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Increase Spatial Learning in Formal and Informal Settings
 

Increase Spatial Learning in Formal and Informal Settings

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The CERI OECD/National Science Foundation International Conference took place in Paris, at the OECD Headquarters on 23-24 January 2012. Here the presentation of Session 2, Formal Learning, Item 1.

The CERI OECD/National Science Foundation International Conference took place in Paris, at the OECD Headquarters on 23-24 January 2012. Here the presentation of Session 2, Formal Learning, Item 1.

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    Increase Spatial Learning in Formal and Informal Settings Increase Spatial Learning in Formal and Informal Settings Presentation Transcript

    • Increasing Spatial Learning inFormal and Informal Settings Nora S. Newcombe Temple University and Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center
    • Spatial Thinking Is Important inScientific Thought and Communication
    • High School Spatial AbilityPredicts Later OccupationsWai, Lubinski & Benbow (2009) Standardized Score
    • Spatial Thinking Is Malleable•  Meta-analysis shows large training effects, as well as durability and transfer –  Uttal, Meadow, Hand, Lewis, Warren, & Newcombe, under review
    • Improving Spatial Thinking CouldIncrease Technology-Trained Workforce
    • Improving Spatial Thinking in EarlyInformal Education•  How should we best enhance spatial learning in children? –  Importance of gesture –  Usefulness of analogy –  Importance of spatial language –  Importance of play •  Puzzle play •  Paper folding •  Block play
    • Language in Block Play ContextsFerrara, Golinkoff, Hirsh-Pasek, Lam & Newcombe (2011),Mind, Brain and Education Pre-assembled Play Free Play Guided Play
    • Parental Spatial Language in FourContextsFerrara, Golinkoff, Hirsh-Pasek, Lam & Newcombe (2011),Mind, Brain and Education Proportion of Parental Spatial 0.12 Session 1 0.1 0.08 Language 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 Pre-assembled Free Play Guided Play CHILDES Play Control Session 1
    • Teaching Geometric Shapes with Guided Play Fisher, Hirsh-Pasek, Newcombe & Golinkoff (under review)•  Children often see only typical shapes•  Showing a range of shapes helps, especially in a guided play context
    • Preschoolers Benefit from VisualizationJoh, Jaswal & Keen, 2011•  Preschoolers asked to visualize how a ball goes through a tube avoid the straight down or gravity error
    • Improving Spatial Thinking inFormal Education•  Two strategies –  Modify the learner –  Modify the learning materials•  Meta-analysis (Hoffler, 2010, Ed. Psych. Review) –  spatial ability plays an important role in learning from visualizations (mean effect size r   =  0.34) –  but is moderated by—at least—two compensating factors; learners with low spatial ability can be significantly supported by •  a dynamic visualization •  as well as a 3d-visualization.
    • Visual Representations Abound in Science Textbooks•  Diagrams•  Photographs•  Photomicrographs•  Flow charts•  Tables•  Graphs 1)  Would the beam still follow the same path when the plates are charged? 2)  What happens to the beam when the plates are charged?
    • Can We Teach High School BiologyStudents to Reason Better withDiagrams?•  We have developed a curriculum for teaching diagrammatic reasoning based on teaching conventions of diagrams –  Modifying the learner•  We then saw if we could augment this curriculum with –  Self-explanation –  Student-completed figures •  Visual •  Verbal –  Modifying the curriculum (and maybe the learner too)
    • Teaching Conventions of DiagramsHelpsCromley, Bergey, Fitzhugh, Newcombe, Wills, Shipley, andTanaka (under review) • Post-test of 20.0 18.0 diagrammatic 16.0 reasoning 14.0 • Beginning of year 12.0 achievement as 10.0 Pre Post covariate 8.0 • Significant time by 6.0 4.0 treatment interaction 2.0 • d = .8 treatment .0 Wkbk Demo • d = .2 control
    • Changes in Eye Tracking•  Workbook students increase time spent on the diagram, significantly more so than Demonstration students•  Workbook students maintain time spent on naming and explanatory labels, whereas Demonstration students show significant decrease
    • How Do We Further Improve StudentComprehension of Diagrams?Cromley, Bergey, Fitzhugh, Newcombe, Wills, Shipley, and Tanaka(under review)•  We compared three augmented packages –  Self-Explanation –  Student-Completed Figures—Visual –  Student-Completed Figures—Verbal•  Assessed effects (pre- to posttest) on –  Biology diagram comprehension –  Biology knowledge –  Geoscience diagram comprehension•  Teacher-delivered in 9th grade biology classes
    • Self-Explanation Eu-­‐Squeak-­‐a!    If  there  are  four  off-­‐ spring,  there  will  be  one  of  each   combina=on.    But  what  will  the   fiAh  one  be  like?
    • Student Completed Figures-Verbal
    • Student Completed Figures-Visual
    • Results: Biology Diagrams 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 Series1 6.0 Series2 4.0 2.0 .0 SCF-Ver SCF-Vis SelfEx d = 0.30* d = 0.32* d = 0.22*
    • Results: Biology Knowledge 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 Pretest 4.0 Posttest 3.0 2.0 1.0 .0 SCF-Ver SCF-Vis SelfEx d = 0.63* d = 0.04 d = 0.68*
    • Results: Geoscience Diagrams 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 Pretest 1.5 Posttest 1.0 .5 .0 SCF-Ver SCF-Vis SelfEx d = 0.37* d ~0 d = 0.28*
    • Questions? http://www.spatialintelligence.org