OECD WORK ON
PUBLIC GOVERNANCE AND
TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT
2015
Governments are there to establish sound economic, social and political
frameworks for citizens and business. After years ...
OECD Public Governance and Territorial
Development Directorate
Our mission is to be the leading international source of po...
Given the governance failures that contributed
to the financial crisis and against a background
of increasing unemployment...
Overview
We support policy makers in both OECD member and non-
member countries by providing a forum for policy dialogue
a...
WhatistheOECD?Rebuilding trust in government
How can we measure trust in
government?
How can we strengthen the relationshi...
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
% in 2012 (right axis) P...
Sound public budgets
and finances
How can countries strengthen fiscal
governance, combat deficits, and tackle
debt sustain...
General government fiscal balance as a percentage of GDP (2001, 2009 and 2011) 	
General government debt as a percentage o...
DataongovernmentbudgetsPublic sector innovation
How can governments keep improving
their services in the face of budget cu...
Firms using the Internet to interact with public authorities by type of activity (2011)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
E...
Does good government make people feel
measurably better about their lives?
How can the private sector use
government data ...
9 782
4 385
3 783
3 317
2 323
1 948
1 338
944 849
694 568 540 486 347
185 119
359
2 000
4 000
6 000
8 000
10 000
188 921
N...
Clean Government
How can citizens’ trust in government be
restored?
How can political finance be reformed so
that a countr...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Accessing tender documents and specifications eTendering in own country%
Percentage of ente...
Regulation
Can good regulation prevent another
financial and economic crisis?
Can we make regulation so good that it
boost...
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Reports published on the level of compliance by government departments
with the requirements of RIA
Req...
Cities
How can national policies help “get cities right”
for job-rich growth?
How can cities more effectively tackle clima...
38%
40%
47% 48% 49% 50% 51% 52% 53% 55% 55% 55% 55% 56% 56% 58% 59%
64% 65% 65%
68% 69% 69%
73% 73% 74% 74%
78%
81%
83%
87...
Regional development
What drives growth in different types of regions?
What serves to integrate rural and urban areas in a...
Cities
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Belgium
Netherlands
UnitedKingdom
Korea
Germany
Portugal
Japan
Italy
OECD25
Spain
...
Risk governance
How can governments ensure their
responses to disaster are based on tried
and tested principles rather tha...
Public administration reform
How can countries in transition achieve
democracy and a free-market economy?
What political a...
Public Governance Reviews
How can public policy help achieve
positive outcomes for citizens and
businesses?
How can govern...
Notes
Notes
Secretary-General
AngelGurría
Deputy
Secretary-General
WilliamDANVERS
Deputy
Secretary-General
RintaroTAMAKI
Deputy
Secret...
www.oecd.org/gov
@OECDgov
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OECD work on Public Governance and Territorial Development

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Brochure outlining OECD work on Public Governance and Territorial Development. More information can be found at www.oecd.org/gov

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OECD work on Public Governance and Territorial Development

  1. 1. OECD WORK ON PUBLIC GOVERNANCE AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT 2015
  2. 2. Governments are there to establish sound economic, social and political frameworks for citizens and business. After years of policies driven by the crisis, governments need to restore trust and demonstrate their capabilities as stewards of the public interest. It is a huge task to repair the social contract. The policy-making processes must become more open, inclusive and fair, and the delivery of public services must be efficient and innovative. www.oecd.org/gov @OECDgov
  3. 3. OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate Our mission is to be the leading international source of policy solutions, data, expertise and good practice for governments and other stakeholders seeking to strengthen public policymaking in the face of unprecedented economic, social and fiscal pressures. We strive to: • Highlight the crucial role of public sector economics and governance for economic and social well-being. • Promote the strategic capacity of government. • Review the role of the state and its choice of policy instruments. • Improve the efficiency and transparency of public service design and delivery, focusing in particular on innovation, trust and citizen engagement. • Foster balanced, inclusive growth that maximizes the potential of cities and regions as drivers of national performance. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international body that promotes policies to improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world. It is made up of 34 member countries, a secretariat in Paris, and a committee, drawn from experts from government and other fields, for each work area covered by the organisation. The OECD provides a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems. We collaborate with governments to understand what drives economic, social and environmental change. We measure productivity and global flows of trade and investment. What is the OECD?
  4. 4. Given the governance failures that contributed to the financial crisis and against a background of increasing unemployment and widening inequalities, governments need to rebuild trust in public institutions. Restoring trust in the ability of government to regulate markets, manage public finances, deliver the services that citizens expect and ensure access to opportunity for citizens in all parts of the national territory is a key element of a return to sustainable and inclusive growth. The Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate works with governments to help them improve the quality of government. It helps national and local administrations to design and implement evidence-based and innovative policies that will strengthen public governance, enable them to respond effectively to economic and social challenges, and deliver on commitments to citizens. The current economic and fiscal crisis makes it urgent that these broad aims are applied to a host of specific problems. These include: • Helping return member states to fiscal health. • Improving the quality of regulation. • Improving health outcomes for an ageing population at a time when public budgets are under pressure. • Enabling states to meet infrastructure needs at a time when money for capital spending is short. Governments will for the foreseeable future have to do more and better with less. The Directorate’s role is to help them accomplish this. It’sallabouttrust www.oecd.org/gov/trust-in-government.htm
  5. 5. Overview We support policy makers in both OECD member and non- member countries by providing a forum for policy dialogue and for the creation of common standards and principles. We provide policy reviews and practical recommendations targeted to the reform priorities of specific governments. Through published reports, we provide comparative international data and analysis to support innovation and reform. Our partners include government officials acting as peer reviewers of each other’s work, as well as experts from the private sector, civil society organisations and trade unions. The work programme is decided and monitored by three committees made up of senior government officials from every OECD member country: the Public Governance, Regulatory Policy and Regional Development Policy Committees. These Committees also draw on networks of specialised practitioners in the following areas : • Senior Budget Officials • Public Management and Employment • Public Sector Integrity • E-Government • Senior Officials from Centres of Government • Global Network of Schools of Government • High-level Risk Forum • Economic Regulators • Territorial Policy in Rural Areas • Territorial Policy in Urban Areas • Territorial Indicators Networks Publications We publish our findings in key “flagship” publications such as Government at a Glance, Restoring Public Finances, Regions at a Glance and the Regional Outlook; in national and regional reviews on topics such as public governance, regulatory reform, integrity, human resources management, e-government, budgeting and regional policy; and in cross-cutting thematic reports.
  6. 6. WhatistheOECD?Rebuilding trust in government How can we measure trust in government? How can we strengthen the relationship between citizens and government? How can public institutions become more “trustworthy? The crisis strained the relationship between government and citizens, and this in turn reduces the ability of governments to act. Only around 40% of citizens in the OECD say they trust their government. Dissatisfaction with the performance of public actors and institutions has led to global street protests and huge-volume social media campaigns. These movements have questioned the notion of the state as the careful and competent steward of the public interest, heightened by serious concerns about fairness in fiscal consolidation and the sacrifices involved in structural adjustment for growth. Trust is now recognised as a key determinant of policy effectiveness, reduced uncertainty and low transaction costs. In the current context, marked by unpredictability and tense relations among economic actors, the importance of trust in economic and social outcomes has undoubtedly increased. Citizens and businesses are less likely to support ambitious reform-minded policies in situations of low trust; similarly compliance with regulation and tax obligations can also be affected. OECD has wide experience with analysing aspects of public trust through its work on strategic policymaking at the centre of government, risk management, public sector integrity, regulatory policy and open government. Citizenslooktogovernmentstoleadtheway.Withoutstrong leadership,supportedbyeffectivepolicies,trustiseasilyeroded. Goodgovernancemeansputtingtheneedsofpeopleatthecentreof policy-making. www.oecd.org/gov/trust-in-government.htm
  7. 7. -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % in 2012 (right axis) Percentage point change 2007-2012 (left axis) Percentage points % Confidence in national government in 2012 and its change since 2007 Arranged in descending order according to percentage point change between 2007 and 2012 Trust in political parties is much lower than trust in government in Europe over time (2005-13) Satisfaction with public services is higher than trust in government (2012) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Trust in political parties Trust in national government 40% 51% 72% 66% 71% 0 20 40 60 80 100 National government Judicial system Local policeEducation system Health care OECD Maximum Minimum Source: Gallup World Poll Source: Eurobarometer (database), OECD calculations Source: Gallup World Poll
  8. 8. Sound public budgets and finances How can countries strengthen fiscal governance, combat deficits, and tackle debt sustainability issues? How can countries address rising health care costs while trying to meet their fiscal objectives? How can governments harness private expertise and financing to deliver public infrastructure services more cost effectively? Through its network of Senior Budget Officials (SBO), GOV supports countries in sound and sustainable fiscal management through objective analysis of policies and data. The OECD promotes greater budget transparency on the part of governments, as the best way to retain crucial public support and international confidence. The OECD Network of Parliamentary Budget Officials and Independent Fiscal Institutions (PBO) contributes to transparency efforts and promotes better budget oversight. A joint venture of the SBO and the OECD’s Health Committee, the OECD Joint Network on Fiscal Sustainability of Health Systems looks at how to rein in costs while delivering improvements in access, service quality, and capacity for innovation. If used right, PPPs can be a cost efficient way to deliver public services and meet infrastructure demands. The 2012 Principles for Public Governance of PPPs provide road tested guidance on how to ensure that a PPP represents social returns and is the most cost efficient mode of delivery (value for money), is affordable for users and the public budget, and that any fiscal risks stemming from PPPs are managed prudently and transparently. Highexpectationsonthepartofcitizensandlimitedfiscalspaceareforcing governmentstodeviseevermoreinventiveapproachestomanagingpublic fundsandmaintainingqualityservicedelivery. www.oecd.org/gov/budgeting
  9. 9. General government fiscal balance as a percentage of GDP (2001, 2009 and 2011) General government debt as a percentage of GDP (2001, 2009 and 2011) Distribution of general government revenues across levels of government (2001 and 2011) -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Ireland UnitedStates Greece Spain Japan UnitedKingdom NewZealand Slovenia Iceland Canada France SlovakRepublic Poland Netherlands Israel Portugal Australia Belgium Italy OECD CzechRepublic Austria Denmark Finland Turkey Germany Chile Luxembourg Mexico Sweden Switzerland Estonia Korea Hungary Norway India SouthAfrica Ukraine Brazil China RussianFederation Indonesia % 2011 2009 2001 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 Japan Italy Canada UnitedKingdom Ireland UnitedStates Greece Belgium France Portugal Germany Hungary Israel Austria OECD Spain Netherlands Poland Denmark Finland Slovenia Sweden SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Australia Switzerland Korea Norway Luxembourg Chile Estonia Mexico India Brazil SouthAfrica Ukraine China Indonesia RussianFederation % 2011 2009 2001 0 20 40 60 80 100 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 GBR NZL NOR MEX IRL ISR ISL GRC PRT EST DNK CZE HUN LUX TUR AUS KOR NLD SWE BEL USA SVN POL ITA SVK AUT FIN CAN FRA CHE ESP DEU JPN OECD Central government State government Local government Social security%% Source: Government at a Glance, OECD, 2013 Source: Government at a Glance, OECD, 2013 Source: OECD National Accounts Statistics (database)
  10. 10. DataongovernmentbudgetsPublic sector innovation How can governments keep improving their services in the face of budget cuts? How can they use data to improve their performance? Can the public sector increase its agility and flexibility through e and m-government? Across the OECD, the public sector faces a dilemma: how to meet increasingly diverse demands with shrinking resources. Finding better ways to do more with less is one answer. The Observatory of Public Sector Innovation collects, analyses and shares innovative practices from across the public sector, via an online interactive database. Policy makers are seeking evidence of their performance relative to other countries, and Government at a Glance provides this, with indicators on an increasing range of subjects as diverse as e-government, human resources and freedom of information. Indicators show, for example, which countries have the largest public sectors, which government workers take the least sick leave, and which member states have the highest and lowest teachers’ salaries. E- and m-government are crucial tools for improving the efficiency of government and its responsiveness to its citizen clients. Mobile Technologies for Responsive Governments and Connected Societies looks at how mobile internet devices can sustain public sector innovation and transform public service delivery. ThepublicsectorrepresentsonethirdtoonehalfoftheGDPofmany countries-soidentifying,isolatinganddisseminatinginnovation carrieshugepotentialtoimproveeconomicperformance. www.oecd.org/gov/public-innovation
  11. 11. Firms using the Internet to interact with public authorities by type of activity (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Enterprises using the Internet for interaction with public authorities (derived indicator) Enterprises using Internet to treat an administrative procedure completely electronically Citizens using the Internet to interact with public authorities by type of activity (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Internet use: interaction with public authorities (last 12 months) Internet use: sending filled forms (last 12 months) Citizens using the Internet to interact with public authorities by age group (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 25 to 34 years old 16 to 24 years old 65 to 74 years old Source: OECD, ICT Database; and Eurostat, Information Society Statistics (database) Source: OECD, ICT Database; and Eurostat, Information Society Statistics (database) Source: OECD, ICT Database; and Eurostat, Information Society Statistics (database)
  12. 12. Does good government make people feel measurably better about their lives? How can the private sector use government data to create value? Citizens in OECD countries are calling on governments to be more open about the way they design and deliver policies, and expect their views to be taken into account when policies are designed. The OECD Guiding Principles for Open and Inclusive Policy Making are based on the conviction that open government produces happier outcomes. The eight principles include clarity, commitment and time: public consultation and active participation should be undertaken as early as possible. This will allow a greater range of policy solutions to emerge, boosting the chances of successful implementation. Countries are moving forward with the implementation of open government policies and these efforts have resulted in an international movement, the Open Government Partnership, in which 19 OECD Member countries have commitments. The MENA-OECD Open Government Project assists the Governments of Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Libya in reviewing and assessing their institutions, policies and practices supporting the implementation of Open Government principles at central and local level. The project also coordinates mechanisms across levels of government and with national civil society. The project contributes to improving both Open Government policies and practices and to meeting the OGP eligibility criteria and prepare and implement the required country action plans through ad-hoc support and capacity building. Themorecitizensparticipateintheirowngovernance,thebetter governanceis.Governmentworksbestwhenitisofthepeople,by thepeopleandforthepeople. www.oecd.org/gov/mena-open-government.htm Open government
  13. 13. 9 782 4 385 3 783 3 317 2 323 1 948 1 338 944 849 694 568 540 486 347 185 119 359 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 188 921 Number of datasets in centralised one-stop shop open government data portal (2013) Asset disclosure: Level of disclosure of private interests and public availability of information (2012) Percentage of individuals who have taken part in an online consultation or voting 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Shareofcitizens 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 HIGHLEVELMEDIUMLLEVELLOWLEVEL Source: 2013 OECD Survey on Open Data Government Source: 2012 OECD Survey on Managing Conflict of Interest Source: Eurostat, Information Society Statistics (database)
  14. 14. Clean Government How can citizens’ trust in government be restored? How can political finance be reformed so that a country’s leaders can be elected fairly? How can public procurement be made to build projects that improve people’s lives, rather than white elephants? In some countries, citizens’ confidence in government has been battered by the crisis. In others, a belief that corruption is common has eroded trust. Without the trust of citizens and confidence of markets, governments will be unable to make the structural reforms required to tackle the continuing fiscal crisis. OECD work on Integrity in the public sector addresses these problems. It looks at how to improve the transparency and integrity of decision-making, and sets out global standards for budget transparency and safeguarding integrity in the public sector. Past scandals have made citizens particularly concerned about political financing. OECD countries are strengthening the control of private funding in response to new risks, such as third-party financing, which offers new ways for contributors to distribute their donations and circumvent existing regulations. However, these measures are not in themselves enough to create a fully open political finance system. OECD is working to explore how countries can go further. Public procurement has the power to boost economic growth, but also - if badly handled - to waste billions of dollars through the massive misallocation of resources. The OECD formulates Principles for Enhancing Integrity in Public Procurement, drawing from the lessons learned in country reviews. These include transparency, good management and purpose - making sure public funds are used in public procurement for the object originally intended. Only22%ofOECDcountriesdemandthefulldisclosureoftheidentityofalldonors topoliticalpartiesandcandidates. www.oecd.org/gov/ethics/procurement
  15. 15. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Accessing tender documents and specifications eTendering in own country% Percentage of enterprises using electronic procurement systems (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 HIGHLEVELMEDIUMLLEVELLOWLEVEL Asset disclosure: Level of disclosure of private interests and public availability of information 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Shareofcitizens Percentage of individuals who have taken part in an online consultation or voting Source: Eurostat Source: OECD Survey on Managing Conflict of Interest Source: Eurostat, Information Society Statistics (database)
  16. 16. Regulation Can good regulation prevent another financial and economic crisis? Can we make regulation so good that it boosts economic growth? How can ‘choice architecture’ improve people’s decisions without taking away their freedom? Poor regulation is seen as one of the main causes of the credit crunch, and therefore of the continuing financial crisis. OECD Work on regulatory Policy addresses problems in regulatory systems, including the weakness of regulatory bodies, the misalignment of incentives and the lack of adequate enforcement and compliance. High- quality regulation creates certainty and promotes the rule of law, but also has important economic effects such as levelling the playing field for businesses. It has created a list of principles for good regulation - calling, for example, for consultation and impact assessments in the early stages of the policy process. At the same time, –reducing “red tape” and excessive regulation is also important. The OECD has studied the successful administrative simplification programmes of The Netherlands and Portugal, and continues to monitor this theme actively. There is an acute need to understand the links between good regulatory quality and sustainable growth. The GOV has organised a series of roundtables on the theme of Regulatory Reform for Growth, including the role of various actors of change across government and their unexplored potential for furthering growth, and taking stock of pro-growth regulatory measures in times of crisis. One of the most exciting new areas in regulation is the use of behavioural economics. If done well, this can improve outcomes without using traditional command and control mechanisms, by allowing citizens and business to retain choices but gently nudging them in a particular direction. The key phrase is “choice architecture”: a structure that changes behaviour without diminishing choice. Goodregulationcanboostinvestment,unlockproductivity,promotesocialinclusion, andincreasecompetitiveness.Badregulationcanbringacountrytoitsknees. www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy
  17. 17. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Reports published on the level of compliance by government departments with the requirements of RIA Required to release RIA documents for consultation Views expressed in the consultation processes of subordinate regulations included in RIA Views expressed in the consultation processes of primary laws included in RIA Number of OECD countries 2005 2008 34 Transparency of central government RIA (2005 and 2008) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 There is a policy in place on risk-based enforcement Written guidance on compliance and/or enforcement issues is available to regulators There are specific policies in place on developing compliance-friendly regulation RIA requires regulators to explicitly consider compliance and enforcement issues when preparing new regulation Regulatory policies explicitly require that securing compliance and enforcement be anticipated when developing new regulation Number of OECD countries 2005 2008 34 Regulatory compliance and enforcement issues at the central government level (2005 and 2008) Requirement for RIA at the central government level: quantification of costs and benefits (1998, 2005 and 2008) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Requirement to quantify the costs Requirement to quantify the benefits Requirement to quantify the costs Requirement to quantify the benefits Requirement to quantify the costs Requirement to quantify the benefits NumberofOECDcountries Only for major regulations Always 34 1998 2005 2008 Source: OECD Regulatory Management Systems’ Indicators Survey 2005 and 2008/09 Source: OECD Regulatory Management Systems’ Indicators Survey 1998, 2005, and 2008/09 Source: OECD Regulatory Management Systems’ Indicators Survey 2005 and 2008
  18. 18. Cities How can national policies help “get cities right” for job-rich growth? How can cities more effectively tackle climate change and achieve greener growth? How can better governance of urban areas improve residents’ well-being? Cities of all sizes are critical to economic progress. Across the globe, cities are motors of growth and innovation. Overall, they are characterised by higher levels of productivity and income and, across the OECD, productivity and wages increase with city size. While in some countries the largest cities make the biggest contribution to aggregate growth, the contribution of small and medium-sized cities is very significant. Large cities have enormous potential for job creation, innovation and green growth, as do dynamic medium-sized cities. Cities are the hubs and gateways in global networks, such as trade or transport. However, while productivity, wages and the availability of many important amenities generally increase with city size, so do pollution, housing prices, congestion, inequality and crime. These negative effects of “agglomeration” can reduce trust and well-being. They can be substantially mitigated by national and city level policies that ensure access to jobs and employment, equal opportunities in education, decent housing, adequate healthcare, efficient transport and safe neighbourhoods. What policies can help cities and metropolitan areas become more competitive, sustainable and inclusive over the long term? The OECD conducts in-depth analyses of national-level policies related to urban development, as well as reviews of cities and their greater metropolitan areas, to evaluate current policies and propose strategies for boosting economic growth, improving environmental performance and fostering social inclusion. Thematic research on cities covers a wide range of topics: climate change and green growth; water and cities; demographic change; metropolitan governance; rural-urban linkages; and more. The OECD Metro Database and Metro eXplorer provide comparable international data for urban and metropolitan areas relating to GDP, CO2 emissions, sprawl, innovation and more. This unique database helps compare “apples to apples” across the OECD through measurement approach that defines cities in terms of the density of settlement and activity rather than as administrative units. The OECD Roundtable of Mayors and Ministers is the pre-eminent international forum for policy dialogue on urban issues between local and national leaders. By2050asmuchastwo-thirdsoftheworld’spopulationmaybelivingin cities. www.oecd.org/regional/regional-policy/urbandevelopment.htm http://measuringurban.oecd.org/#
  19. 19. 38% 40% 47% 48% 49% 50% 51% 52% 53% 55% 55% 55% 55% 56% 56% 58% 59% 64% 65% 65% 68% 69% 69% 73% 73% 74% 74% 78% 81% 83% 87% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Over two-thirds of people in the OECD live in cities of all sizes Thessalonica Valparaíso Porto Brno Geneva Las Palmas Eindhoven Helsinki Stockholm Brussels Raleigh Lublin Graz Nagasaki Portsmouth Ottawa-Gatineau Freiburg im Breisgau Toulon Cheongju Palermo Saltillo Tallinn Athens Copenhagen Santiago Ljubljana Lisbon Prague Zurich Bilbao Dublin Rotterdam Helsinki Malmö Bratislava Ghent Baton Rouge Katowice Budapest Oslo Linz Himeji Leeds Edmonton Aachen Rouen Ulsan Venice Tampico -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Estonia (#1) Greece (#2) Denmark (#1) Chile (#3) Slovenia (#1) Portugal (#2) Czech Republic (#3) Switzerland (#3) Spain (#8) Ireland (#1) Netherlands (#5) Finland (#1) Sweden (#3) Slovak Republic (#1) Belgium (#4) United States (#70) Poland (#8) Hungary (#1) Norway (#1) Austria (#3) Japan (#36) United Kingdom (#15) Canada (#9) Germany (#24) France (#15) Korea (#10) Italy (#11) Mexico (#33) Largest metropolitan value Lowest metropolitan value %100 = countryCountry ( # of cities) 38 40 46 47 47 49 49 49 50 50 54 54 57 57 58 60 60 62 62 63 65 66 72 74 75 80 Bratislava Amsterdam Madrid Warsaw Helsinki Ljubljana Lisbon Prague Stockholm Berlin Vienna Milan Toronto London Brussels Dublin Santiago Copenhagen Mexico City New York Tallinn Seoul Incheon Budapest Paris Tokyo Athens 0 20 40 60 80 100 Slovak Republic (#1) Netherlands (#5) Spain (#8) Poland (#8) Finland (#1) Slovenia (#1) Portugal (#2) Czech Republic (#3) Sweden (#3) Germany (#24) Austria (#3) Italy (#11) Canada (#9) United Kingdom (#15) Belgium (#4) Ireland (#1) OECD (26) (#271) Chile (#3) Denmark (#1) Mexico (#33) United States (#70) Estonia (#1) Korea (#10) Hungary (#1) France (#15) Japan (#36) Greece (#2) All metropolitan areas Largest contributor Country ( # of cities) % Large cities make significant contributions to GDP growth Cities are critical for reducing CO2 emissions Source: Regions at a Glance 2013 Source: Regions at a Glance 2013 Source: Regions at a Glance 2013 Per cent of population in urban areas of 50 000 or more, 2012 Country (# of cities) Share of national growth in gross domestic product from metropolitan areas of 500 0000 or more, 2000-2010 Range of CO2 emissions per capita for metropolitan areas of 500 000 or more, 2008
  20. 20. Regional development What drives growth in different types of regions? What serves to integrate rural and urban areas in a region? What types of governance arrangements help regions and national governments work effectively together? Regional development policies contribute to national performance. While a few hub regions contribute significantly to OECD growth, around two- thirds of that growth comes from the vast majority of other regions. Traditionally, policy debates have focused on trade-offs, not synergies, between efficiency, environmental sustainability and equity objectives. Today, however, there is a growing awareness of the need to pursue them in a more balanced and complementary way. Regions are therefore the “places” where policies meet people. The flagship biennial reports Regional Outlook and Regions at a Glance illustrate the latest trends in regional performance and different aspects of policies that impact regional development. The OECD has also developed public accessible statistical databases to answer the increasing demand for data at the regional level. In addition to reviews of national regional development policies, the OECD conducts considerable research on different types of places. Cities are important generators of wealth and employment, playing a leading role in national economies and housing over two-thirds of the OECD population. However, in some cases, rural regions are growing faster than their urban counterparts. They are also strongly linked with urban areas in a wide range of rural-urban interactions for economic activity, natural resources and other ties. Reviews of rural policy in a country, along with thematic work on modern rural development approaches such as rural-urban partnerships, is part of OECD work on regional development. Most policies are implemented by national as well as regional and local governments. In fact, over 70% of public investment in the vital infrastructure underpinning competitiveness and well-being is undertaken by sub-national governments. The OECD has developed a set of good practice principles for national and sub-national governments to work better together. Other research considers the role of different governance arrangements to implement policies as efficiently and effectively as possible. The world is not flat for innovation activity. Some regions are technology hotspots while others need to adopt innovations created elsewhere in their local clusters. OECD studies on regions and innovation provide guidance on how to do so. Onaverage,39%ofoverallemploymentgrowthand42%ofGDPgrowthin OECDcountriesinthelastdecadewereaccountedforbyjust10%ofregions. www.oecd.org/regional/regional-policy http://stats.oecd.org/OECDregionalstatistics/#
  21. 21. Cities 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Belgium Netherlands UnitedKingdom Korea Germany Portugal Japan Italy OECD25 Spain Switzerland NewZealand Greece France Ireland Finland Denmark Hungary Poland Austria Sweden SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Norway Estonia Slovenia Predominantely urban Intermediate Predominantely rural All types of regions contribute to national GDP Source: Regions at a Glance 2013 Some regions are more productive than others Distribution of GDP by region type, 2010 Range in regional Gross Domestic Product per worker, 2010 86 81 83 73 78 78 81 86 75 75 72 74 65 75 71 74 87 64 73 71 70 69 58 73 51 62 67 65 42 34 115 112 118 112 119 121 125 130 119 119 125 129 125 138 134 143 157 136 146 151 163 164 163 178 185 225 243 260 326 493 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Norway Slovenia Spain Denmark Austria Finland Belgium Australia (TL2) Hungary Sweden Greece Estonia Ireland Canada (TL2) Germany Slovak Republic Netherlands Italy Czech Republic United States (TL2) Japan New Zealand Portugal France Poland Korea Switzerland Mexico (TL2) Chile (TL2) United Kingdom % MinimumvalueMaximumvalue 78 81 86 75 75 72 74 65 75 71 74 87 64 73 71 70 69 58 73 51 62 67 65 42 34 121 125 130 119 119 125 129 125 138 134 143 157 136 146 151 163 164 163 178 185 225 243 260 326493 Minimum value Maximum value Source: Regions at a Glance 2013
  22. 22. Risk governance How can governments ensure their responses to disaster are based on tried and tested principles rather than panic? Should we consider corruption and cyber attacks as hazards on the same scale as natural disasters and pandemics? What can we learn from crises that have hit OECD member countries? Against a perception of increasingly frequent natural and man-made disasters, the High-Level Risk Forum was set up in 2011 to look at how to increase society’s resilience to global threats. The Forum, which brings together senior national policymakers, examines a broad range of potential hazards including natural disasters and pandemics, financial crises, terrorism and cyber attacks. It has produced practical tools to fight the global threat of corruption, which destroys local economies by reducing legitimate business revenues, fuelling conflict and worsening social conditions. The Forum works with the OECD’s Insurance and Private Pension Committee and the G20 on disaster risk management, including risk assessment and financing strategies. OECD has set out Principles for Country Risk Management - policy recommendations that cover the full risk management cycle, starting with risk assessment and moving on to mitigation, crisis management and communication, and finally recovery. They are designed to inform and support country practices, to help develop systematic checklists in the public sector that will increase preparedness for major risks. OECD has also drawn up eight recommendations for Building Resilient Regions after a Natural Disaster, as part of a long-term programme of policy work following the 2009 earthquake that ravaged the Italian city of L’Aquila. The policy recommendations include fostering public participation in decision-making, and using lessons from a regional crisis to introduce reforms for the country as a whole. Theincreasedmobilityofgoods,capital,peopleandinformationhascreated “perfectstorm”conditionsforsevereglobalshocks. www.oecd.org/gov/risk
  23. 23. Public administration reform How can countries in transition achieve democracy and a free-market economy? What political and economic reforms are needed to build trust in governments? How can countries benefit from international experience to design their own systems of governance? An effective public administration helps to provide citizens with high quality public services. The Support for Improvement in Governance and Management (SIGMA) programme works with 19 countries, largely non-OECD member states, to assist reforms that will support their aspirations for democracy and the rule of law. SIGMA provides advice and support in five professional areas of public governance, as well as evidence- based reviews of progress to identify areas for further improvement: • Civil service and public administration organisation and functioning • Policy making • Public finance and audit • Public procurement • Strategies for public administration reforms. While facilitating international co-operation with countries, SIGMA encourages partner countries to take ownership of the implementation of reforms and to build their planning and monitoring capacities. Goodgovernanceiskeytoachievinghigherqualitypublicservices andgrowth. www.sigmaweb.org A joint initiative of the OECD and the EU, principally financed by the EU.
  24. 24. Public Governance Reviews How can public policy help achieve positive outcomes for citizens and businesses? How can governments steer implementation of public policies efficiently and effectively? The global financial crisis has sharpened the importance of efficient and effective public governance, as governments grapple with complex and interlocking public policies in an often tight fiscal environment. OECD Public Governance Reviews provide governments with a 360 degree perspective on their performance, and where this needs to be improved, to strengthen a country’s potential for sustainable and inclusive growth. Launched in 2007, Public Governance Reviews have helped strengthen public governance and leadership and facilitate positive change in OECD member and non-member countries. The Reviews highlight interactions between key building blocks of good governance in the context of the countries’ priorities and reform plans. They can address specific sectors or policies and their governance framework. Supported by peer reviewers and experts, based on partnerships with requesting countries and tailored to their needs, the Reviews involve all relevant actors within and outside governments. They offer strategic diagnostic and actionable recommendations, as well as capacity building and implementation support. Goodgovernanceiskeytoachievestrategicpublicpolicygoals,andtoboost sustainableandequitablegrowthandwell-being. http://oe.cd/public-governance-reviews
  25. 25. Notes
  26. 26. Notes
  27. 27. Secretary-General AngelGurría Deputy Secretary-General WilliamDANVERS Deputy Secretary-General RintaroTAMAKI Deputy Secretary-General MariKIVINIEMI Director RolfALTER DeputyDirector LuizDEMELLO RegulatoryPolicy NickMALYSHEV HeadofDivision MexicoProgramme MeasuringRegulatory Performance DirectorsOffice Budgetingand PublicExpenditure JonBLONDAL HeadofDivision PolicyAssessmentand Recommendations GovernanceReviews andPartnerships MartinFORST HeadofDivision MENA PublicGovernance Reviews JusticeInstitutions OpenGovernment Programme Gender GlobalForum Accession PublicSector Integrity JanosBERTOK HeadofDivision ProcurementUnit Regional DevelopmentPolicy Joaquim OLIVEIRAMARTINS HeadofDivision TerritorialAnalysis &Statistics UrbanPolicy RuralPolicy WaterGovernance Initiative Reformofthe PublicSector EdwinLAU HeadofDivision E-Government PublicSectorInnovation PublicEmployment& Management StatisticsandIndicators RiskManagement RegionalPoliciesfor Sustainable Development SetsukoSAYA HeadofDivision SIGMAProgramme KarenHILL HeadofProgramme CentralManagementUnit WesternBalkans&Turkey EuropeanNeighbourhood South EuropeanNeighbourhood East Strategy&Reform www.sigmaweb.org CFE CentreforEntrepreneurship, SMEsandLocalDevelopment CTPA CentreforTaxPolicy andAdministration DAF DirectorateforFinancial andEnterpriseAffairs DCD DevelopmentCo-operationDirectorate ECO EconomicsDepartment EDU DirectorateforEducation andSkills ELS DirectorateforEmployment, LabourandSocialAffairs ENV EnvironmentDirectorate GOV PublicGovernanceand TerritorialDevelopmentDirectorate PAC PublicAffairsand CommunicationsDirectorate STD StatisticsDirectorate STI DirectorateforScience, TechnologyandIndustry SAH SahelClub TAD TradeandAgricultureDirectorate APF AfricaPartnershipForum SupportUnit DEV DevelopmentCentre IEA InternationalEnergyAgency RPS InternationalServicefor RemunerationsandPensions ITF InternationalTransportForum NEA OECDNuclearEnergyAgency ListofOECDDirectoratesOrganisationalChart-OECD OrganisationalChart-GOV Deputy Secretary-General StefanKAPFERER
  28. 28. www.oecd.org/gov @OECDgov

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