Cultural Stereotypes, Child Development, andSTEM Learning: The Science of Learning and         its Translation to Educatio...
In the USAthere is intense andincreasing attentionpaid to learning inScience, Technology,Engineering,and Mathematics(STEM)...
This national reporthad a large impact onresearch and policyinside the USA andbeyond
TheWashingtonState Academy ofSciences issueda informative reporton STEM in 2011,see:www.washacad.org
The science of learning is beginning to informeducational theory and practice. Education Nationwas seen by 52M people in S...
In Seattle, Washington we launched amajor study of cultural stereotypes andhow they influence our children, see:Cvencek, M...
Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary-          School Children
Background:There is currently an under-representationof women in math-intensive fields in USAQuestion: Innate Aptitude or ...
There is a stereotype about math and          gender in the USA Social psychology studies document  that most American adu...
What’s Known about ChildrenAmerican children reflect stereotype:  •  Elementary-school girls rate their own math     abili...
Theoretical Issues• USA stereotype of “boys but not girls do math”• How young do children ‘catch’ this cultural   stereoty...
Conceptual Terms and Framework    Male          Stereotype          MathGender Identity                               Self...
When Are Kids Affected?• We developed a new test• Applied it to large sample USA kids• Discovered the timeline
Study of Math-Gender Stereotypes                  Children    ~247 participants    ~50 children in each grade 1st - 5th   ...
Child Implicit Association Test (IAT)        Stereotype Congruent (easy/fast)                                         Item...
Implicit Measures: Results                         Gender       Math–Gender         Math                         Identity ...
Developmental Theory       Based on Balance Theories (Heider, Greenwald, etc.)  • Very young children identify with being ...
Cross-Cultural Work onStereotypes and Math Self-Concepts• Singapore interesting case study
We are collaborating with the National       Institute of Education            in Singapore
Cross-Cultural Collaboration:       Seattle & SingaporeTested ~180 children in Grades 1, 3, and 5• Are stereotypes differe...
Preliminary ResultsWe finished cross-cultural data collectionPreliminary look at data suggests that:• Math-gender stereoty...
Next Steps for Theory:                 Basic Science• Explore where stereotypes come from   - Parents, peers, school, medi...
Next Steps Practical Applications:          “Translational Science”We developed a new test for pre-school children. Thiswi...
Next Steps Practical Applications:         “Translational Science”• Design   interventions - Based on our results, educati...
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Examining Cultural Stereotypes, Child Development, and Stem Learning: The Science of Learning and its Translation to Education

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The CERI OECD/National Science Foundation International Conference took place in Paris, at the OECD Headquarters on 23-24 January 2012. Here the presentation of Session 2, Formal Learning, Item 2.

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Examining Cultural Stereotypes, Child Development, and Stem Learning: The Science of Learning and its Translation to Education

  1. 1. Cultural Stereotypes, Child Development, andSTEM Learning: The Science of Learning and its Translation to Education Andrew N. Meltzoff Co-Director LIFE Center University of Washington http://ilabs.washington.edu
  2. 2. In the USAthere is intense andincreasing attentionpaid to learning inScience, Technology,Engineering,and Mathematics(STEM). Thisis also a world-wideconcern
  3. 3. This national reporthad a large impact onresearch and policyinside the USA andbeyond
  4. 4. TheWashingtonState Academy ofSciences issueda informative reporton STEM in 2011,see:www.washacad.org
  5. 5. The science of learning is beginning to informeducational theory and practice. Education Nationwas seen by 52M people in September, 2011, see:www.educationnation.com
  6. 6. In Seattle, Washington we launched amajor study of cultural stereotypes andhow they influence our children, see:Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, ChildDevelopment, 2011
  7. 7. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary- School Children
  8. 8. Background:There is currently an under-representationof women in math-intensive fields in USAQuestion: Innate Aptitude or Cultural Influence? Without denying the influence of neurobiology, weinvestigated the role that stereotypes play in influencing girls’ self-concepts and interest in math
  9. 9. There is a stereotype about math and gender in the USA Social psychology studies document that most American adults think: •  Math is a male thing •  Reading is a female thing
  10. 10. What’s Known about ChildrenAmerican children reflect stereotype: •  Elementary-school girls rate their own math ability as lower than boys –– even though their actual math performance matches or exceeds boys •  Do not rate themselves lower for reading or spelling
  11. 11. Theoretical Issues• USA stereotype of “boys but not girls do math”• How young do children ‘catch’ this cultural stereotype?• Might the stereotype influence self-concepts for math in elementary-school?
  12. 12. Conceptual Terms and Framework Male Stereotype MathGender Identity Self-Concept Self
  13. 13. When Are Kids Affected?• We developed a new test• Applied it to large sample USA kids• Discovered the timeline
  14. 14. Study of Math-Gender Stereotypes Children ~247 participants ~50 children in each grade 1st - 5th Measures• Self-report (explicit measure)• Implicit Association Test (IAT) adapted for children Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, Child Development, 2011
  15. 15. Child Implicit Association Test (IAT) Stereotype Congruent (easy/fast) Item List: Michael story Boy Girl Emily math reading numbers David numbers letters Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, Child Development, 2011
  16. 16. Implicit Measures: Results Gender Math–Gender Math Identity Stereotype Self-Concept Boys Girls 0.50 Me = Boy Math = * Own Gender 0.25 * Me = MathIAT Score (D) * 0.00 –0.25 Me = Reading Math = Opposite Gender –0.50 Me = Girl Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, Child Development, 2011
  17. 17. Developmental Theory Based on Balance Theories (Heider, Greenwald, etc.) • Very young children identify with being of their own gender (gender identity). Pre-school development. • Next children absorb cultural stereotypes such as ‘girls ≠ math.’ Our new research indicates children absorb this stereotype as early as 2nd grade. • Finally, children draw an unconscious inference: ‘I’m a girl, girls ≠ math, therefore I ≠ math. The stereotype is internalized and applied to the self. Our research indicates this occurs by 3rd grade.Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald Cvencek, Greenwald, & Meltzoff, chapterChild Development (2011) in Cognitive Consistency (2011)
  18. 18. Cross-Cultural Work onStereotypes and Math Self-Concepts• Singapore interesting case study
  19. 19. We are collaborating with the National Institute of Education in Singapore
  20. 20. Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Seattle & SingaporeTested ~180 children in Grades 1, 3, and 5• Are stereotypes different?• Are self-concepts different?• Do stereotypes relate to math achievement? Cvencek, Kapur, & Meltzoff, In prep.
  21. 21. Preliminary ResultsWe finished cross-cultural data collectionPreliminary look at data suggests that:• Math-gender stereotypes are less pronounced in Singapore• Singaporean children identify with math more than in USA• Individual children’s stereotypes and self-concepts about math predict actual math performance on standardized tests
  22. 22. Next Steps for Theory: Basic Science• Explore where stereotypes come from - Parents, peers, school, media & cultural messages• Developmental pathways linking cultural stereotypes, self-concepts, academic performance. Investigate causal mechanisms.• Understand individual differences - Of course, some females excel; role models; cost• Compare implicit and explicit tests• Extend to other social stereotypes (race, rich-poor, etc.)
  23. 23. Next Steps Practical Applications: “Translational Science”We developed a new test for pre-school children. Thiswill allow us to study even earleier origins sointerventions can be designed as early as possibleThe Pre-school Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) (Patent pending) Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, J. of Exp. Child Psychology (2011)
  24. 24. Next Steps Practical Applications: “Translational Science”• Design interventions - Based on our results, educational practices aimed atenhancing girls’ self-concepts for math should occurearly during elementary school - Interventions for other ages and domains (e.g., college students and stereotypes about computer- science see: Cheryan, Kim, & Meltzoff, Computers & Education, 2011
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