Higher Education for the Knowledge Economy - Professor Lap-Chee Tsui

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  • From ‘New Approaches to Internationalisation’Michelle LiHong Kong SAREducation BureauGoing Global 5March 2011

Transcript

  • 1. Higher Education for the Knowledge Economy Prof Lap-CheeTsui, Vice-Chancellor and President, HKU OECD – IMHE General Conference1 17 September 2012
  • 2. Overview Brief description of HKU Highly qualified personnel for knowledge economy  Role of higher education  Developed vs developing countries Challenges for HE  Globalization  Mismatch of expectations Trend of HE  Internationalization  Private supplementary tutoring HKU as an international university in China  Our educational aims  Curriculum reform 2
  • 3. HKUFounded in 1911The HK College of Medicine (established 1887)One of the oldest higher education institutions in Asia 3
  • 4. A Brief Introduction 10 Faculties  Architecture  Arts  Business & Economics  Dentistry, Education  Engineering  Law  Medicine  Science  Social Sciences 15,000 undergraduates (from ~50 countries) 12,000 postgraduates (Research PG, Taught PG) HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education (SPACE, including Community College) 4
  • 5. Highly qualified personnel for the knowledge economy • Role of higher education • Developed vs developing countries5
  • 6. Role of higher education Development of talents and leaders  High quality students  Range of disciplines + breadth of curriculum  Employability Advancement of scholarship  Research and discovery  Academic excellence Knowledge sharing  Active engagement in knowledge transfer/exchange + serving the community6
  • 7. Pyramid of human talents  Shape of the pyramid varies with needs of the country Top level decision makers Universitie s Middle management post-High-skilled labor, secondary office education workers, … 7
  • 8. Challenges for higher education worldwide • Globalization • Mismatch of expectations8
  • 9. Challenges of Globalization (1) Interconnectivity, intensity, simultaneity, multi- dimensionality, accessibility and instantaneity, rapid generation of new knowledge The world is getting smaller, but the scale and complexity of issues and problems are getting bigger New forms of activity are learnt as they are being created Confronted with more and more novel situations and ill-defined problems Fewer moral certainties and more moral 9 dilemmas From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy
  • 10. Challenges of Globalization (2) The global environment  Massification of higher learning and need for innovation  Globalization and greater demands for programs with a strong international component and for graduates with intercultural skills  Financial crises  University rankings …10
  • 11. The rise of rankings THE / QS / Shanghai Jiaotong Different league tables have different methodologies and performance indicators But, changing methodologies / criteria / weighing / goalposts „Itemisation‟ of parts of the ranking Impacts on institutions  Good – recruitment, funding, donation, …  Bad – ill-informed decisions, vicious competition, … Nonetheless, rankings boast huge „market‟, which is here to stay One size fits all? 11 Modified from Michelle Li, HK SAR EDB
  • 12. One size fits all?Stefan Collini, The Guardian, UK wrote in The threat to our universities:… Universities are said to serve two purposes – and two purposes only. The first is to "equip" "young people" to get jobs in "the fast- moving economy of tomorrow”, and the other is to contribute to "growth", to develop the "cutting-edge products" needed in "todays competitive global marketplace" (and preferably to discover the odd miracle drug, too) … 12
  • 13. How do we define quality for universities? Quality = Large, comprehensive and elitist?  Small colleges → large comprehensive universities  Vocational / technical / teaching universities → research universities Three types of HEI according to pursuit and objectives (Chen Yu-kun on undergraduate teaching evaluation in China, 2008) (1) Top universities (to become world class universities) Quality = “pursuit of excellence” “Pursuit” = to be ranked as top 100 in the world” (2) Vocational & technical colleges and universities Quality = “client satisfaction” = high employment rates. “Being trusted by employing sectors means high quality” (3) Colleges & universities between (1) & (2) – majority 13 13 “Quality means the extent to which their objectives are fulfilled” Courtesy of Amy Tsui, HKU PVC T&L
  • 14. What is expected of higher education? Research, education and service to community Different expectations from  Tax payers  Governments  Parents  Students  Employers However, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of whole person education 14
  • 15. Work attitude 4.72 Emotional stability 4.64Ask the Employers … Ability to grow and learn on one‟s own Analytical reasoning 4.54 4.43 Interpersonal skills 4.42 According to HKU‟s employer survey on about 40 English Writing 4.35 Cantonese speaking 4.35 attributes that university graduates ought to have Presentation skills 4.30 today English Reading 4.29 Planning skills 4.26 English Listening 4.26 Practical course-work 4.26 Lateral thinking 4.24 The informal curriculum 4.23 Guidance on whole person development 4.21 English Speaking 4.19 Application to real life problems 4.17 Group course-work 4.15 Depth of knowledge in <discipline> 4.10 Applied course-work 4.10 Discipline-specific knowledge 4.08 Chinese Reading 4.07 Technical and practical skills in <discipline> 4.07 Chinese Writing 4.06 Working experience / internship 4.05 Guidance on Career 4.05 15 Breadth of knowledge around the general area of <discipline> 4.02
  • 16. The goals of education Values Competencies Knowledge16
  • 17. Trend of higher education worldwide • Internationalization • Impact of private supplementary tutoring17
  • 18. Internationalization Internationalization of universities  Research collaboration  Teaching and learning  International student body  Enrich learning environment; cultural diversity adds to understanding; tolerance of difference  Students going abroad  Learning experience; global perspectives; cultural understanding  Curriculum  Staff and student exchanges Knowledge Exchange  Cooperation with other universities to advance human knowledge and higher learning  Global socioeconomic development would be the ultimate gain for human kind  18 Sharing of knowledge, information, good practice, …
  • 19. 19 Courtesy of JohnSource: New trends in international student mobility . Hendrik van der Pol, Director, UIS Spinks, HKUSr Advisor to
  • 20. By percentage of population (0.6%) 6 5 4 3 2 1 020 Courtesy of John Spinks, HKUSr Advisor to
  • 21. 21 Source: New trends in international student mobility. Hendrik vanof John Spinks, Courtesy der Pol, Director, UIS HKUSr Advisor to
  • 22. Changes in student mobility 1998 2008Proportion of mobile 32.0% 18.7%students going to the U.S.Proportion of U.S. students 6% 11%coming to Asia22 Courtesy of John Spinks, HKUSr Advisor to
  • 23. International Student Mobility Subcontinent USA Japan GermanyASEAN EAST Canada France ChinaCOUNTRIES Korea ASIA UK Malaysia Australia New Zealand The traditional educational destinations, USA, UK etc. Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan 23 Courtesy of John Spinks, HKUSr Advisor to
  • 24. International Student Mobility Europe (Bologna) Subcontinent USA Japan GermanyASEAN EAST Canada France ChinaCOUNTRIES Korea ASIA UK Malaysia Australia New Zealand The new Global Regionalism (Don Olcott), EU Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan 24 Courtesy of John Spinks, HKUSr Advisor to
  • 25. International Student Mobility Europe (Bologna) Subcontinent USA Japan GermanyASEAN EAST Canada France ChinaCOUNTRIES Korea ASIA UK Malaysia Australia New Zealand The new Global Regionalism (Don Olcott), Asia Malaysians  UK dropped from 18K (1997) to 11K (2006);  Egypt were 5.5K (2006) 25 Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of John Spinks, HKUSr Advisor Courtesy of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan to
  • 26. External Obstacles to Internationalization (of student bodies) - 2nd & 3rd most important Wld Recognition of qualification / 15% Language barrier programme 13% AF Visa restrictions on our students 11% Recognition of qualification / 10% programme AP Recognition of qualification / 16% Language barrier 13% programme EU Recognition of qualification / 17% Language barrier 15% programme LAC Recognition of qualification / 17% Language barrier programme 14% ME Visa restrictions on our students 19% Recognition of qualification / 12% programme NA Visa restrictions on foreign students 14% Internationalization not national priority 14% Sample size N=745Source: Ross Hudson (2010). Internationalization of Higher Education the 3rdIAU Global 26Survey Report . Courtesy of Amy Tsui, HKU PVC T&L
  • 27. Private supplementary tutoring27 Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education
  • 28. Shadow Education (Mark Bray, HKU Education) Additional to the provision of mainstream schooling As the size and shape of the mainstream changes, so does that of the shadow May be one-to-one, in small groups, large classes, or huge lecture theatres; and now includes internet tutoring Long been vigorous in East Asia and parts of South Asia Lower numbers but also deep roots in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Emerging in Africa and Arab States Also in Western Europe, North & South 28 America, Australia
  • 29. Scale of private tutoring Azerbaijan: 92% of senior secondary China: 29% lower secondary Egypt: 52% rural primary; 64% urban primary France: 25% lower secondary, 33% upper secondary Hong Kong: 45% primary, 72% upper secondary India: West Bengal, 57% primary; Kerala, 72% secondary Japan: 16% Primary 1; 65% Secondary 3 Korea: 88% elementary, 72% middle, 60% high Sri Lanka: 92% Grade 10; 98% Grade 12 UAE: 65% of Emirati students in Grade 12 29 Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education
  • 30. Costs France: US$2.8 billion India: US$6.4 billion Japan: US$12 billion Korea: US$17.3 billion; equivalent to 80% of government expenditure on primary and secondary education Greece: US$2.1 billion; equivalent to 20% of government expenditure on primary and secondary education Egypt: 1.6% of GDP 30 Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education
  • 31. Implications Bad Good  Distorts the teaching and learning processes Helps student  Create peer pressure and learning and pass anxiety, both among students examinations and among parents Provides incomes and  Mainstream teachers employment for reducing effort in professional tutor classroom, especially when providing tutoring to their own Contribution to pupils knowledge economy  Affects admissions policies  Hard to tell high grades from high achievements  Narrowly examination driven vs selection of well-rounded 31 individuals Modified from Mark Bray, HKU Education
  • 32. It is coming your way32 Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education
  • 33. HKU as an international university in China • Our Education aims • Curriculum reform33
  • 34. Challenges to HE in Hong Kong Concerns of the community and employers with quality of university graduates Increasing demand for graduates with generic capabilities and global outlook Constraints imposed by government funding approach on curriculum structure Less mature university entrants; need for guidance in academic pursuit and personal development Pragmatic and utilitarian orientation of parents, students, and the community as a whole Students more vocationally oriented and less academically oriented Ethics and moral and civic values have assumed less importance in the undergraduate curriculum Admission largely based on examination results and students‟ reliance on private tutoring 34 From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy
  • 35. HKU rearticulated Educational AimsTo enable students to develop capabilities in: the pursuit of academic/professional excellence, critical intellectual inquiry and life-long learning tackling novel situations and ill-defined problems enacting personal and professional ethics, self- reflection and greater understanding of others intercultural understanding and global citizenship communication and collaboration leadership and advocacy for the improvement of the human condition 35 From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy
  • 36. Seven Distinctive Featuresof the New Curriculum Developme Flexible nt of moral Curriculum and civic structure values Engagement Inter- with local and disciplinary global enquiry and communities collaboration Multiple Inquiry in modes of multiple learning and contexts assessment Experiential learning36
  • 37. Common Core Curriculum Centre piece of our curriculum reform To help students to see interconnectedness and the interdependent nature of human existence through exploring some common human experiences Four Areas of Inquiry  Scientific and Technological Literacy  The Humanities  China: Culture, State and Society  Global Issues (6 courses to be taken in Years 1 and 2, at least one from each area, making up 15% of the whole curriculum) 37
  • 38. Experiential Learning Learning in authentic work environment Novel situations Problems are not well-defined Need to consider many contextual factors and the interconnection between them No perfect solution – live with dilemmas Synergy between theory and practice  Degree-related internships  Research mentorships  Personal mentorships  Study tours  Summer schools  General education 38
  • 39. Service learning HKU students have been working in the Thai-Burma border refugee camps each vacation for several years “Social innovation” and “Global Citizenship” as graduation requirements. 39
  • 40. Knowledge exchange in Myanmar Working with NGOs and donors to provide scholarships for Burmese students each year Partnership with universities (library book donations, visiting students to HKU, HKU students teaching in Yangon, places in M.S.W. & M.Ed. Programmes, Ph.D. places for faculty) Partnership with education ministry (workshops on IT in education, teacher education) Partnerships with donors for funding Working with other Consul-Generals and MoE‟s, e.g., Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Mongolia … 40
  • 41. Concluding remarks Role of higher education for knowledge economy  Highly qualified personnel for different needs Challenge of globalization Mismatch of expectations from stakeholders Internationalization a trend of HE Private supplementary tutoring something to watch out HKU as an international university in China  Our educational aims  Curriculum reform 41
  • 42. THANK YOU42