Global trends in higher education
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Global trends in higher education

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The crisis hit the least educated hardest...

The crisis hit the least educated hardest
The unemployment rate for 15-29 year-olds increased,
on average, from 10.2% to 13.5%
Lack of relevant skills/experience brings higher unemployment risk for recent entrants
to the labour force

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  • You can see a similar relationship between skills and social outcomes. If you lack foundation skills, you are more likely to be in poor health, you are less likely to volunteer, you will have less of an understanding of political issues facing your country.You are also less likely to trust institution and people and constantly think that others are taking advantage of you. You may ask why trust is so important but the bottom line is that there is no functioning democracy without trust in institutions and there is no functioning business relationship without trust in your partners and the rule of law. Afghanistan is an example for what financial capital can achieve in a country without a human capital base. You will also be less likely to reciprocate.Finally, those with poor skills show also low levels of political efficacy, that is, they tend to believe that politicians do what they want and that they themselves have no influence.
  • Net entry rate and expenditure per student (in USD) in tertiary-type A programmes are added next to country names.

Global trends in higher education Global trends in higher education Presentation Transcript

  • 1 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)Global trends in higher educationUUK, Andreas Schleicher Global trends in higher education 6 September 2011 Embargo until 13 September 11:00 Paris 6 September 2011
  • 2 Education in times of economic uncertainty 2Global trends in higher education  In the current economic environment… … Continued strong demand for educationUUK, Andreas Schleicher – Poor labour markets and low opportunity costs for education … Substantial public and private gains from education – Earnings premium for tertiary education remains large and continues to grow - Public long-term gains from higher education are almost three times the size of the investments … High-level skills key to competitiveness 6 September 2011 … Comparative cost advantage across OECD countries varies with educational levels … Labour-market entry becomes more difficult – Particularly for young lower educated individuals … Education a good insurance against unemployment and to stay employed especially in weak labour markets  Educational attainment likely to rise further  Continuing education increasingly important.
  • 3 3Global trends in higher educationUUK, Andreas Schleicher The crisis hit the least educated hardest 6 September 2011 The unemployment rate for 15-29 year-olds increased, on average, from 10.2% to 13.5% Lack of relevant skills/experience brings higher unemployment risk for recent entrants to the labour force
  • 4 4 When the crisis hit Percentage-point change between 2008-09 in unemployment rate for 15-29 year-oldsGlobal trends in higher education 2008 2009 Below upper secondary Tertiary education (%)UUK, Andreas Schleicher education (%) Spain Spain Estonia Estonia Turkey Turkey Ireland Ireland Slovak Republic Slovak Republic United States United States Greece Greece Hungary Hungary Portugal Portugal Canada Canada Finland Finland Israel Israel Germany Germany Chile Chile Poland Poland Brazil Brazil 6 September 2011 France France OECD average OECD average Belgium Belgium Sweden Sweden Japan Japan Italy Italy Slovenia Slovenia Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Mexico Mexico Australia Australia New Zealand New Zealand Korea Korea Austria Austria United Kingdom United Kingdom Luxembourg Luxembourg Switzerland Switzerland Netherlands Netherlands Norway NorwayC3.1 - 10 20 30 40 - 10 20 30 40
  • Global trends in higher education6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 8 8 Unabated educational expansion
  • 9 9 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 1995 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary Cost per student 20,000.0 Iceland United States Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Finland Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Japan Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Graduate supply Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1010 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2000 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 United Kingdom Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 11 11 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2001 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Australia Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1212 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2002 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1313 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2003 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1414 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2004 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1515 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2005 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1616 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2006 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1717 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2007 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 1818 Australia Austria Belgium A world of change – higher educationGlobal trends in higher education Canada Chile Czech Republic 30,000.0UUK, Andreas Schleicher Denmark Estonia 2008 Finland France 25,000.0 Germany Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Greece Hungary 20,000.0 Iceland Finland Ireland Israel Italy 15,000.0 Japan Korea 6 September 2011 Luxembourg 10,000.0 Mexico Netherland New Zealand Norway 5,000.0 Poland Portugal Slovak Republic 0.0 Slovenia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom Tertiary-type A graduation rate United States
  • 2020 The composition of the global talent pool has changed… Countries’ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year- old age groups, percentage (2009)Global trends in higher education 55-64-year-old population 25-34-year-old populationUUK, Andreas Schleicher 6 September 2011 About 39 million people About 81 million people who attained tertiary level who attained tertiary level
  • 2121 The composition of the global talent pool has changed… Countries’ share in the population with tertiary education, for 25-34 and 55-64 year- old age groups, percentage (2009)Global trends in higher education 55-64-year-old population 25-34-year-old populationUUK, Andreas Schleicher United United other, 12.6 States, 17.9 other, 11.4 States, 31.7 Korea, 1.4 Australia, 1.5 Korea, 5.0 Mexico, 1.6 Australia, 1.4 6 September 2011 Italy, 1.7 Mexico, 3.4 Spain, 1.9 Italy, 1.7 Japan, 9.5 Brazil, 3.1 Spain, 3.1 France, 3.1 Canada, 3.7 Brazil, 3.9 United France, 3.5 China, 16.0 Kingdom, 4.7 Japan, 11.0 Canada, 2.7 Germany, 5.6 Germany, 2.7 China, 6.1 United Kingdom, 3.9
  • 2222 …and will continue to change Share of new entrants into tertiary education in 2009 (all OECD and G20 countries)Global trends in higher educationUUK, Andreas Schleicher Other China, 36.6% countries, 4.8% Netherlands, 0.5 % Other Portugal 0.5% Chile, 1.3% Czech Republic 0.4% Australia, 1.3% Israel 0.4% 6 September 2011 Sweden 0.4% Italy, 1.4% Belgium 0.4% Spain, 1.6% Hungary 0.4% Poland, 2.1% Austria 0.4% New Zealand 0.3% Germany, 2.5% United Switzerland 0.3% States, 12.9%Slovak Republic 0.3% Argentina, 2.7% Denmark 0.2% Korea, 3.1% Norway 0.2% Ireland 0.2% Mexico, 3.1% Russian Finland 0.2% Federation, 10.0 Slovenia 0.1% United % Estonia 0.1% Kingdom, 3.3% Japan, 4.2% Indonesia, 4.9% Iceland 0.0% Turkey, 3.7%
  • 2525Global trends in higher educationUUK, Andreas Schleicher The increase in the number of knowledge workers has not led to a decrease in their pay …which is what happened to low-skilled workers 6 September 2011
  • Components of the private net present value for a man2626Global trends in higher education with higher education (2007 or latest available year) Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Grosss earnings benefits Unemployment effectUUK, Andreas Schleicher Portugal 373,851 United States 323,808 Italy 311,966 Korea 300,868 Ireland 253,947 Czech Republic 240,449 Hungary 230,098 Slovenia 225,663 Poland 215,125 United Kingdom 207,653 Canada 175,670 OECD Average 175,067 Austria 173,522 6 September 2011 Germany 147,769 France 144,133 Japan 143,018 Finland 135,515 Net Belgium 115,464 present Netherlands 112,928 value in Australia 100,520 Spain 95,320 USD Norway 92,320 equ. New Zealand 74,457 Turkey 64,177 Sweden 62,481 Denmark 55,946 -400,000 -200,000 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 USD equivalent C hart A9.3
  • 2828 Percentage-point change in relative earnings 25-64 year-olds (1998-2008 or latest available years)Global trends in higher education Below upper OECD countries Tertiary secondary Australia 1.6 0.8UUK, Andreas Schleicher 1.6 0.8 Austria* 2.8 2.8 -6.0 -6.0 Belgium* 3.7 3.7 -0.6 -0.6 Canada* 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 Czech Republic 9.1 9.1 2.9 2.9 Denmark 3.2 3.2 -4.9 -4.9 Finland* -6.2 -6.2 -2.5 -2.5 France -3.6 -3.6 1.4 1.4 Germany 21.6 21.6 7.3 7.3 Hungary 11.1 11.1 1.4 1.4 Ireland* 10.9 10.9 -5.4 -5.4 Israel* 2.7 2.7 1.1 1.1 Italy* 11.7 1.0 6 September 2011 11.7 1.0 Korea* -9.7 -9.7 2.2 2.2 Luxembourg* 16.8 16.8 -12.6 -12.6 Netherlands* 10.8 10.8 -2.4 -2.4 New Zealand -2.1 -2.1 -2.2 -2.2 Norway* -5.5 -5.5 -5.6 -5.6 Poland* 6.1 6.1 0.7 0.7 Portugal -8.7 -8.7 5.8 5.8 Slovenia* -7.4 -7.4 -0.3 -0.3 Spain* 12.5 12.5 0.9 0.9 Sweden -5.2 -5.2 -6.0 -6.0 Switzerland 1.2 1.2 -1.0 -1.0 United Kingdom -3.2 -3.2 1.0 1.0 United States 13.0 13.0 -0.5 -0.5 TA8.2a * Limited years; Other notes: Yellow within +/- 3%; Red > -3%; Green > +3%
  • 2929Global trends in higher education Skills and social outcomes Odds ratios Has fair to poor healthUUK, Andreas Schleicher 2.6 Does not volunteer for 2.4 charity or non-profit 2.2 organizations Poor understanding of 2.0 political issues facing country 1.8 Poor level of general trust 6 September 2011 1.6 Higher propensity of 1.4 believing people try to take 1.2 of advantage of others Lower propensity to 1.0 reciprocate Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 PIAAC skill level Poor political efficacy
  • Global trends in higher education6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 31 31 Taxpayers are getting a good return too
  • Public cost and benefits for a man obtaining tertiary education3232Global trends in higher education (2007 or latest available year) Public benefits Public costs United States 193,584 Germany 168,649UUK, Andreas Schleicher Belgium 167,241 Hungary 166,872 Slovenia 155,664 Finland 100,177 United Kingdom 95,322 Netherlands 95,030 Poland 94,125 OECD Average 91,036 Austria 89,705 Portugal 89,464 Korea 89,034 Ireland 85,917 6 September 2011 Australia 84,532 Italy 82,932 Czech Republic 81,307 Canada 79,774 Japan 67,411 France 63,701 Net present Norway 43,419 value New Zealand 46,482 Sweden 37,542 Spain 29,582 Denmark 28,621 Turkey 21,724 Chart A9.5 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 In equivalent USD
  • Global trends in higher education6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 33 33 Consumption or economic use?
  • 34 Skills acquisition and use, 25-64 year-olds34 with a tertiary education (2009)Global trends in higher education %UUK, Andreas Schleicher Employment rate of population with tertiary education, % 91 Norway Switzerland 89 Netherlands Slovenia Iceland Sweden Denmark 87 Portugal Austria Germany Brazil Poland 85 Luxembourg United Kingdom Australia Czech Republic Belgium Finland New Zealand France OECD Average 83 Slovak Republic Estonia Greece Israel Ireland Mexico 81 Spain Canada 6 September 2011 United States Japan Italy 79 Hungary Chile 77 Korea 75 Turkey 73 10 20 30 40 50 Proportion of population with tertiary education, % Chart A7.3
  • Global trends in higher education6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 42 42 International mobility
  • 43 An increasingly mobile student population43Global trends in higher education In 2009, over 3.7 million tertiary students wereUUK, Andreas Schleicher  enrolled outside their country of citizenship  New players are emerging in an increasingly competitive market for international education  Australia and the Russian Federation expanded their market share by two percentage points over the past decade, and Korea, New Zealand and Spain by one percentage point each 6 September 2011  Share of the USA dropped from 23% to 18% Germany, the UK and Belgium also lost ground  Largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea
  • Evolution by region of destination in the number4444Global trends in higher education of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship (2000 to 2009) Worldwide in OECD in EU countriesUUK, Andreas Schleicher in G20 countries in North America Number of foreign students 4 000 000 3 500 000 3 000 000 2 500 000 6 September 2011 2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000 500 000 0 Chart 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 C3.1
  • Distribution of foreign students in tertiary4545Global trends in higher education education, by country of destination (2009) Percentage of foreign tertiary students (reported to the OECD) who are enrolled in each country of destinationUUK, Andreas Schleicher Other non-OECD countries 15.7 Other OECD United States countries 6.0 18.0 Sweden 1.1 Netherlands 1.2 Belgium 1.3 United Kingdom Switzerland 1.3 9.9 6 September 2011 Korea 1.4 Austria 1.6 Australia 7.0 South Africa 1.7 China 1.7 Germany 7.0 Italy 1.8 New Zealand 1.9 France 6.8 Spain 2.3 Chart Canada 5.2 Japan 3.6 C3.2 Russian Federation 3.7
  • 4646 Trends in international education market shares Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destinationGlobal trends in higher education 2000 2009 Market share (%)UUK, Andreas Schleicher 25 The figure for other non-OECD countries refers to the part of the total foreign students studying in 20 other G20 and non-OECD countries and is obtained after subtracting China, South Africa and the Russian Federation from the total in non-OECD 15 destinations as estimated from UNESCO data. 10 6 September 2011 5 0 United States Netherlands Belgium China Austria Korea Australia Canada Switzerland Germany South Africa Italy Other non-OECD United Kingdom France Sweden Spain Other OECD Japan New Zealand Russian Federation Chart C3.3
  • Percentage of international students changing status and4848Global trends in higher education staying on in selected OECD countries, 2008 or 2009 Percentage of students who have changed their status (whether for work, family or other reasons) among students who have not renewed their permitsUUK, Andreas Schleicher % 35 30 25 20 15 6 September 2011 10 5 0 Germany Norway Australia Ireland Canada Spain Austria New Zealand Netherlands United Kingdom Finland France Japan Czech Republic Chart C3.5
  • 4949 Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of origin (2009)Global trends in higher education China, 16.5UUK, Andreas Schleicher India, 6.2 Korea, 3.8 Other non-OECD Germany, 2.9 non-G20 countries, 46.0 France, 1.6 6 September 2011 United States, 1.6 Russian Federation, 1.6 Turkey, 1.4 Other non-OECD G20 Canada, 1.4 countries, 1.3 Other OECD Japan, 1.4 countries, 9.8 Italy, 1.3 Poland, 1.0 Saudi Indonesia, 1.1 T C3.2 Arabia, 1.0
  • Global trends in higher education6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 51 51 Who pays for what, when and how?
  • Global trends in higher education 6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 52 52 0.5 2.5 3.0 0.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 United States % of GDP Korea CanadaChart B6.2 Chile Finland Norway Israel New Zealand Sweden Netherlands Australia OECD average Poland Ireland France Belgium Portugal Educational core services Austria Mexico Research and development (R&D) Spain United Kingdom Czech Republic Switzerland Germany Total expenditure on educational institutions Slovenia Italy as a percentage of GDP (2008) Slovak Republic in tertiary educational institutions Hungary Brazil Denmark Russian… Japan Estonia Iceland Ancillary services (transport, meals, housing provided by institutions) Argentina Expenditure on core services, R&D and ancillary services
  • Changes in student numbers and expenditure5555Global trends in higher education for tertiary education Index of change between 2000 and 2008 (2000=100, 2008 constant prices) Change in expenditureUUK, Andreas Schleicher Index of change Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) (2000 = 100) Change in expenditure per student 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 6 September 2011 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 Japan Australia Iceland Spain Austria Ireland Norway Brazil Portugal France Italy Germany Denmark Poland Korea Czech Republic Canada Belgium Sweden Netherlands Hungary Israel Estonia United Kingdom Finland Chile Mexico OECD average United States Slovak Republic Chart B1.6
  • Global trends in higher education 6 September 2011 UUK, Andreas Schleicher 56 56 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % Chile Korea JapanChart B3.3 United Kingdom United States Australia Israel Canada Portugal Poland 2008 Mexico OECD average New Zealand Italy Netherlands 2005 Slovak Republic Estonia Spain Czech Republic France 2000 percentage, by level of education Ireland Slovenia Austria Germany Sweden Belgium Iceland Share of private expenditure on tertiary Finland educational institutions (2000, 2005, 2008) Denmark
  • Average annual tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A5858 public institutions for full-time national students (academic year 2008-09)Global trends in higher education USD United States (70%, 29 910)UUK, Andreas Schleicher 6000 Korea (71%, 10 109) 5000 United Kingdom1 (61%, 15 314) Japan (49%, 16 533), Australia (94%, 16 297), 4000 Canada (m, 24 384) This chart does not take into account New Zealand (78%, 11 125) grants, subsidies or 3000 6 September 2011 loans that partially or fully offset the students’ tuition fees 2000 Netherlands (63%, 17 245) Portugal (84%, 10 373), Italy (50%, 9 556), 1000 Spain (46%, 13 928), Austria (54%, 15 081), Switzerland (41%, 23 284) Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (m, m) 500 France (m, 14 945) Chart 0 Czech Republic (59%, 8 738), Denmark (55%, 17 634), Finland (69%, 15 402), Ireland B5.2 (51%, 16 284), Iceland (77%, 10 429), Mexico (35%, 7 504), Norway (77%, 18 942), Sweden (68%, 20 864) 1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most students are enrolled in government-dependent private institutions.
  • 59 Public and private investment for a man obtaining59 higher education (2007 or latest available year)Global trends in higher education Private direct cost Private foregone earnings Public direct cost Public foregone earningsUUK, Andreas Schleicher Private costs Public costs Netherlands 161,110 United Kingdom 124,906 Austria 119,458 Germany 112,018 Denmark 103,660 Canada 100,378 Sweden 99,960 Norway 98,176 Finland 94,315 Italy 6 September 2011 85,603 OECD average 79,821 Australia 71,057 Belgium 61,658 New Zealand 59,711 Spain 56,077 Hungary 52,065 Portugal 46,603 Poland 44,268 Total Korea 43,039 investment Czech Rep. 38,466 private+public Turkey 23,899 -100,000 -50,000 0 50,000 100,000 Chart A9.4 USD equivalent
  • 6464Global trends in higher education  www.oecd.orgUUK, Andreas Schleicher – All national and international publications – The complete micro-level database  Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Thank you ! … and remember: 6 September 2011 Without data, you are just another person with an opinion Embargo until 13 September 11:00 Paris