Reflective practice: ‘the capacity to reflect on
action so as to engage in a process of
continuous learning’ (Donald Schön 1930 –
Schön felt this was one of the defining
characteristics of professional practice.
Educationalist interested in the processes by
which professionals develop their knowledge
base and apply it to practice.
Conventional wisdom of Evidence based practice
applies theoretical knowledge to practice.
In reflective practice theory and practice are seen as
being reciprocally inter-related.
Professional identity / knowledge is complex and is not
merely assembled from discreet knowledge base.
Professional knowledge / identity arises from a
synthesis of natural and social sciences
Reflection-in-Action: as we work identifying learning
needs / opportunities
Reflection-on-Action: After the fact seeking theoretical
perspectives and integrating them into our thinking
Reflection-for Action:Applying knowledge to practice
Creating Personal reflective space / Organisational
Skills acquisition: Cognitive - Associative - Autonomous
- "OK" Plateau - Fitts& Posner.
Freshen-up - you need to maintain interest in your
Honesty & Openness to change / development
+ Known to Self -
to no one
- Known to Others +
Care &Scope of
What Knowledge Skills &
Attitudes have they
acquired as a result?
How did the learners react to the
work -based learning experience?
Evaluating work based learning
A Simple Model of Competence
or hands on
Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance.
Academic Medicine (Supplement) 1990; 65: S63-S7.
Evaluating work based learning
Miller’s pyramid of competence indicates that assessment of ‘does’
reflects professional authenticity.
Whatever one ‘does’ in the assessment must reflect practice in order for
that assessment to be authentic.
The portfolio purpose is to guide learning and capture evidence
Portfolio was the Hoorah word of ‘90s
Evidenced Based Practice ’oos
e-Portfolio is current Hoorah!
Trial the e-Portfolio for the overseas assessment processes
Reference Group to look at applications for CPD / Recertification
There is still a great deal of debate about what an ‘ePortfolio’ actually
is and this debate is unlikely to ease because ePortfolios come in
many shapes, sizes and colours.
To add to the confusion, the term ‘ePortfolio’ means different things to
a private space,
a social networking space
or a combination of any of these.
There are now many tools available that profess to be an ‘ePortfolio’
and all look different, have different purposes, or target different
While PebblePad has its origins in the university environment, its
design philosophy is one of learner ownership and control:
It is a space for personal learning that belongs to the learner not
it is populated by the learner not their assessor / teacher / preceptor
it is primarily concerned with supporting learning not assessment
it is for life-long and life–wide learning not a single episode or a
it allows learners to present multiple stories of learning rather
than being a simple aggregation of competencies
and, importantly, access to it is controlled by the learner who is
able to invite feedback to support personal growth and
A ‘Personal Learning Space’ does all of the above AND
facilitates the process of life–long and life-wide
A personal learning space has inbuilt tools and
functions that generate learning as distinct from
simply recording and evidencing learning.
Internal wizards prompt the user to consider diverse
aspects of their experiences and facilitate the process
of making sense of, and learning from, these
experiences to a much deeper level.
Pedagogy – Teacher determines content / deliver /
learning goals and assessment
Andragogy – Self Directed Learning
Adult education and characterised by learner control
and self-responsibility in learning, learner definition
of learning objectives in relation to their relevance to
the learner, a problem-solving approach to
learning, self-directedness in how to learn, intrinsic
learner motivation, and incorporation of the learner
Heutagogy (based on the Greek for “self”) was
defined by Hase and Kenyon in 2000 as the
study of self-determined learning.
Heutagogy applies a holistic approach to
developing learner capabilities, with learning
as an active and proactive process, and
learners serving as “the major agent in their
own learning, which occurs as a result of
Personal Learning Space
.... is a personal learning space where individuals can plan, record and
demonstrate their independent learning wherever it occurs. A range of
inbuilt templates support users as they develop their learning abilities.
All templates are underpinned by a reflective structure to ensure users
create thoughtful, iterative and enduring records of learning and
experience. These records can be selected and collated into various types
of presentations which can be shared with different audiences for a
range of purposes including assessment, accreditation and
Active Teaching, Learning and Assessment Space
Institution space designed to support teaching and learning activities
and the whole assessment process
Any type of digital file can be assessed in ATLAS, from an uploaded word
document to a rich, evidence based online portfolio.
- immediate tutor access to student work all in one place
- immediate student access to feedback and grades
- comment banks for streamlining feedback
- tutor group allocation to distribute students to tutors
- external access for moderators
- archiving for quality control purposes
[PLuS = Personal Learning Space]
[Active Teaching, Learning
and Assessment Space]
Basic functions work on iPads
An understanding of the nature of ‘Practice’ is central to
designing an assessment process which is capable of
capturing evidence of an individual’s ability to practice.
The first step in designing the assessment process was
accepting a conceptual model for osteopathic
Then developing an analysis / deconstruction of practice
from the perspective of process - rather focussed on
academic knowledge – Osteopathic Capabilities
Identifying assessment tools to assess the various
components of practice. K S A
Learning Needs Analysis
Personal Development Plan
Case based Discussion
Critical Incident Report
Critiquing journal articles
Reflective statement from training courses
Preceptor Training Nov 2013
Call for expression of interest -Peer Group
Unitec – Clinical Practicum
Overseas Assessment Process from Jan 2014
Peer Group Training March 2014
Recertification - Voluntary adoption by
Recertification Mandatory 2016
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