How to Best Shape Teacher Policies

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Andreas Schleicher - OECD/Japan Seminar: Official launch of the TALIS results where Ministers discussed how to best shape teacher policy so as to have the strongest impact on the quality of the learning environment.
(25-26 June, 2014)

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  • I want to conclude with what we have learned about successful reform trajectories

    In the past when you only needed a small slice of well-educated people it was efficient for governments to invest a large sum in a small elite to lead the country. But the social and economic cost of low educational performance has risen substantially and all young people now need to leave school with strong foundation skills.

    When you could still assume that what you learn in school will last for a lifetime, teaching content and routine cognitive skills was at the centre of education. Today, where you can access content on Google, where routine cognitive skills are being digitised or outsourced, and where jobs are changing rapidly, the focus is on enabling people to become lifelong learners, to manage complex ways of thinking and complex ways of working that computers cannot take over easily.

    In the past, teachers had sometimes only a few years more education than the students they taught. When teacher quality is so low, governments tend to tell their teachers exactly what to do and exactly how they want it done and they tend to use Tayloristic methods of administrative control and accountability to get the results they want. Today the challenge is to make teaching a profession of high-level knowledge workers.

    But such people will not work in schools organised as Tayloristic workplaces using administrative forms of accountability and bureaucratic command and control systems to direct their work.

    To attract the people they need, successful education systems have transformed the form of work organisation in their schools to a professional form of work organisation in which professional norms of control complement bureaucratic and administrative forms of control.
  • Figure 7.3
  • New graph for the PPT
  • Figure 6.8
  • Figure 6.2
  • In my view, one of the most important improvements in Japan has been the significant rise in the performance of Japanese students on open-ended tasks, the kind of tasks that require students to create an answer, rather than to just reproduce an answer from a multiple-choice task. In other words, Japan is advancing fastest on the kind of ‘new skills’ that I spoke about at the beginning.
  • Adapted from Figure 6.10
  • Figure 4.3
  • Figure 4.14
  • Figure 4.15
  • Figure 4.6
  • Adapted from Figure 6.12
  • New graph for the PPT – derived from tables 5.5.Web.2, 5.5.Web.3 and 5.5.Web.5.
  • New graph for the PPT – derived from Table 5.5.Web.6
  • Expended from Figure 6.7
  • New graph for the PPT – derived from Table 5.7
  • Expended from Figure 5.13
  • From figure 3.1
  • Figure 3.6
  • Figure 2.6
  • Figure 7.2
  • Figure 7.2
  • Figure 7.6
    "For the international averages the data are more stable than for individual countries. Please use caution when presenting data that are in the extreme of the graph."
  • Figure 7.5
    "For the international averages the data are more stable than for individual countries. Please use caution when presenting data that are in the extreme of the graph."

  • Figure 7.2
  • Figure 7.3
  • New graph for the PPT
  • Figure 7.4
    "For the international averages the data are more stable than for individual countries. Please use caution when presenting data that are in the extreme of the graph."
  • Figure 2.4
  • How to Best Shape Teacher Policies

    1. 1. 1 How to best shape teacher policies? Informal Meeting of Ministers of Education 25-26 June 2014 Tokyo
    2. 2. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 22 TALIS in Brief …representing more than 4 million teachers in 34 countries… Over 100 thousand randomly selected lower secondary teachers and their school leaders from over 6500 schools …took an internationally-agreed survey about the working conditions and learning environments in their schools… …responding to questions about their background, their teaching practices, support and development, their relationships with colleagues and students and the leadership in their schools
    3. 3. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 33 Participating countries *Note: TALIS only runs in a sub-national entity of the following countries: Belgium (Flemish Community), Canada (Alberta), United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi) and United Kingdom (England) . This map is for illustrative purposes and is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory covered by this map. TALIS 2008 & 2013
    4. 4. Developing Teaching as a profession Recruit top candidates into the profession Support teachers in continued development of practice Retain and recognise effective teachers – path for growth Improve the societal view of teaching as a profession Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status44 TALIS seeks to help with …
    5. 5. 5 Some students learn at high levels All students need to learn at high levels Student inclusion Routine cognitive skills, rote learning Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working Curriculum, instruction and assessment Few years more than secondary High-level professional knowledge workers Teacher quality ‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical Flat, collegial Work organisation Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders Accountability Education Reform Trajectories The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system
    6. 6. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 66 Teachers' perceptions of the value of teaching Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that teaching profession is a valued profession in society 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Malaysia Singapore Korea AbuDhabi(UAE) Finland Mexico Alberta(Canada) Flanders(Belgium) Netherlands Australia England(UK) Romania Israel UnitedStates Chile Average Norway Japan Latvia Serbia Bulgaria Denmark Poland Iceland Estonia Brazil Italy CzechRepublic Portugal Croatia Spain Sweden France SlovakRepublic Percentageofteachers Above-average performers in PISA
    7. 7. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 77 Countries where teachers believe their profession is valued show higher levels of student achievement Relationship between lower secondary teachers' views on the value of their profession in society and the country’s share of top mathematics performers in PISA 2012 Australia Brazil Bulgaria Chile Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Iceland Israel Italy Japan Korea Latvia Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Alberta (Canada) England (UK) Flanders (Belgium) United States 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shareofmathematicstopperformers Percentage of teachers who agree that teaching is valued in society R2 = 0.24 r= 0.49
    8. 8. SESSION 1 How do we develop 21st century teachers to prepare 21st century learners?
    9. 9. Evolution of employment in occupational groups defined by problem-solving skills (PIAAC) 9 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Medium-low level of problem-solving Low level of problem-solving Medium-high level of problem-solving %
    10. 10. Changes in the demand for skills Trends in different tasks in occupations (United States) 10 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 2009 Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interpersonal Mean task input in percentiles of 1960 task distribution Source: Autor, David H. and Brendan M. Price. 2013. "The Changing Task Composition of the US Labor Market: An Update of Autor, Levy, and Murnane (2003)." MIT Mimeograph, June.
    11. 11. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1111 Most teachers value 21st century pedagogies… Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Students learn best by finding solutions to problems on their own Thinking and reasoning processes are more important than specific curriculum content Students should be allowed to think of solutions to practical problems themselves before the teacher shows them how they are solved My role as a teacher is to facilitate students' own inquiry Japan Average
    12. 12. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Students work on projects that require at least one week to complete Students use ICT for projects or class work Give different work to the students who have difficulties learning and/or to those who can advance faster Students work in small groups to come up with a joint solution to a problem or task Let students practice similar tasks until teacher knows that every student has understood the subject matter Refer to a problem from everyday life or work to demonstrate why new knowledge is useful Check students' exercise books or homework Present a summary of recently learned content Japan Average Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1212 …but teaching practices do not always reflect that Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report using the following teaching practices "frequently" or "in all or nearly all lessons"
    13. 13. Increase percentage correct 0.8 1.71.7 6.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Multiple-choice - reproducing knowledge Open-ended - constructing knowledge (21st century skills) OECD Japan OECD OECDJapan Japan Changes in instructional practice – PISA 2006-9
    14. 14. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Discussindividual students Shareresources Teamconferences Collaborateforcommon standards Teamteaching CollaborativePD Jointactivities Classroomobservations Percentageofteachers Average Japan Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report doing the following activities at least once per month Teacher co-operation14 Exchange and co-ordination
    15. 15. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1515 Drivers of job satisfaction The more frequently that teachers report participating in collaborative practices with their colleagues, the higher their level of self-efficacy. The same is true for job satisfaction.
    16. 16. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1616 Not everywhere where induction programmes are accessible do teachers use them Percentage of lower secondary teachers with less than 3 years experience at their school and as a teacher, who are working in schools with the following reported access to formal induction programmes, and their reported participation in such programmes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Iceland Finland Serbia Japan SlovakRepublic Netherlands Norway Alberta(Canada) Flanders(Belgium) Australia UnitedStates Croatia Korea Average Chile Israel Malaysia England(United… Romania CzechRepublic Singapore Access Participation %
    17. 17. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1717 Teachers' needs for professional development Percentage of lower secondary teachers indicating they have a high level of need for professional development in the following areas 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Knowledge of the curriculum Knowledge of the subject field(s) School management and administration Pedagogical competencies Developing competencies for future work Teaching cross-curricular skills Student evaluation and assessment practice Student career guidance and counselling Approaches to individualised learning Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Student behaviour and classroom management New technologies in the workplace ICT skills for teaching Teaching students with special needs Average Average
    18. 18. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 1818 Barriers to professional development participation Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that the following elements represent barriers to their participation in professional development activities 0 20 40 60 80 100 Do not have the pre-requisites (e.g., qualifications, experience, seniority) There is a lack of employer support Lack of time due to family responsibilities There is no relevant professional development offered Professional development is too expensive/unaffordable There are no incentives for participating in such activities Professional development conflicts with my work schedule Japan Average
    19. 19. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 2020 Impact of professional development …the professional development in which they have participated has had a positive impact on their teaching. · Regardless of the content, over 3/4 of teachers report that…
    20. 20. 21 21 21 A continuum of support Make learning central, encourage engagement and responsibility Be acutely sensitive to individual differences Provide continual assessment with formative feedback Be demanding for every student Ensure that students feel valued and included and learning is collaborative
    21. 21. TALIS is a partnership between Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 2222 TALIS in Brief an international research consortium OECD Governments in 34 countries European Commission Teachers’ unions Find out more about TALIS at www.oecd.org/talis • All national and international publications • The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
    22. 22. Session 2 How can we foster more effective teaching
    23. 23. 0%0%0% 8% 13% 79% 7% 15% 78% Japan Administrative tasks Keeping order in the classroom Actual teaching and learning Average proportion of time lower secondary teachers report spending on each of these activities in an average lesson Distribution of class time24 Average
    24. 24. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 2525 Teachers feedback : direct classroom observations 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Bulgaria Poland UnitedStates Romania Alberta(Canada) Croatia CzechRepublic AbuDhabi(UAE) Flanders(Belgium) Serbia SlovakRepublic Japan Israel Average Singapore Latvia Brazil Mexico Malaysia Sweden Estonia England(UK) Norway Finland Portugal Denmark Korea Chile Italy Netherlands France Spain Iceland Australia Percentageofteachers Principals School Management Other teachers
    25. 25. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.32626 Teachers feedback : never received 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Iceland Finland Sweden Flanders(Belgium) France Italy Denmark Netherlands Norway Spain Australia Croatia Alberta(Canada) UnitedStates Japan Portugal Average Israel England(UK) Chile Estonia Serbia CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Mexico Singapore Brazil Korea Poland AbuDhabi(UAE) Bulgaria Romania Latvia Malaysia Percentageofteachers Analysis of students' test scores Assessment of content knowledge Direct classroom observation
    26. 26. TALIS is a partnership between Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 2727 TALIS in Brief an international research consortium OECD Governments in 34 countries European Commission Teachers’ unions Find out more about TALIS at www.oecd.org/talis • All national and international publications • The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
    27. 27. SESSION 3 What can Ministers do to change teaching?
    28. 28. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 2929 What teachers do beyond teaching Average number of 60-minute hours teachers report spending on the following tasks in an average week Finland Malaysia Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)Flanders (Belgium) IsraelItaly Malaysia JapanMalaysiaSweden Finland Korea Finland Malaysia Finland Korea Finland Malaysia PortugalSingapore CroatiaFinland Japan 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of hours School management Communication with parents All other tasks Extracurricular activities Student counselling Team work Administrative work Marking Planning
    29. 29. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3030 Teachers and feedback On average across TALIS countries, ...and only one in 5 receive feedback from three sources. Just above half of the teachers report receiving feedback on their teaching from one or two sources
    30. 30. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3131 Feedback and change in behavior Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report a "moderate" or "large" positive change in the following issues after they received feedback on their work 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Confidenceasateacher Motivation Jobsatisfaction Knowledgeandunderstandingofmain subjectfield(s) Teachingpractices Studentassessmentstoimprovestudent learning Classroommanagementpractices Methodsforteachingstudentswithspecial needs Publicrecognition Jobresponsibilities Roleinschooldevelopmentinitiatives Amountofprofessionaldevelopment Likelihoodofcareeradvancement Salaryand/orfinancialbonus Average Japan Personal Pedagogical Professional
    31. 31. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3232 Consequences of feedback Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" that: 0 20 40 60 80 If a teacher is consistently underperforming, he/she would be dismissed The best performing teachers in this school receive the greatest recognition Teacher appraisal and feedback have little impact upon the way teachers teach in the classroom A mentor is appointed to help teachers improve his/her teaching A development or training plan is established to improve their work as a teacher Japan Average
    32. 32. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3636 Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" with the following statements 84 90 91 0 20 40 60 80 100 I would recommend my school as a good place to work I enjoy working at this school All in all, I am satisfied with my job Japan Average Teachers' satisfaction with their working environment
    33. 33. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3737 Teachers' satisfaction with their profession Percentage of lower secondary teachers who "agree" or "strongly agree" with the following statements 78 77 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 If I could decide again, I would still choose to work as a teacher The advantages of being a teacher clearly outweigh the disadvantages Japan Average
    34. 34. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3838 Behavioural issues equate to lower job satisfaction, class size doesn’t Teachers' job satisfaction level following the number of students in the classroom in relation to the percentage of students with behavioural problems 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 15orless 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36ormore Teacherjobsatisfaction(level) Class size (number of students) Average Japan 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 None 1%to10% 11%to30% 31%ormore Teacherjobsatisfaction(level) Students with behavioural problems Average Japan
    35. 35. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4242 Countries where teachers believe their profession is valued show higher levels of student achievement Relationship between lower secondary teachers' views on the value of their profession in society and the country’s share of top mathematics performers in PISA 2012 Australia Brazil Bulgaria Chile Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Iceland Israel Italy Japan Korea Latvia Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Alberta (Canada) England (UK) Flanders (Belgium) United States 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Shareofmathematicstopperformers Percentage of teachers who agree that teaching is valued in society R2 = 0.24 r= 0.49
    36. 36. Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4444 TALIS in Brief For a majority of TALIS countries, Few countries attract the most experienced teachers… …to the most challenging schools.
    37. 37. 4646 Resilience in education PISA performance by decile of social background 300325350375400425450475500525550575600625650675 Mexico Chile Greece Norway Sweden Iceland Israel Italy UnitedStates Spain Denmark Luxembourg Australia Ireland UnitedKingdom Hungary Canada Finland Austria Turkey Liechtenstein CzechRepublic Estonia Portugal Slovenia SlovakRepublic NewZealand Germany Netherlands France Switzerland Poland Belgium Japan Macao-China HongKong-China Korea Singapore ChineseTaipei Shanghai-China Source: PISA 2012
    38. 38. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Potential long-term increase in economic output (bn $) Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $) bn$
    39. 39. TALIS is a partnership between Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4848 TALIS in Brief an international research consortium OECD Governments in 34 countries European Commission Teachers’ unions Find out more about TALIS at www.oecd.org/talis • All national and international publications • The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

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