Ocwc global 2013 locwd a vocabulary for ocw based on linked open data technologiesPresentation Transcript
Nelson Piedra, Edmundo Tovar, Janeth Chicaiza, Jorge LópezBali, Indonesia May 8-10, 2013LOCWD: A vocabulary for OpenCourseWarebased on Linked Open Data Technologies@nopiedra @etc91 #ocwcglobal #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData#UTPLLinked OpenCourseWare Data
A challenge to those involved in providingOER/OCW is to establish ways where theycan be easily found touse, reuse, adapt, sharing and remixMotivation: Discovery and Re-use of OpenEducational Resources…@nopiedra #ocwcglobal #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UTPL
Challenges on management of open educational informationgenerated and shared by Organizations(1)Heterogeneous structures, each OCW varies by provider.(2)Large amounts of unstructured, and semi-structured data.(3)Although the collected data from open educational repositoriesmay have certain structure accepted by community, but not all datahave an similar or compatible structure and meaning.(4)Open education materials are shared as Information Silos or"Walled Gardens"Current Situation: Challenges on OER data silos
For those in the Linked Data community, “data”is a very broad term indeed, embracing basicallyanything accessible on the Web.So, what does the term “data” mean?
So far, share and reuse Open EducationalResources can be interpreted as …• Open access for resources and materials,• Legal compatibility of distributed resources,• Improvement accessibility ,and• Usage of open licenses:• Creative Commons Licenses• Public domain@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
However, In OER and OCW scope:Open license is not Enough!Open Educational Resources are made available under a OpenLicense. However, legally free not imply that the OER is easyto discover, use, reuse, adapt, remix, and share.@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
to remember,OPEN: "A piece of knowledge isopen if you are free touse, reuse, and redistribute it"http://www.opendefinition.org/okd
Are OER Really Open?Open Linked Data from Open Educational Content@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
No, there is still much to do.@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
One of the next steps is to open thedata that is contained and isolated inOERs and OCW. The Semantic Webtechnologies offers importantpossibilities.@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
• Semantic Web aids to the discovery, reliable re-useof data, provide improved provenance andfacilitate automated processing by increasedflexibility to changes in presentation and reducedambiguity.• Semantic Web technologies can also help tointegrate the work of disperse institutionsproducing diverse data.The value of the Semantic Web in OpenAcademic Initiatives
In summary, the Linked Data Design Issues, outlined by Tim Berners-Lee backin 2006, provide guidelines on how to use standardized Web technologies toset data-level links between data from different sources (Bizer, 2009). TheseLinked Data Design Issues are:• Use URIs as names for things• Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names• When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using thestandards (RDF, SPARQL)• Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more thingsLinked Data Design Issues
Our vision ofOER is Semantic
Educational Content +Open Licenses +Data in Machine FormatOEREducational Content is for peopleOpen Linked Data is for machinesour semantic vision
LOCWD Vocabulary: LinkedOpenCourseWare Data ontology fordescribe and connect OCW RepositoriesOpen Linked Data from Open Educational Content@nopiedra #ocwcglobal #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UTPL
The Problem:The presence of OCW silosimpedes theinteroperability, discovery, synthesis, and flow of knowledge.It’s difficult to develop tools forconsume data from multiple silos.
The TechnologyLinked data have the potential ofcreate bridges between OCW datasilos. RDF is a way of recording andsharing semantic informationabout resources.
The ProposalTo create a RDFs vocabulary, to interoperateand integrate OCW repositoriesThe use of LinkedOpenCourseWareVocabulary approach on OCW repositoriesprovides the framework for evolving into amore interoperable and integrated systemto share, connect and discover data andmetadata of OCW initiatives.
The SolutionTo create a RDFs vocabulary, to interoperate andintegrate OCW repositories in a machinereadable formatThe purpose of OpenEducationtalResources-Data is toincrease public access to high value, machine readabledatasets generated by volunteers and data extracted fromSerendipity multiagent environment. Machine-readabledata is data (or metadata) which is in a format that can beunderstood by a computer.
The ScopeWe apply Linked Data design approaches to describeand retrieve information that is semantically related toopen educational resources (OCW) accessible via theOCWC and OCW-Universia websites. The collectionunder study consisted of approximately 8000OpenCourseWare (from OCWC and OCW Universiarepositories) in the collection of the OCW-Dataset ofLOCWD Project. This collection contained standard OERmetadata facets, including creatorsnames, language, licenses ofOCW, repositories, tags, knowledgeareas, universities, countries and dates.
LCOWD Vocabulary ModelingCommon data available from OCW websitesare: title, knowledge area, open educationalmaterials, open licenses, repositories, highereducation institutions, content creators, fieldsof knowledge, learningguides, licenses, accessibilityconformance, and others
This vocabulary was calledLinked OpenCourseWare Data (LOCWD)and is available athttp://purl.org/locwd/schema/.
23Conceptual Map: Open Educational Resources Knowledge Domain@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
Riched TagOpenLicenseOEROCWPersonClaim ofConformanceEducationalOrganizationOER RepositoryOCW RepositoryRequirementPermissionProhibitionhas riched tagslicensed with ais a type ofKnowledge Areais a type offoaf:Imagedct:LinguisticSystemlanguagerelated tofoaf:Agenthas imagerights holderaccountablecreatoraccessibilitycompliancecreator / publisherOrganizationacademic unitfoaf:OrganizationOCW Consortiumdbpedia-owl:Countryattributiondbpedia-owl:City located inrelated todct:bibliographicCitationhas bibliostored inpermitshas requirementshas prohibitionsudfrs:legalJurisdictionCodeTypeJurisdiction code typeUdfrs:CountryCodeTypecountryCodeTypeIs part ofis added byOverview Ontology Level 0 from Linked OpenCourseWare Data(LOCWD) vocabulary
Table 1a. Main concepts for Specification of LOCWDVocabulary (1/3)CLASS rdfs:label rdfs:comment owl:equivalentClassOEROpen EducationalResource"OER are teaching, learning, and researchresources that reside in the public domain or havebeen released under an intellectual propertylicense that permits their free use or re-purposingby others. OER include full courses, coursematerials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos,tests, software, and any other …Schema:CreativeWorkOCWOpenCourseWare"An OCW is a free and open digital publication ofhigh quality educational materials, organized ascourses.aiiso:Course, bibo:Course,Schema:CreativeWorkrdfs:subclassOf :OEREducationalOrganizationEducationalOrganization"A college, university, or other third-leveleducational institution that publish their coursematerials for free online, under theOpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative. An Institutionis the upper most level of an academic institution."aiiso:Institution, dbpedia-owl:Organisation, dbpedia-owl:Agent,dbpedia-owl:University,schema:CollegeOrUniversity, dbpedia-owl:EducationalInstitution,schema:Organization,schema:EducationalOrganization,umbelrc:Universityrdfs:subclassOffoaf:OrganizationPersonPerson"The Person class represents humans beings.Thisconcept represents both creators (the peopleresponsible for creating the intellectual content ofOER or for adapting open educational content) andusers of OER/OCW. Examples of subclasses ofperson are creators, students, teachers and self-learners."foaf:Person, schema:Personrdfs:subclassOffoaf:PersonKnowledgeArea Knowledge Area"Knowledge areas are areas of specialization orbranch of knowledge to which open course or openeducational resource belongs."aiiso:KnowledgeGrouping@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
CLASS rdfs:label rdfs:comment owl:equivalentClassOpenLicenseOpen License"A statement about the intellectual property rights (IPR)held in or over a open resource, a legal document givingofficial permission to do something with a resource, or astatement about access, use, reuse, remix and adaptationrights. (…) OER are made available under a CreativeCommons, GNU, FOSS licenses …cc:License, odrl:Agreement,dct:RightsStatementrdfs:subclassOfdct:LicenseDocumentPermission Permission"Permission, an action that generally allows more liberalto use, reuse, redistribution, re-mix and adaptation withattribution of the origin of the OER for academic use andis otherwise in compliance with the open license (e.g.permits commercial derivates actions)."cc:PermissionRequirement Requirement"Requirement, an action that may be requested of user incompliance with the open license. (…) Requirementsdepend on each open license types, e.g. attribution andnotice requirements vary widely among licenses."cc:RequirementProhibition "Prohibition""Prohibition, something that a license may be asked not todo."cc:ProhibitionRichedTag "Riched Tag""A tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to aOCW/OER. This kind of metadata helps describe anresource and allows it to be found again by browsing orsearching. In LOCWD vocabulary, the meaning of a tag isexpresses to through of a tag and an attached URI."Table 1b. Main concepts for Specification of LOCWDVocabulary (2/3)@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
CLASS rdfs:label rdfs:comment owl:equivalentClassOERRepositoryRepository of OpenEducationalResources"A repository that contains Open EducationalResources (OER). An OER requires its creators todeposit resources to be deposited in an Open Accessrepository."Schema:DataCatalog,freebase:Institutional repository, yago-res:Institutional repository,yago:RepositoriesOCWRepositoryRepository ofOpenCourseWare"A repository that contains OCW courses.Schema:DataCatalog,freebase:Institutional repository, yago-res:Institutional repository,yago:Repositoriesrdfs:subclassOf:OERRepositoryTable 1c. Main concepts for Specification of LOCWDVocabulary (3/3)
locwd:OCW Class (subClassOf locwd:OER)Description: An OCW is an open educational resource. The OCW concept is applied to coursematerials created by academic organization and shared freely with the world via the Internet.An OCW is available for use and adaptation under an open license, such as a CreativeCommons license. See properties in table 2.Table 2. Extract of properties of OpenCourseWare classProperty R* rdfs:range NotePrerequisites Y xsd:string Sequence of academic requirements of each courseCourseObjectivesY xsd:string The OCW course expectations are usually expressed as goals andobjectivesSyllabusequivalentTodct:tableOfContentsN rdfs:resource An academic schedule outlining studies and summarizing the topicscovered by the OCW. Syllabuses are established by academicteams, and be design to monitor the teaching quality of the OCWCourse Guide N rdfs:resource Modules or units, suggested learning time, basic learning materialsand readings, exercises and problems, projects, notes, courseworkLecture Notes Y rdfs:resource Additional documents recommended by the authors and to bestudied as part of the course contentsBibliographicCitationY dct:bibliographicCitationA Bibliographic CitationAssessment Y rdfs:resource Descriptions of exercises, self-assessments and projects to becompleted to guarantee the OCW learning progressStore in N OCWRepository Online container where OCW is deposited or stored.Grading N xsd:string Relate the OCW to the description about its grading@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
locwd:OpenLicenseDescription: A legal document giving official permission to do something with a Resource.OER are made available under a Creative Commons, GNU, FOSS licenses or similar licensethat generally allows more liberal use, reuse, redistribution, re-mix and adaptation than atraditional copyrighted work. See an extract of properties in table 3.Table 3. Extract of Properties of OpenLicense class.Label/Property R* rdfs:range EquivalentTo NotePermits Y locwd:Permission cc:permitsdc:rights, dct:rights,rdf:relationA open license permits a particular use ofthe OERRequires Y locwd:Requirementcc:requires,dc:rights, dct:rightsA open license requires certain actions ofthe user when enjoying the permissionsgiven by Permits.Prohibits Y locwd:Prohibition cc.prohibits,dc:rights, dct:rightsA open license prohibits a particular use ofthe OER.Jurisdiction CodeTypeN udfrs:legalJurisdictionCodeTypecc:jurisdiction A open license may have a jurisdiction codetype. A jurisdiction code type associates theopen license with a particular legaljurisdictionCountry CodeTypeN udfrs:countryCodeTypecc:jurisdiction A open license may have a jurisdiction codetype. A country code type associates theopen license with a particular countryDeprecated On N xsd:date cc:deprecatedOn A open license may be deprecated, indicatesthe open license has been deprecated on thegiven date.R* -> Repeatable? [Yes/No]@nopiedra#ocwcglobal#OCW#OER#LOCWD#LinkedData#UTPL
LOCWD describes a vocabulary for describing OCWinformation about OpenCourseWare, OCWRepositories, OER, Open Licenses, OCW Authors.The LOCWD vocabulary contains terms useful for findingout more about OCW and their backgrounds and hassome cross-over into open educational information.The intention of this vocabulary is to describe OCWresources of educational organizations.Conclusions
There is still much to do on this project andsignificant need for further work. The next stepfor this work is to link these preliminary resultsto more OER producers. There is also a need todevelop an understanding of how openeducation policies, Semantic Web technologiesand community participation combine indetermining the outcome of a OCW project.
@nopiedra, @etc91, #ocwcglobal #OCW#OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UTPLThanks!@nopiedra,, @etc91Linked OpenCourseWare Data