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Comparing international student and institutional objectives at Canadian colleges and universities: implications for institutional strategy – Rod Skinkle
 

Comparing international student and institutional objectives at Canadian colleges and universities: implications for institutional strategy – Rod Skinkle

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  • Canada has been very slow to get its act together; but is moving now…
  • Canada has been very slow to get its act together; but is moving now…
  • Canada has been very slow to get its act together; but is moving now…
  • ¾ have plans but interesting 25% do notNote prior to 2007 (almost none)
  • In terms of current IS student participation levels…About 9% across Canada with significant variability…3/4ths of universities planning growth strategiesIn terms of IS recruitment growth targets….Would like to see target break downs
  • Very interesting mix here – most colleges have while significant Universities have no revenue targets
  • Amazingly over half have not included country specific targets….Usual suspects for top 3 countries China, India, Brazil
  • Universities large % undergrad but 60% with Graduate level programs being promoted…
  • Means don’t look right
  • Another apparent contradiction is that while institutions avow that cultural/global enrichment is a major benefit for their domestic students from the presence of international students, there is little to no emphasis on curriculum or any other systematic programs to learn from international students’ presence and perspectives, either within the curriculum or extracurricularly.
  • For the Canadian national and provincial governments, hoping to realize financial gains through promotion of this country as a ‘great place for international study’, the implication should be clear: the IS student experience will be largely impacted by the individual host institution. While it is true that much of a student’s experience is beyond the control of an institution; it is equally true that the institution, more than any other single entity, has the opportunity and the responsibility to positively affect the IS student experience through the fulfillment of the educational service “contract”. We may debate where this contract begins, ends, and what it includes, and in fact, this debate is much needed.
  • For the Canadian national and provincial governments, hoping to realize financial gains through promotion of this country as a ‘great place for international study’, the implication should be clear: the IS student experience will be largely impacted by the individual host institution. While it is true that much of a student’s experience is beyond the control of an institution; it is equally true that the institution, more than any other single entity, has the opportunity and the responsibility to positively affect the IS student experience through the fulfillment of the educational service “contract”. We may debate where this contract begins, ends, and what it includes, and in fact, this debate is much needed.
  • For the Canadian national and provincial governments, hoping to realize financial gains through promotion of this country as a ‘great place for international study’, the implication should be clear: the IS student experience will be largely impacted by the individual host institution. While it is true that much of a student’s experience is beyond the control of an institution; it is equally true that the institution, more than any other single entity, has the opportunity and the responsibility to positively affect the IS student experience through the fulfillment of the educational service “contract”. We may debate where this contract begins, ends, and what it includes, and in fact, this debate is much needed.

Comparing international student and institutional objectives at Canadian colleges and universities: implications for institutional strategy – Rod Skinkle Comparing international student and institutional objectives at Canadian colleges and universities: implications for institutional strategy – Rod Skinkle Presentation Transcript

  • Comparing International Student and InstitutionalObjectives at Canadian Colleges and Universities: Implications for Institutional Strategy For Presentation at:IMHE General Conference: Attaining and Sustaining Mass Higher Education OECD Headquarters, Paris, France September, 17-19, 2012 Rod Skinkle, M.A. Sheila Embleton, PhD, FRSC W.E. (Ted) Hewitt, Ph.D President, Academica Group Professor, York University Professor, Western University London, Ontario, Canada Toronto, Ontario, Canada London, Ontario, Canada Copyright ©2012 Academica Group Inc.
  • DISCUSSIONThere is an implicit assumption that the experience of living and studying withina different culture provides real benefits for both IS students and domesticstakeholders alike.Stated BenefitsIS administrators discuss numerous benefits which can be grouped into threebroad categories:1. Personal and career development for the IS students through the education and experience of living and studying in Canada.2. Enhanced learning and personal development for the domestic student population resulting from studying alongside international students.3. Financial benefits for the host institution deriving primarily from the higher tuition and related local spending, but also the potential for IS students to benefit the nation through permanent immigration. 2
  • IntroductionCanada has a small but increasingly key role:• Canada holds 4% of the world’s market share of international students, compared to 7% for Australia, 12% for the UK, and 20% for the US.• In 2008, Canada’s percentage of international students had doubled compared to 1992, reaching 8% of all university students in Canada. 3
  • IntroductionFurther growth imminent:• National Strategy Research – 2012 Canada struck a national panel.• National Branding – In September 2008, the Council of Ministers of Education Canada (CMEC) and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) officially launched “Imagine Education au/in Canada”.• National Funding – Indeed, Canada’s 2011 federal budget is the first ever to set aside $10 million over the next two years to develop international education.• Marketing Plan – Most recently, the CMEC & provincial and territorial ministers of immigration, has endorsed the development of an international marketing plan (June 2011) with the objectives of increasing Canada’s reputation and competitive and global identity in the HE market. 4
  • IntroductionSystemic challenges:• While the federal government is leading some efforts in the recruitment sphere, education remains a responsibility of Canada’s provincial governments, and some have their own provincial strategies.• Within most provinces there is little effort at effectively coordinating recruitment policies and strategies.• Significant differences associated with the Canadian two tier PSE system (Colleges | Universities).• No additional funding for IS support services, rather relying on higher tuition revenues. 5
  • IntroductionResearch Objectives:1. Reliable data – This study represents a partial remedy providing a first-ever national survey of post-secondary institutions regarding their international education strategies.2. Gap Analysis – This study seeks to examine the fit between such strategies and the interests, needs, and aspirations of international students themselves.3. Discussion – Identify key Threats/Challenges4. Actionable recommendations 6
  • Methodology• Phase 1 – International Student Prospect Survey (India) – Purposive sample of 59 schools selected to geographically represent the top 200 private schools in India, from Feb 15 – July 6, 2011 – In class: Supervised paper surveys – 5,117 completed surveys – Confidence Interval: 2.9%, 19 times out of 20.• Phase 2 – Institutional Strategy Survey (2012) – Convenience sample of 230 contacts representing 83 (50 Univ. 33 Colleges) across Canada. – Purposive selection to represent 10 provinces (1 territory) and a range of institutional sizes – Target Administrators (typically director level) – A total of 65 respondents from 54 institutions – response rate 28%. 7
  • Results 1– Internationalization Profile acrossCanadian Institutionsthe state of the nation
  • Proportion of Institutions with International StrategiesOverall, 72% have an international strategy in place . • 52% implemented this strategy within the past four years, • a larger proportion of universities did so in the past two years. International Year Internationalization Strategy Strategy Implemented Unsure Total Universities Colleges 9% 2011-2012 18% 22% 8% No 19% 2009-2010 33% 33% 33% 2007-2008 21% 19% 25% Yes Before 2007 8% 7% 8% 72% No answer 21% 19% 25% Universities Colleges 73% 71% Base: Total – n=54 Institutions: Universities – n=37; Colleges – n=17 9
  • Proportion of Int.’l Students within Student Body and TargetsUniversities and colleges both report similar proportions of international students Increases Planned: 73% of universities 47% of Colleges Current Proportion of Int’l Students Established Targets to Increase Proportion Less than 3% 5% Universities Colleges 19% 3.0 - 4.9% 8% 6% Unsure Unsure 5.0 - 9.9% 49% 5% 12% No 25% 22% Yes 10 - 19.9% 30% 47% 44% No Yes 41% 20%+ 5% 73% 6% Not specified 3% 0% Universities Colleges Interesting Notes: Mean 9.3% 9.0% • Majority of institutions in eastern Canada report a relatively high proportion of international students ranging from 11% to 25%. Median 8% 8% • Colleges in the GTA report higher proportions ranging from 12% to 30%. Base: Total – n=53 Institutions: Universities – n=37; Colleges – n=16 (Note: One outlier was 10 removed (reported “65%” ) from data set)
  • International Plans with Revenue Targets Over one-third report that plans include set revenue targets. • Colleges significantly more likely (65% vs. 22%, respectively).Proportion of Institutions with Revenue Targets Prefer not to answer 11% Universities Colleges Yes Unsure 35% Yes 22% 65% 19% No 43% 18% Not sure 24% 6% Prefer not to say 11% 12% No 35% Base: Total – n=54 Institutions: Universities – n=37; Colleges – n=17 11
  • 2Internationalization RecruitmentStrategies and Initiatives
  • Target Countries for International Enrolment Plans • Over 1/3 report they have set target countries.• A diverse set of countries, with China and India remaining the two top source • Brazil (universities) and Mexico (colleges) also rank high.Target Countries in Enrolment Plans Target Countries of Key Importance Unsure Total Universities Colleges (n=16)** (n=8)** 9% China 92% 100% 75% India 88% 81% 100% Brazil 54% 63% 38% Yes United States 42% 44% 38% 37% Mexico 38% 19% 75% Turkey 38% 38% 38% Vietnam 38% 31% 50% Russia 33% 31% 38% South Korea 33% 25% 50% No Indonesia/Malaysia 29% 19% 50% 54% Japan 29% 19% 50% Latin American region 25% 19% 38% Middle East Region 25% 31% 13% Germany 17% 25% 0% Universities Colleges 36% 40% Base: Total – n=65 Respondents: Universities – n=45; Colleges – n=20 13
  • Programs that are Promoted for Int’l Student EnrolmentUniversities promote undergraduate degrees most, and graduate level degrees (Master’s and PhDs), Universities Colleges Short term less than 8 week study program 36% 30% College certificate 1year program - 80% College diploma 2year program - 100% College advanced diploma 3year program - 75% A 2 Plus 2, 3 plus 1, or 2 Plus 1 Program 62% 70% A joint degree program 36% 15% A dual degree program 42% 10% College degree 4year program - 80% University undergraduate degree 96% 20% College post-graduate certificate - 70% Teaching degree 27% - Master’s degree 60% - Business graduate degree, MBA 60% - Law degree 18% - Medical degree 4% - Doctorate degree PhD 47% - Other 20% 30% Dont know 2% - Base: Total – n=65 Respondents: Universities – n=45; Colleges – n=20 14
  • Priority Internationalization Initiatives – Summary ComparisonThe internationalization strategies of universities are much more diversified overall compared to colleges. Universities CollegesIntl student recruitment plans - 4.8Int’l student support services - 4.6Undergraduate intl student recruitment plans 4.7 -Undergraduate intl student support services 4.4 -Developing strategic partnerships with institutions outside of Canada 4.4 4.0Offering intl exchange opportunities 4.1 3.6International research collaboration 3.9 2.4Graduate intl student recruitment plan 3.7 -Graduate intl student support services 3.7 -Identification and exploitation of intl funding sources 3.5 2.9Internationalization of curricula 3.5 2.8Development assistance programming 3.2 2.7 Base: University Respondents – n=45; College Respondents – n=20 15
  • Int’l Student Service Levels Haven’t Kept Pace with GrowthOverall, less than half of the administrators we surveyed (41% rated “5” or “4”) feelthat international student service levels at their institution have kept pace with the growth of international recruitment. 5-Very much 4 3-Somewhat 2 1-Not at all Mean Total 15% 26% 40% 11% 8% 3.3 Universities Universities 16% 22% 44% 9% 9% 3.3 Colleges Colleges 15% 35% 30% 15% 5% 3.4 Base: Total – n=65 Respondents: Universities – n=45; Colleges – n=20 16
  • Anticipated Challenges with 4International StudentRecruitment, Retention andIntegration
  • Anticipated Challenges – Summary Comparison • There are more similarities than differences with regard to the top 3 anticipated challenges • sufficient student service levels, • refereeing academic standards (greater concern among colleges), • achieving and maintaining enrolment targets. Total Universities CollegesProviding sufficient student service levels 3.8 3.8 3.7Refereeing academic standards – plagiarism, referencing 3.7 3.6 4.0Achieving and maintaining enrolment targets 3.7 3.6 3.9Achieving and maintaining a balance of international student enrolment 3.6 3.7 3.5across programs/FacultiesAchieving and maintaining on-campus social/community integration 3.5 3.5 3.6Understanding specific international markets 3.5 3.4 3.7Adapting recruiting efforts internationally 3.5 3.5 3.4Achieving and maintaining academic quality/performance standards 3.4 3.4 3.3Achieving and maintaining English/French language proficiency levels 3.4 3.5 3.1Achieving and maintaining an appropriate balance between domestic and 3.3 3.4 3.0international students on campusUnderstanding and providing for unique cultural/religious student 3.3 3.2 3.4needsLack of faculty interest and involvement 3.2 3.2 3.1Achieving and maintaining off-campus social/community integration 3.1 3.2 2.9 Base: Total – n=65 Respondents: Universities – n=45; Colleges – n=20 18
  • Survey of International StudentProspects 5Highlights: Prospect InternationalStudentsPriority factors in selecting adestination school
  • • of the 5000+ private high school students in India Higher Education Plans Level of Intention for Studying Abroad Among All Students n=5,117 Among Students Expecting/Considering Studies Outside India, n=1,070 I expect to twenty-one percent are study outside expecting (13%) or considering Very likely 54% India, 13%I dont plan to (8%) studies outside of India I’m continue to considering Higher studying Education, Somewhat likely 29% outside India, 37% 8% Not at all likely 1% I will continue to Don`t know 16% study in India, 42% 20
  • Students who are interested in studies abroad are more likely to be considering graduate studies. 33% Business graduate degree (MBA) 29% 21% Masters degree (e.g. MA, MSc) 16% Considering/Expecting to Study Outside of India, n=1070 15% Doctorate degree (PhD) 10% Not considering Studies Outside of India, n=2139 9% University bachelor’s degree 10% 8%Professional diploma (e.g. art, design, computers) 8% 7% Law degree 7% 4% Medical degree (MD, DDS, DVS) 7% 1% Teaching degree 1% 14% Don’t know Multiple Mentions 13% 21
  • Very Important Somewhat Important Not Important MeanTop Student Academic reputation of institution Quality of faculty (professors/instructors) 59% 68% 13% 19% 19% 21% 2.5 2.4Priorities Academic reputation of program/major 57% 22% 21% 2.4 Reputation for student experience 51% 24% 25% 2.3Reputation Graduates get high-quality jobs Campus safety/security 47% 46% 24% 23% 30% 31% 2.2 2.2 Graduates get into top professional and grad schools 46% 25% 29% 2.2Quality High-profile research 46% 30% 24% 2.2 39 High admission grade point average 45% 33% 23% 2.2Faculty/Instructors Undergraduate research opportunities 44% 32% 25% 2.2Student Experience Professor/instructor-student interaction Institutional rankings/guidebook ratings 42% 42% 27% 31% 30% 27% 2.1 2.2 Influence Opportunities for student leadership Personal attention during application/admission process 39% 38% 31% 28% 35% 30% 2.1 2.0 FactorsHigh quality jobs Attractive campus 37% 34% 30% 2.1 Co-op programs/internships 36% 33% 31% 2.1 Tuition costs 35% 27% 38%Research / Leadership Availability of financial support for international students 35% 27% 37% 2.0 2.0Opportunities Campus housing/residences 35% 35% 30% 2.1 Off-campus urban life 35% 35% 30% 2.1 National/professional accreditation 34% 32% 34% 2.0Lowest Student Part-time job opportunities Costs of attending, excluding tuition 33% 33% 30% 30% 37% 38% 2.0 2.0Priorities Clubs and social activities Recreational sports/fitness facilities 33% 32% 35% 36% 33% 32% 2.0 2.0Small classes Acceptance of my previous credits Easy to get accepted 28% 27% 32% 31% 40% 42% 1.9 1.9 Availability of off-campus housing 25% 39% 36% 1.9History / Tradition Online access to lecture videos and materials Small class sizes 24% 23% 34% 37% 39% 44% 1.9 1.8 History/tradition of school 21% 37% 42% 1.8Student Diversity Relevant industry in the area 20% 29% 51% 1.7 1.8 Diversity of student population 18% 40% 41% Large student population 15% 39% 47% 1.7Surrounding Religious considerations 14% 24% 63% 1.5 Small student population 13% 33% 54% 1.6Community Small surrounding community 12% 32% 56% 1.6 Institution is close to family 12% 21% 68% 1.4 Attending the school your parent(s) or other family member… 10% 17% 73% 1.4 22
  • DISCUSSION International Education… the greatest thing since `sliced bread` … or a policy bubble1…1. Leach, M. ``Bursting Bubbles in Higher Education` in Blue Skies: New thinking about the future of higher education. A collection of short articles by leading commentators; p 58; UK 2012 ed. London Pearson. See also pearsonblueskies.com 23
  • DISCUSSION1. Personal and career development for the IS students through the education and experience of living and studying in Canada.Personal development and the ‘quality’ of the Canadian education are not examinedin this study. However, this research identifies several disconnects betweeninternational student aspirations and institutional realities:• Over half of administrators acknowledge support services are lagging IS growth• Few institutions have established IS specific programing in • Career’ goal development • Leadership development • Graduate program advising 24
  • DISCUSSION2. Enhanced learning and personal development for the domestic student populationresulting from studying alongside international students.While it is reasonable to speculate that some vicarious exchange of learning andpersonal growth is almost certainly associated exposure to international students; thisresearch illustrates that:• Almost no institutions have established curriculum and/or programming intentionally designed to promote the exchange of culture and perspective between domestic and international students.• Among the top 5 challenges were: • Achieving and maintaining on-campus social/community integration • Achieving and maintaining a balance of international student enrolment across programs/Faculties• Impact on domestic students is not known or understood 25
  • DISCUSSION3. Financial benefits for the host institution deriving primarily from the higher tuitionand related local spending, but also the potential for IS students to benefit the nationthrough permanent immigration.In most respects this goal should be the easiest to quantify and, indeed, estimates ofthe financial gains associated with IS are available. However; these findings collectivelysuggest several limitations and challenges in this area:• Given that support services are seriously lagging recruitment growth, the real costs of IS are not evident.• IS administrators consider “achieving and maintaining on-campus social/community integration” among the top 5 challenges. If not addressed effectively this challenge increases the potential for negative IS student experience and consequential negative public relations. • For better or for worse – the International student experience falls almost entirely on the institution 26
  • RECOMMENDATIONSThree major recommendations for Canada and other countries:1. National and sub-national governments must work more effectively togetherto develop not only strategies, but also mechanisms for monitoring success.The goal should be to provide a reliable basis for learning from IS studentexperiences in order to better meet the aspirations of these students and tomore firmly establish a meaningful service contract of value to all stakeholders(including the institution’s and the communitys aspirational goals).2. There needs to be a broader discussion and recognition of the full costs ofrecruiting and retaining IS students in Canada. It seems clear that most post-secondary institutions maintain an abiding focus on increasing IS studentenrolments in the absence of a concomitant plan and commitment to ensurethat funding is available to support IS Students properly and thus to ensureeducational and career outcomes worthy of Canadian institutions. 27
  • RECOMMENDATIONSThree major recommendations for Canada and other countries:3. Post-secondary institutions need to effectively shift their focus from IS students as a “commodity” to a “values” perspective that recognizes IS student educational and career aspirations. This may involve a reprioritization of services offered, to focus more on graduate program counselling, professional development, and internship programs, or the development of whole new offerings that link IS students directly to their chosen career path—whether in Canada, or their own countries. 28
  • Thank YouRod Skinkle, M.A.Sheila Embleton Ph.DTed Hewitt Ph.D