OECD, 2nd Task Force Meeting on Charting Illicit Trade - Jack Radisch
OECD TASK FORCE ON CHARTING
OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development
2nd Meeting of TF-CIT, Paris, March 5-7 2014
A Network to Fight Illicit Networks
OECD Task Force on
Charting Illicit Trade
Corruption Illicit Financial Flows
Other industries, e.g. Food?
• Nearly 30 percent of global adult alcohol consumption is
• On average 15 percent alcohol consumption in OECD countries is
• Low-income countries have a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol
to total alcohol consumption (approx. 40 – 50 percent) than high-
income countries (approx. 11 – 30 percent) (WHO, 2011).
• Information about counterfeit alcohol is limited to relatively small
Excise tax on alcohol and unrecorded
APC across OECD countries, 2005
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Excise tax as a per cent of the total retail price for 1 litre of pure
Regional breakdown of the global illicit
drug market in 2003, in USD billion
Caribbean, South and Central
Source: adapted from UNODC (2011b), “Estimating illicit financial flows resulting from drug trafficking and other
transnational organized crimes”, United Nations Office of Drug and Crime, accessed on 28 February 2014,
• Illegal share of global tobacco market - 11 %.
• Annual revenue losses USD 40.5 billion .
• Biggest illicit cigarette markets (in absolute
values) are in China, Russia, the United
States and the European Union.
10 largest markets for illicit tobacco (2007)
Note: Figures are based on updated estimates of the illicit cigarette trade from 84 countries around the world, using the latest available estimates from
2007 or as close to 2007 as possible.
Source: Joossens, L. (2011) “Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE): Illicit tobacco trade in Europe: Issues and Solutions”, Pricing
Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE).
EU Brazil Philippines India Indonesia Pakistan Turkey
Relative size (left axis) Absolute size (right axis)
• Annual profits USD 31.6 billion for trafficking 2.45 M persons
across borders (ILO, 2005)
• 460 trafficking flows reported (2007- 2010)
• 20.9 million people were victims of forced labour (2012)
• 73% reported victims trafficked across borders
• Nearly 50 percent of all victims stay within the same
geographical region (2012).
Trafficking in Persons in numbers
• 5 major areas : Wildlife, Timber, Fisheries,
Waste and Chemicals.
• Estimated global value per year $30- $70 B, not
including Wildlife (2009).
Environmentally sensitive goods
• Global losses estimated to reach USD 75
billion in 2010.
• The ratio between illegal and legal
pharmaceuticals is highest in Africa.
• Russia and the Ukraine are trafficking
hubs of counterfeit medicines.
• Convergence where governance and law
enforcement is weak, corruption and
violence is high coupled with a sound
infrastructure for globalization such as
free trade zones.
– Illicit trade in drugs and trafficking in persons
– IUU fishing and trafficking in persons
Convergence of illicit trade
• Find geographical position of transit hubs
• Cross-sectoral data base,
increased/automated information sharing
• Harmonised methodology for