Educa&onal	  Neuroscience:	  ...
Research	  Ques&ons	  •  Is there a preparation gap in math   knowledge related to parent math input in   the early home e...
Numerical	  and	  Spa&al	  Skills:	   Key	  Elements	  of	  Early	  Mathema&cs	                              •  Numerical	...
Early	  Individual	  Differences	  in	  Children s	      Math	  Knowledge:	  	  Do	  they	  maOer?	  •  Children	  show	  w...
Study	  1:	  Children’s	  first	   classroom	  is	  the	  home	  •  Diverse	  sample	  of	  parent-­‐child	  dyads	  follow...
Large	  Varia&on	  in	  Parent	  Number	  Talk	  •  Across	  our	  sessions	  range	  was	  4	  to	  257	     number	  wor...
Children’s	  Cardinal	  Number	  Knowledge	   •  Assessed	  at	  46	  months	  	  	   •  Point-­‐to-­‐X	  task	   Experime...
Rela&on	  between	  parent	  cumula&ve	  number	  word	  tokens	  (log)	  and	  child	  cardinal	  number	  	  knowledge	 ...
Quality	  of	  number	  talk	  also	                       maOered    	  •  Talk	  about	  number	  with	  present	  objec...
Why	  is	  talk	  about	  sets	  >3	              par&cularly	  helpful?            	  •  Unlike	  smaller	  sets,	  sets	...
Future	  studies	  are	  informed	  by	  classroom	                                                            	       pra...
Spaced	  vs.	  Massed	  Learning	  •  How	  does	  it	  apply	  to	  math	  learning	  	  -­‐-­‐	  what	  is	     the	  op...
Study	  2:	  	  Affec&ve	  Input:	  	  	              Teachers 	  math	  anxiety	  predicts	               students 	  math...
Hypotheses	  	  •  Teachers 	  math	  anxiety	  may	  impact	     girls	  by	  confirming	  a	  self-­‐relevant	     gender...
Sample	  and	  Study	  Design	  •  Students 	  math	  achievement	  and	  gender	     stereotypes	  were	  assessed	  at	 ...
 Assessing	  children s	  gender	  stereotypes	                   about	  math:	  	  	         Gender	  ability	  beliefs	...
Example	  drawings	   Reading = Girl                                Math = BoyChildren who confirm stereotype draw girl fo...
Teacher	  assessments	  •  Math	  anxiety	  (sMARS;	  Alexander	  &	  Martray,	  1989)	                  •  “Reading	  a	 ...
Media&on	  Analysis	  •  Teacher	  math	  anxiety	  predicted	  girls 	  end	     of	  year	  math	  achievement	        T...
End-­‐of-­‐Year	  Math	  Achievement	  by	          Gender	  Ability	  Beliefs	                          (Beilock,	  Gunde...
Implica&ons	  •  Teacher	  math	  anxiety	  may	  help	  to	  explain	  the	     forma&on	  of	  gender	  stereotypes	  an...
Study	  3:	  How	  brain	  imaging	  can	  help	  inform	             efforts	  to	  reduce	  math	  anxiety	  •  Anxiety	 ...
Math Trial   Word Trial              tneimrepxe             tneimrepxe
Math anxiety deficitLyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
Inferior frontal junction (IFJ)                           Inferior parietal lobe (IPL)Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cor...
Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
Study	  3	  Summary	  •  High math anxiety individuals who recruit   additional working memory resources or exercise   gre...
Overall	  Summary	  •  Both	  cogni&ve	  and	  affec&ve	  inputs	  are	  related	  to	  math	     learning	  from	  an	  ea...
Acknowledgements…	                                  	                               OECD	                                 ...
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Educational Neuroscience: Using Cognitive and Brain Science to Enhance our Understanding of Learning and Achievement in Math

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The CERI OECD/National Science Foundation International Conference took place in Paris, at the OECD Headquarters on 23-24 January 2012. Here the presentation of Session 5, Informal Learning, Item 2.

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Educational Neuroscience: Using Cognitive and Brain Science to Enhance our Understanding of Learning and Achievement in Math

  1. 1.         Educa&onal  Neuroscience:    Using  Cogni&ve  and  Brain  Science  to    Enhance  our  Understanding  of  Math     Learning       Susan C. Levine University of Chicago Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center
  2. 2. Research  Ques&ons  •  Is there a preparation gap in math knowledge related to parent math input in the early home environment?•  Are variations in young children s math achievement related to affective inputs – to teacher math anxiety in early elementary school?•  Why does math anxiety not always disrupt math performance? •  Insights from a brain imaging study
  3. 3. Numerical  and  Spa&al  Skills:   Key  Elements  of  Early  Mathema&cs   •  Numerical  and  spa&al   skills  are  vital  for  success   in  the  STEM  disciplines   (Science,  Technology,   Engineering  &  Math)   •  These  skills  begin  to   develop  at  an  early  age   (e.g.,  Delgado & Prieto, 2004;  Levine, Huttenlocher, Taylor & Langrock, 1999)  
  4. 4. Early  Individual  Differences  in  Children s   Math  Knowledge:    Do  they  maOer?  •  Children  show  wide  dispari&es  in  their   mathema&cal  knowledge  by  preschool.  •  These  early  varia&ons  predict  children s  later   math  achievement.  •  Importantly,  early  varia&ons  in  math   knowledge  are  related  to  differences  in  the   cogni&ve  and  affec&ve  inputs  young  children   receive.  
  5. 5. Study  1:  Children’s  first   classroom  is  the  home  •  Diverse  sample  of  parent-­‐child  dyads  followed   longitudinally.  •  Coded  math  talk  –  talk  about  number  and  spa&al   rela&ons    -­‐-­‐  today  will  focus  on  number  talk.  
  6. 6. Large  Varia&on  in  Parent  Number  Talk  •  Across  our  sessions  range  was  4  to  257   number  words  •  Extrapola&ng,  translates  to  enormous   differences  in  children s  opportunity  to  learn     28  to  1799  in  a  week     1456  to  93,548  in  a  year  
  7. 7. Children’s  Cardinal  Number  Knowledge   •  Assessed  at  46  months       •  Point-­‐to-­‐X  task   Experimenter: Point to three.
  8. 8. Rela&on  between  parent  cumula&ve  number  word  tokens  (log)  and  child  cardinal  number    knowledge   at  46  months  
  9. 9. Quality  of  number  talk  also   maOered  •  Talk  about  number  with  present  objects   predicts  children s  understanding  of  the   number  words  •  Talk  about  number  of  objects  in  larger  sets  (4   to  10),  in  addi&on  to  1,  2,  and  3  also  predicts   children s  understanding  of  number  words  
  10. 10. Why  is  talk  about  sets  >3   par&cularly  helpful?  •  Unlike  smaller  sets,  sets  larger  than  3  cannot   be  enumerated  exactly  without  coun&ng.  •  Hypothesis:  The  necessity  of  coun&ng  these   sets  to  determine  their  exact  numerosity   helps  children  link  coun&ng  to  the  cardinal   number  of  objects  in  a  set  –  to  understand  the   purpose  of  coun&ng.   Gunderson & Levine (in press) Developmental Science
  11. 11. Future  studies  are  informed  by  classroom     prac&ce  and  by  cogni&ve  science  •  Partnering  with  teachers  to  implement  lessons   that  strengthen  children s  understanding  of   early  math  –  using  their  feedback  to  design   beOer  instruc&on  in  an  itera&ve  manner     –  Cri&cal  classroom-­‐lab  interac&ons  •  Examining  how  a  learning  principle  that   emerges  from  cogni&ve  science  –  spaced   learning  works  beOer  than  massed  learning  -­‐   applies  to  early  math  learning  
  12. 12. Spaced  vs.  Massed  Learning  •  How  does  it  apply  to  math  learning    -­‐-­‐  what  is   the  op&mal  spacing?   –  At  different  developmental  &me  points     –  At  different  points  in  the  learning  trajectory   –  In   real-­‐world  learning  environments   –  For  different  learning  goals:    facts,  procedures,   and  concepts   –  To  promote  long-­‐term  reten&on  and   generaliza&on  
  13. 13. Study  2:    Affec&ve  Input:       Teachers  math  anxiety  predicts   students  math  achievement  •  We  also  inves&gated  the  role  of  teachers   math  anxiety  on  children s  math  achievement   because…   –  Elementary  educa&on  majors  in  the  U.S.  have     high  levels  of  math  anxiety  (Hembree,  1990)   –  91%  of  early  elementary  school  teachers  are   female  (Na&onal  Educa&on  Associa&on,  2003)    
  14. 14. Hypotheses    •  Teachers  math  anxiety  may  impact   girls  by  confirming  a  self-­‐relevant   gender  stereotype  (e.g.,  Cvencek,  Meltzoff  &   Greenwald,  2009)  •  Girls  who  confirm  tradi&onal  gender   stereotypes  ( boys  are  beOer  at  math,  girls   are  beOer  at  reading )  will  learn  less  than   other  children  
  15. 15. Sample  and  Study  Design  •  Students  math  achievement  and  gender   stereotypes  were  assessed  at  the  beginning   and  end  of  the  school  year  •  Teacher  math  knowledge  and  anxiety   assessed  at  end  of  school  year  
  16. 16.  Assessing  children s  gender  stereotypes   about  math:       Gender  ability  beliefs  task    One  story  about  math,  one  about  reading   This is a story about a student who is really good at math. This student is always the first to finish every math problem, no matter how hard. And this student also really likes doing math. If there is a math problem to be done, this student is the one to do it. This student is a really great mathematician. Can you draw a picture of this student? Is it a boy or a girl? (adapted from Steele, 2003)
  17. 17. Example  drawings   Reading = Girl Math = BoyChildren who confirm stereotype draw girl for reading and boy for math
  18. 18. Teacher  assessments  •  Math  anxiety  (sMARS;  Alexander  &  Martray,  1989)   •  “Reading  a  cash  register  receipt  aoer  you  buy  something”   •  “Studying  for  a  math  test”  •  Math  knowledge  for  teaching  (CKTM;  Hill,  Schilling  &   Ball,  2004)  •  Teachers  varied  widely  on  both  
  19. 19. Media&on  Analysis  •  Teacher  math  anxiety  predicted  girls  end   of  year  math  achievement   Teacher  Math   β = -0.21* Girls’  Math   Anxiety   Achievement  •  Mediated by girls gender ability beliefs Gender   β = 0.31* Stereotypes   β = -0.23* Teacher  Math   Girls’  Math   Anxiety   Achievement   β = -0.16, n.s. *p<.05 (Beilock,  Gunderson,  Ramirez  &  Levine,  PNAS,  2010)  
  20. 20. End-­‐of-­‐Year  Math  Achievement  by   Gender  Ability  Beliefs   (Beilock,  Gunderson,  Ramirez  &  Levine,  PNAS,  2010)  
  21. 21. Implica&ons  •  Teacher  math  anxiety  may  help  to  explain  the   forma&on  of  gender  stereotypes  and  the   divergence  between  boys  and  girls  artudes   toward  math  •  To  reduce  these  effects,  it  is  important  to   directly  address  teachers  math  anxiety,  as   well  as  their  math  knowledge,    as  a  component   of  teacher  training  
  22. 22. Study  3:  How  brain  imaging  can  help  inform   efforts  to  reduce  math  anxiety  •  Anxiety  about  math  common  and  deleterious   to  learning,  but  not  all  math-­‐anxious   individuals  perform  poorly  in  math.  •  Why  is  this  the  case?                                                    Lyons  and  Beilock  (2011)  
  23. 23. Math Trial Word Trial tneimrepxe tneimrepxe
  24. 24. Math anxiety deficitLyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
  25. 25. Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
  26. 26. Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) Inferior parietal lobe (IPL)Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
  27. 27. Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
  28. 28. Lyons & Beilock (2011). Cerebral Cortex
  29. 29. Study  3  Summary  •  High math anxiety individuals who recruit additional working memory resources or exercise greater regulation of their anxiety response (or both) reduced math performance deficits that are typically associated with math anxiety.•  These responses begin when individuals anticipate doing math, before they even see the problem.•  Its not that these individuals don t feel anxious – they do, but are able to manage their anxiety successfully.
  30. 30. Overall  Summary  •  Both  cogni&ve  and  affec&ve  inputs  are  related  to  math   learning  from  an  early  age  •  We  can  increase  our  understanding  of  how  these   factors  interact  –   •  By  carrying  out  studies  in  the  lab  and  in  real-­‐world  learning   environments   •  By  collabora&ng  with  teachers  as  research  partners   •  By  examining  the  impact  of  math  learning,  math  anxiety,   and  stereotypes  at  the  behavioral  and  neural  levels  •  Overarching  goal:    To  increase  math  achievement  in  all   children    
  31. 31. Acknowledgements…     OECD     Study  parCcipants     Collaborators     Funding  agencies:     NSF,  SpaCal  Intelligence  and  Learning  Center   (SILC)  Grant  #SBE-­‐0541957     NIH-­‐NICHD  Grant  #P01HD040605  
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