbooks - frequency? Who Infrastructure PISA index on disciplinary climateof school available? What is the condition initiates it? infrastructure? Abuse of process forany reported cases of Decision authority: capital investments - Textbooks suppliers in the past 5 years, per curriculum and syllabuses for key subjects Curriculum and PISA scores schools in the and reading, and for abuse? How many and kindergartens: criteria, building of level and subject past 5 years (mathematics, literature measures foreign teaching time what? Describe disciplinary funding sources, initiative? geo), incl. hours language, chemistry, physics undertaken Repetition and Drop-Outteachers to choose Freedom ofschools were built in the past 5 Howassessment Are many schools and Rates Classroom climate Student teacher outcomes used to make materials? ratios - primary, secondary, years? Where, and why there? curricular secondary VET decisions? initial and Shortage of learning materials? Comparison with PISA diversity:maintenance classroom Responsibilities for autonomy at of school Classroomindex on quality of educational Is there curriculum ESCS; within school Learning outcomes infrastructure to what extent? resources variance if yes, level and Affordability of textbooks: Price? Renting schemes? Complaints from parents on PISA index ofand from teachers on supply? affordability teacher-student relations
    • 16. Level II – Enabling factors and preventive framework Corruption perception index – Transparency International Integrity climate OECD SIGMA – horizontal Anti-corruption agencies integrity assessmentRegulatory framework Competitiveness Index – Legislation: criminalisation WorldInspections ofEconomic Forum corruption Accountability mechanisms Development partner Legislation: public sector School boards assessments Off-budget funding integrityBudget monitoring and evaluation National corruption Anti-corruption strategies: Leadership assessments Expenditure evaluations national Human resource Staffing policies management Sector corruption Anti-corruption strategies: External quality assurance assessment State audit sectoral Deterrents Public involvement Transparency Investment and business Anti-corruption strategies: Internal school audits (if Parliamentary control climate ratings projects applicable) Whistleblowers Milovanovitch
    • 17. Integrity analysis sampleShortcomings Lack of learning in class Corruption incidence Low salary levels Demand addressed Private tutoring by the same teacher Incoherence of transition criteria Better quality Irregular payments for access Flawed textbook production Access to education Misuse of authority Weak/malfunctioning Greed and school inspections opportunity Forced purchase of learning materials Lack of parental involvement Staff postings Demand related to Flawed system of staff through payments staff appointment Milovanovitch
    • 18. The INTES Assessment cycle Information Dissemination gathering and desk research Submission of Site visits draft report Consultations and fine tuningMilovanovitch
    • 19. INTES: The short-term task at hand• Introduce a framework for assessing integrity of education systems in view of corruption prevention.• Provide countries which carried out an INTES assessment with a tool for follow-up work and tailored, sector-level recommendations on how to address shortcomings causing corruption.
    • 20. INTES: Outcomes and beneficiariesOutcomes:• Assessment report with analysis of integrity related shortcomings and policy recommendations which is – A tool for country level follow up – Capacity building for specialised bodies – A guideline for adjustment of legislative and strategic framework and law enforcement mechanisms towards greater sector relevance• Beneficiaries: – Ministries of Education – Bodies involved in designing and implementing anti-corruption policies and measures – Lawmakers – Stakeholders in education – International partners
    • 21. Thank you mihaylo.milovanovitch@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/nme

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