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SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual
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SQL201W MySQL SQL Manual

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SQL201W Accelerated Introduction to SQL Using MySQL. Covers create, alter,drop, select, insert,update and delete. Includes joins, calculations and grouping.

SQL201W Accelerated Introduction to SQL Using MySQL. Covers create, alter,drop, select, insert,update and delete. Includes joins, calculations and grouping.

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  • 1. Orange Coast Database Associates Course (800)355-9855 or http://www.d2associates.com SQL201W Accelerated Introduction to SQL Using MySQL Orange Coast Database Associates Specializing in Microsoft Office, Access, SQL, and related technologies Classes custom designed for Working Professionals http://www.d2associates.com San Juan Capistrano, CA (800)355-9855Accelerated Computer Training for Working Professionals Bookstore Case
  • 2. Welcome to SQL201W – Accelerated Introduction to SQL Using MySQL An accelerated introduction to SQL for non- programmers P.O. Box 6142 Laguna Niguel, CA 92607 949-489-1472 http://www.d2associates.comBookstore SQL201W 1 Accelerated Introduction to SQL • Introduction (s) • Facilities • Course Packet (contents may vary) – Student questionnaire – Collaterals (Maps, Catalogs, Etc.) – PowerPoint handouts for all sessions – Evaluation form – Training certificateBookstore SQL201W 2 1
  • 3. SQL Curriculum SQL201W SQL202 SQL212 MySQL Transact-SQL Oracle SQL200* * = included in above courses SQL200S*Bookstore SQL201W 3 Accelerated Introduction to SQL• Assumes no prior knowledge of SQL• Quick pace for experienced computer users• End-user, not programmer, oriented• Focus is on SQL, not Management Studio• SQL200s is first two modules of SQL200, otherwise identical.Bookstore SQL201W 4 2
  • 4. Accelerated Introduction to SQL SQL Covered (Day 1: All Day): • Select – Basic – Filters – Special Operators – Multi-table retrieval • Joins • Subqueries • Unions – Calculations and AggregatesBookstore SQL201W 5 Accelerated Introduction to SQL SQL Covered (Day 2: AM Only): • Data Updates – Insert – Update – Delete • Data structures – Create – Drop – AlterBookstore SQL201W 6 3
  • 5. Accelerated Introduction to SQL Course Format: • 3 Sessions • Lecture • Demo • Student “hands-on” • Many exercises are cumulative – later examples build on queries created earlierBookstore SQL201W 7 Accelerated Introduction to SQL Course Schedule (“1/2” day sessions): • Session 1 – Basic SQL • Session 2 – Multi-table Retrieval • Session 3 – Modifying DataBookstore SQL201W 8 4
  • 6. SQL201W SQL Programming Based on SQL Clearly Explained by Jan Harrington Module 1 – Relational Database Background, Basic Single Table Retrieval OperationsBookstore SQL201W Module 1 1 Note on SQL200 Slides • These slides were originally designed to support the single SQL200 course which was used for any of MS Access, MySQL, Oracle and SQL Server. • As such you may see here slides developed in any one of the above products. • We are in the process of migrating the various vendor slides out into their own slide sets. The SQL200 slides will cover MySQL and SQL Server which are virtually identical for purposes of this course.Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 2 1
  • 7. Warning!• Below are some table name changes to be aware of in doing queries. We have created synonyms so either name should work. New Name Old Name Orders Order_filled Order_Lines OrderlinesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 3 SQL200 Contact Information P.O. Box 6142 Laguna Niguel, CA 92607 949-489-1472 http://www.d2associates.com slides.1@dhdursoassociates.com Copyright 2001-2011. All rights reserved.Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 4 2
  • 8. SQL200 Resources• Bookstore database scripts found on box.net at http://tinyurl.com/SQLScripts• Slides can be viewed on SlideShare… http://www.slideshare.net/OCDatabases• Follow up questions? sql.support@dhdursoassociates.comBookstore SQL201W Module 1 5 SQL Programming• Course focus is SQL language• Widely used for: – Database administration – Enterprise application development – Data driven web sites• A foundation skill for eBusiness and almost all major business applications that use relational databasesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 6 3
  • 9. SQL Programming• A basic knowledge of query systems, perhaps via MS Access, or some programming knowledge, is desirable• We will use GUI tools or SQL Plus almost exclusivelyBookstore SQL201W Module 1 7 Relational Database Evolution• Based on Codd’s paper• Early commercial efforts focused on Unix• First mainframe implementation by IBM - precursor to today’s DB2• First PC implementation in early 80’s by OracleBookstore SQL201W Module 1 8 4
  • 10. Relational Database Basics• Storage • Indexes• Databases • Views• Tables • Cursors• Rows • Application interfaces• ColumnsBookstore SQL201W Module 1 9 Relational Database TableBookstore SQL201W Module 1 10 5
  • 11. Constraints• Database • Other Business Rule – Domain – Triggers – Uniqueness – Stored Procedures – Relationship Cardinality • 1 to 1 • 1 to NBookstore SQL201W Module 1 11 Relational Database with constraintsBookstore SQL201W Module 1 12 6
  • 12. Database Management Systems Positioning Chart Cost VLDB Enterprise Workgroup Single user Spreadsheet # UsersBookstore SQL201W Module 1 13 System Architecture File Server Architecture Access MDB AccessBookstore SQL201W Module 1 14 7
  • 13. System Architecture Client/Server Architecture MySQL SQL DB Visual Access Basic AppBookstore SQL201W Module 1 15 System Architecture Web Architecture Web MySQL Server DB SQL BrowserBookstore SQL201W Module 1 16 8
  • 14. Approaching SQL• Relatively simple• Two main environments – Interactive (This course) – Embedded • Static (Compiled) • DynamicBookstore SQL201W Module 1 17 SQL StandardizationANSI standardization – First standard in 1986 – SQL 89 – SQL 92 – SQL 99• Various vendor extensions – Microsoft/Sybase: T-SQL – Oracle: PL/SQLBookstore SQL201W Module 1 18 9
  • 15. SQL Conformance• Entry• Intermediate• Advanced• Most are at least entry levelBookstore SQL201W Module 1 19 SQL Statements• Data Manipulation Language (DML)• Data Control Language (DCL)• Data Definition Language (DDL)• Note: SQL 99 changes these to seven typesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 20 10
  • 16. SQL DDL• Data definition language (DDL) – Create, alter, drop, etc. – Frequently implemented via various CASE tools: Visio, Embarcadero, ERWin, etc. – But very useful for database administrationBookstore SQL201W Module 1 21 SQL DCL• Data Control Language (DDL) – Grant – Revoke – Deny – ConstraintsBookstore SQL201W Module 1 22 11
  • 17. SQL DML• Data Manipulation Language (DML) – Select – Insert – Update – DeleteBookstore SQL201W Module 1 23 SQL Statement Processing Parse Validate Optimize Access Plan ExecuteBookstore SQL201W Module 1 24 12
  • 18. Bookstore Sample Database• Before we continue (note: instructor may have already done this)…• Load the sample database if you haven’t already – Start the MySQL Control center – Load and run the MySQL “builddb_bookstore_mysql.sql” scriptBookstore SQL201W Module 1 25 Text Conventions• In Access character strings are normally surrounded by double quotes – “Jones”• In an enterprise database such as Oracle or MySQL enclose text strings in single quotes – ‘Jones’Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 26 13
  • 19. Date Conventions• In an enterprise database such as Oracle or SQL Sever, enclose dates in single quotes – ‘2004-12-23’ MySQL – ’12-23-2004’ SQL Server – ’23-DEC-04’ OracleBookstore SQL201W Module 1 27 Listing the TablesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 28 14
  • 20. Describing a TableBookstore SQL201W Module 1 29 Select statement clauses SELECT… INTO… FROM… WHERE… GROUP BY… HAVING… ORDER BY…Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 30 15
  • 21. SELECT Basic Syntax (Projection): Select <column-list> or <*> From <table-list>Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 31 SELECT Basic Example (Projection): select customer_last_name, customer_street from customersBookstore SQL201W Module 1 32 16
  • 22. MySQL Select QueryBookstore SQL201W Module 1 33 SELECT with Where Clause Example (Restriction plus Projection): Select <column-list> or * From <table-list> Where <selection-criteria>;Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 34 17
  • 23. Comparison Operators• < less than• > greater than• <= less than or equal to• >= greater than or equal to• = equal to• <> or != two forms for not equalBookstore SQL201W Module 1 35 SELECT with Where Basic Example (Restriction plus Projection): select customer_last_name, customer_street from customers where customer_last_name = ‘Jones’Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 36 18
  • 24. Select with WhereBookstore SQL201W Module 1 37 On Your Own• Find books written by Mark Twain• Show title, publisher, yearBookstore SQL201W Module 1 38 19
  • 25. Complex Predicates Follow normal boolean logic Select customer_last_name, customer_street From customers Where (customer_last_name = ‘Jones’ or customer_last_name = ‘Smith’)and customer_state=‘NY’Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 39 Select with Complex WhereBookstore SQL201W Module 1 40 20
  • 26. Complex Where ResultBookstore SQL201W Module 1 41 Special Operators• Can be used in where clause• LIKE• IN• BETWEEN• IS NULLBookstore SQL201W Module 1 42 21
  • 27. Like (“Wild Card Matches”)• ANSI wildcards• Where customer_last_name like ‘Jo%’ like ‘Jo_’Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 43 IN Select * From customers Where customer_last_name in (‘Rizzo’, ‘Jones’, ‘Garcia’); The list in parentheses can be replaced by a subquery. We will study this later.Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 44 22
  • 28. Select LikeBookstore SQL201W Module 1 45 SQL Where Clause with INBookstore SQL201W Module 1 46 23
  • 29. IS NULL SQL uses three valued logic. Must use IS NULL to test for unknowns. A null is NOT the same as blank or empty. Select * From customers Where customer_street IS NULL;Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 47 IS NULL ResultsBookstore SQL201W Module 1 48 24
  • 30. On Your Own• Find all customers with an address not equal to 4592 Maple Lane• Was Peter Johnson selected?• Why or why not?Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 49 BETWEEN List all orders placed in 1999. select * from orders where order_date BETWEEN ‘1- Jan-99’ and ’31-Dec-99’; Note: date formats vary from product to product.Bookstore SQL201W Module 1 50 25
  • 31. Where with BetweenBookstore SQL201W Module 1 51 Removing Duplicates List once each city in which there are customers Select DISTINCT customer_city From customers; Removes duplicate rows from result setBookstore SQL201W Module 1 52 26
  • 32. Removing DuplicatesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 53 Sorting – ORDER BY Basic syntax: Select <column list> or * From <table list> Where <selection criteria> Order by <column list> [DESC] DESC will sort in descending orderBookstore SQL201W Module 1 54 27
  • 33. Sorting – ORDER BY List all records sorted by state, city select * from customers order by customer_state, customer_cityBookstore SQL201W Module 1 55 Sorting Results with Order ByBookstore SQL201W Module 1 56 28
  • 34. SQL Exercises • List all books whose publisher name begins with “H” or “T”; sort by title [hint: use LIKE] • List all customers whose last name ends with “S”; sort by state, city, last name • Find the order numbers of orders with order dates in 1999; sort by order #. [Hint: use BETWEEN] • Find the order numbers and order dates of all orders with a “2” in character position 2 of the credit card #; sort by order date descendingBookstore SQL201W Module 1 [end module] 57 NotesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 58 29
  • 35. NotesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 59 NotesBookstore SQL201W Module 1 60 30
  • 36. SQL201W SQL Programming Based on SQL Clearly Explained by Jan Harrington Workshop 2 – Joins, Calculations and GroupingBookstore SQL201W Module 2 1 Note on SQL200 Slides• These slides were originally designed to support the single SQL200 course which was used for any of MS Access, MySQL, Oracle and SQL Server.• As such you may see here slides developed in any one of the above products.• We are in the process of migrating the various vendor slides out into their own slide sets. The SQL200 slides will cover MySQL and SQL Server which are virtually identical for purposes of this course.Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 2 1
  • 37. Warning!• Below are some table name changes to be aware of in doing queries. We have created synonyms so either name should work. New Name Old Name Orders Order_filled Order_Lines OrderlinesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 3 SQL200 Contact Information P.O. Box 6142 Laguna Niguel, CA 92607 949-489-1472 http://www.d2associates.com slides.1@dhdursoassociates.com Copyright 2001-20011 All rights reserved.Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 4 2
  • 38. SQL200 Resources• Bookstore database scripts found on box.net at http://tinyurl.com/SQLScripts• Slides can be viewed on SlideShare… http://www.slideshare.net/OCDatabases• Follow up questions? sql.support@dhdursoassociates.comBookstore SQL201W Module 2 5 SQL201W SQL Programming Part 1 – JoinsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 6 3
  • 39. Relational Database with constraints (from text)Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 7 More conventions• Alias names can be surrounded with “ “ as in “order details”. Better practice is to use an underscore as in order_details.• MS Access uses [ ] instead. Some of the PowerPoint slides may have this convention. It works equally as well in SQL Server but not MySQL.Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 8 4
  • 40. Joins• Inner• Outer – Left – Right – Full• Cross• Self• Theta• We will cover the most important; others as time and interest permitBookstore SQL201W Module 2 9Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 10 5
  • 41. Inner Join• Pairs each row from first table with corresponding row from second table over the “join column”• The result set only contains rows where there is a match over the join column in both tables• Equi-join is the common inner joinBookstore SQL201W Module 2 11 Inner Join Older Syntax: Select <column-list> From <tablelist> Where <predicate> Still very commonly usedBookstore SQL201W Module 2 12 6
  • 42. Inner Join Example using older syntax: SELECT customer_first_name, customer_street, order_numb, order_date from customers, orders Where customers.customer_numb = orders.customer_numbBookstore SQL201W Module 2 13 Inner Join with ResultBookstore SQL201W Module 2 14 7
  • 43. Inner Join (New Syntax) Basic SQL 92 Syntax: Select <column-list> From <table1> Inner join <table2> On <join condition>Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 15 Inner Join Basic Example: SELECT customer_first_name, customer_street, order_numb, order_date from customers inner join orders on customers.customer_numb = orders.customer_numbBookstore SQL201W Module 2 16 8
  • 44. Inner Join with ResultBookstore SQL201W Module 2 17 Inner Join over Multiple columns• Note that that the join condition can apply to multiple columns if desired• Used with composite keysBookstore SQL201W Module 2 18 9
  • 45. Inner Join Result in MS AccessBookstore SQL201W Module 2 19 Inner Join• In the last example… – What was the cardinality of the relationship between customers and orders? – Which table was the parent? – What was it’s primary key? – In which table did we employ a foreign key and what was it?Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 20 10
  • 46. Cross Join• What happens when you omit a join expression?• Get the cartesian product of the tables – all possible combinations of the two tables• For large tables this will run a long time!Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 21 Cross Join Result SetBookstore SQL201W Module 2 22 11
  • 47. Additional SQL92 Syntax• Table1 natural join table3 – automatically uses columns with same name• Table 1 natural join table2 using(<column- list>• Not yet widely available in commercial implementationsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 23 Joining More than Two Tables• Can join several tables in one select• Try to limit to three or four• Join order can be important for performance (although optimizers will usually handle this for you)• Use parentheses to force order of evaluation (also vendor extensions, often called “hints”)Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 24 12
  • 48. Joining More than Two Tables• Add orderlines detail to previous queries SELECT customer_first_name, customer_street, orders.order_numb, orders.order_date, orderlines.isbn, orderlines.quantity FROM customers INNER JOIN orders ON customers.customer_numb=orders.customer_numb INNER JOIN orderlines on orders.order_numb = orderlines.order_numbBookstore SQL201W Module 2 25 Multi-table Join with ResultsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 26 13
  • 49. On Your Own• Add the book title to the previous query results• Hint: add another join to books tableBookstore SQL201W Module 2 27 Correlation Names (Table Aliases)• Can abbreviate references to tables• For example: Select e.name, j.payrange From employees as e Inner join job_information as j On e.jobcode = j.jobcode;Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 28 14
  • 50. Self Joins• Implements a recursive relationship• Important in various applications – Parts lists/assemblies – HR – Etc. – Table joined to itself using correlation namesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 29 Self Joins SELECT e.*, m.name FROM employees AS e, employees AS m WHERE e.managerid = m.employeeid;Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 30 15
  • 51. Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 31 Outer Joins• Left – selects all rows from the left or first table, even if no match exists in the other table – Widely used in commercial practice – Especially useful for reporting – Can be slower and interfere with optimizer• Right – same idea but all rows from right table• Full – all rows form both tablesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 32 16
  • 52. Left Outer Join Basic SQL 92 Syntax: Select <column-list> From <table1> Left join <table2> On <join condition>Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 33 Left-Join Basic Example: SELECT customer_first_name, customer_street, order_numb, order_date from customers as c left join orders as o on c.customer_numb = o.customer_numbBookstore SQL201W Module 2 34 17
  • 53. Left Join with ResultsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 35 On Your Own• List all books and corresponding quantities sold• Show isbn, title, quantity• How many books were there?• Now do the same but include books with no sales• Now how many?Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 36 18
  • 54. SQL200 SQL Programming Part 2– Subqueries, Unions (Not available in earlier versions of MySQL)Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 37 Subqueries• One select statement embedded in another• Can be nested multiple levels deep• Can be used in select, from and where clauses• Two types: – Uncorrelated – executes inner query then outer – Correlated – executes inner query once for each outer query rowBookstore SQL201W Module 2 38 19
  • 55. Uncorrelated Subquery select isbn, quantity from orderlines where order_numb in (select order_numb from orders where order_date between ‘1/1/99’ and ‘12/31/99’);Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 39 Uncorrelated Subquery with ResultsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 40 20
  • 56. Negative Subquery• A type of subquery that matches “not found” conditionsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 41 Negative Subquery select isbn, quantity from orderlines where order_numb not in (select order_numb from orders where order_date between ‘1/1/99’ and ‘12/31/99’);Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 42 21
  • 57. Negative Subquery with ResultsBookstore SQL201W Module 2 43 Correlated Subquery with Exists• Inner subquery executed once for each outer row• Exists will return true or false depending on whether the result will have any rows or not• Can be a quick way to test for existence of records (parent records, say) as used in application enforcement of referential integrityBookstore SQL201W Module 2 44 22
  • 58. Correlated subquery with Exists SELECT isbn, quantity FROM orderlines AS ol WHERE exists (select * from orders o where ol.order_numb = o.order_numb and o.order_date between ‘1/1/99’ and ‘12/31/99’); This type of query covered in intermediate SQL classBookstore SQL201W Module 2 45 Unions• Combines two or more tables• Tables must be union compatibleBookstore SQL201W Module 2 46 23
  • 59. Unions Select <column-list> from <table1> Union [ALL] Select <same-columns> from <table2>Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 47 Unions select * from employees union all select * from employees_copyBookstore SQL201W Module 2 48 24
  • 60. Results of Union queryBookstore SQL201W Module 2 49 SQL200 SQL Programming Part 3 – Calculations, AggregatesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 50 25
  • 61. Calculated Fields• Can add a column calculated from others SELECT order_numb, quantity, cost_each, quantity*cost_each as extension FROM orderlinesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 51 Calculated Fields• Can rename the new column, too SELECT order_numb, quantity, cost_each, quantity*cost_each as extension FROM OrderlinesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 52 26
  • 62. Calculated field w/ Given NameBookstore SQL201W Module 2 53 Calculated field in the ResultBookstore SQL201W Module 2 54 27
  • 63. On Your Own• Calculate the total sales for the books in earlier query• Show isbn, titles, quantity, cost_each and extensionBookstore SQL201W Module 2 55 String Manipulation• Concatenation• Trim• Substring• Upper, Lower• Etc. (various vendor extensions)Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 56 28
  • 64. Concatenation• Used for concatenated keys• Useful to format reports Basic syntax: (Access) Field1 & Field2 (Oracle, std) Field1 || Field2 (Sql Server) Field1 + Field2 (MySQL) Concat(field1, field2)Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 57 Concatenation select concat(customer_first_name ,’ ‘,customer_last_name) as Name from customersBookstore SQL201W Module 2 58 29
  • 65. ConcatenationBookstore SQL201W Module 2 59 Pretty up the concatenation• Use trim functions, add a space• Sort by last name – a neat trick for reporting!Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 60 30
  • 66. Date Functions• Numerous date functions• Often vendor specific• Often used: – year – month• Ex: where year(order_date) = 1999Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 61 Date Functions• Remember your three table query with the order dates?• Restrict it to orders in DecemberBookstore SQL201W Module 2 62 31
  • 67. Aggregate Functions• Count• Sum• Min• Max• Avg• Often used in conjunction with groupingBookstore SQL201W Module 2 63 Aggregate Functions Basic syntax: Select <function>(<column>) From <table> Group by <column-list> Having <predicate> Group by all columns to left of one(s) you want to aggregateBookstore SQL201W Module 2 64 32
  • 68. Aggregate Functions SELECT order_numb, Count(*) AS [Number of Order Lines] , Sum(quantity) AS [Total Quantity], Sum(quantity * cost_each) AS [Total Amount] FROM order_lines GROUP BY order_numb having count(*) > 1;Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 65 Aggregates with Group ByBookstore SQL201W Module 2 66 33
  • 69. Having Clause SELECT Order_lines.order_numb, Count(*) AS ‘Number of Order Lines ‘, Sum(Order_lines.quantity) AS Total_Quantity, Sum(quantity*cost_each) AS extension FROM Order_lines GROUP BY Order_lines.order_numb having count(*) > 1Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 67 Group By with HavingBookstore SQL201W Module 2 68 34
  • 70. Having vs. Where• Having and Where clauses are similar but not the same• Having removes groups after they are formed• Where removes rows before groups are formedBookstore SQL201W Module 2 69 On Your Own• Find the aggregates without any grouping – see what you get• Then restrict the ISBNBookstore SQL201W Module 2 70 35
  • 71. Summary Exercise• List all customers and their orders – Name nicely formatted – With orders in the year of 1999 (do not use between, etc.) – Show total order quantities and amounts – Only include orders with more than three order linesBookstore SQL201W Module 2 71 Exercise Result [end module]Bookstore SQL201W Module 2 72 36
  • 72. SQL/200 SQL Programming Based on SQL Clearly Explained by Jan Harrington Workshop 3 – Modifying Data, Managing the DatabaseBookstore SQL201W Module 3 1 Note on SQL200 Slides • These slides were originally designed to support the single SQL200 course which was used for any of MS Access, Oracle and SQL Server. • As such you may see here slides developed in any one of the above products. • We are in the process of migrating the various vendor slides out into their own slide sets. These SQL200 slides will focus on Microsoft SQL Server and MySQL which are virtually identical for purposes of this course.Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 2 1
  • 73. Warning!• Below are some table name changes to be aware of in doing queries. We have created synonyms so either name should work. New Name Old Name Orders Order_filled Order_Lines OrderlinesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 3 SQL200 Contact Information P.O. Box 6142 Laguna Niguel, CA 92607 949-489-1472 http://www.d2associates.com slides.1@dhdursoassociates.com Copyright 2001-2011. All rights reserved.Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 4 2
  • 74. SQL200 Resources• Bookstore database scripts found on box.net at http://tinyurl.com/SQLScripts• Slides can be viewed on SlideShare… http://www.slideshare.net/OCDatabases• Follow up questions? sql.support@dhdursoassociates.comBookstore SQL201W Module 3 5 SQL201W Module 3• Part 1 – Modifying Data• Part 2 – Managing Database Structures• Part 3 – Creating Views and Indexes• Part 4 -- SecurityBookstore SQL201W Module 3 6 3
  • 75. SQL/201W SQL Programming Part 1 – Modifying DataBookstore SQL201W Module 3 7 Relational Database with constraints (from text)Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 8 4
  • 76. Data Modification Statements • Insert • Update • DeleteBookstore SQL201W Module 3 9 Data Modification Statements • End-user rarely sees these statements • Application developer prepares these statements “behind the scenes” based on forms filled out by userBookstore SQL201W Module 3 10 5
  • 77. Insert• Adds new rows to an existing table• Two forms: – Single Row – Multi-RowBookstore SQL201W Module 3 11 Single Row Insert Basic Syntax: Insert [into] <table-name> Values (<value-list>)Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 12 6
  • 78. Single Row Insert Basic Example: insert into sources(source_numb, source_name, source_street) values(22,Specialty Books, Canal Street)Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 13 Insert StatementBookstore SQL201W Module 3 14 7
  • 79. Sources table after InsertBookstore SQL201W Module 3 15 Multi-row Insert Basic Syntax: Insert [into] <table-name> Select <select-statement> We will do this after creating a new table later in this moduleBookstore SQL201W Module 3 16 8
  • 80. Update• Updates fields in an existing row Basic Syntax: Update <table-name> Set <field1> = new value, <field2> = new value,… Where <selection-criteria>Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 17 Update• Increase Ingram prices by 10% Example: Update books Set retail_price = retail_price *1.10 Where source_numb = 1Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 18 9
  • 81. Ingram Book Prices before UpdateBookstore SQL201W Module 3 19 Ingram Book Prices after UpdateBookstore SQL201W Module 3 20 10
  • 82. After update in MS AccessBookstore SQL201W Module 3 21 Delete• Deletes one or more rows Basic Syntax: Delete from <table-name> Where <selection-criteria>Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 22 11
  • 83. Delete Example: Delete from sources Where source_numb = 22Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 23 DeleteBookstore SQL201W Module 3 24 12
  • 84. Sources table after DeleteBookstore SQL201W Module 3 25 Delete and Referential Integrity• Can affect referential integrity when deleting a “parent” row• Can do following with child… – Cascade: delete the child row – Set null: set the child’s foreign key null – Set default: as above but to default value – No action: don’t allow delete of parent row• Referential integrity can be established when creating or modifying table structures which we will look at later in the classBookstore SQL201W Module 3 26 13
  • 85. SQL/200 SQL Programming Part 2– Managing Database StructuresBookstore SQL201W Module 3 27 DDL• Create• Alter• DropBookstore SQL201W Module 3 28 14
  • 86. Schemas• Logical view of a database; sort of a “sub- database” – we will not cover these in this module or… – Catalogs – Clusters – Domains (somewhat like a user defined datatype)• These topics are highly dependent upon the vendor DBMS and installation practicesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 29 Tables • Base tables • Temporary tables – Local (or module scope) – Global (session scope)Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 30 15
  • 87. Creating Tables• Use create statement• Specify: – Columns with data types and column constraints – Table constraints • Foreign key references • Primary key designationBookstore SQL201W Module 3 31 Data Types• Int – integers or whole numbers – Ex: how_many int• Char – fixed length fields – Ex: state char(2)• Varchar/Varchar2 – variable length fields – Ex: address varchar(35)• Money – money field; same as MS Access currency• Date/Datetime – date and time• And many others – see documentation or HelpBookstore SQL201W Module 3 32 16
  • 88. Create Table Basic syntax: Create table <table-name> <column1> <datatype> <constraints> ,.. <column1> <datatype> <constraints> … <table constraints> Note: often preceded by a dropBookstore SQL201W Module 3 33 Temporary Tables Basic syntax (SQL standard): Create [global] temporary table <table-name> <rest of statement as for normal create> Note: SQL Server uses a different syntax. Just put a #in front of the table name as in #mytable.Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 34 17
  • 89. Column Constraints• Primary key• Not NULL• CHECK clause• Default• UniqueBookstore SQL201W Module 3 35 Table Constraints• Primary Key• Foreign Key• Compare fields against each other. I.e. ship_date >= order_dateBookstore SQL201W Module 3 36 18
  • 90. But first – the Drop Statement• Deletes a database “object” – Drop table <table-name> – Drop view <view-name> – Drop index <index-name> – Drop domain <domain-name>Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 37 Create Table Example 1: Create a summary table Create table summary( isbn varchar(20) primary key, How_many int check (how_many >= 0), Constraint isbn_fk Foreign key (isbn) references books(isbn) )Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 38 19
  • 91. Create Summary TableBookstore SQL201W Module 3 39 Constraints on Summary TableBookstore SQL201W Module 3 40 20
  • 92. Multi-row Insert Basic Syntax: Insert [into] <table-name> [(<column list>)] Select <select-statement>Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 41 Multi-row Insert Basic Example: (store # times each book ordered) Insert into summary Select isbn, count(*) From orderlines Group by isbn;Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 42 21
  • 93. Multi-row InsertBookstore SQL201W Module 3 43 After multi-row insert in MS AccessBookstore SQL201W Module 3 44 22
  • 94. SQL/200 SQL Programming Part 3 – Creating Views and Indexes, Modifying StructuresBookstore SQL201W Module 3 45 Views• Think of a view as a named query wherein the definition is stored in the database• Can be read like a table• Some are updateableBookstore SQL201W Module 3 46 23
  • 95. Views Basic syntax: Create view <view-name> (<column-list>) As <select statement>Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 47 Creating a ViewBookstore SQL201W Module 3 48 24
  • 96. Using Views• Can be used like a table subject to various limitations – Cannot insert into grouped queries, etc. – Etc.• Sample syntax: select column-list from employee_viewBookstore SQL201W Module 3 49 Using a ViewBookstore SQL201W Module 3 50 25
  • 97. Indexes• Used to speed searches, joins, etc.• Placed on: – primary and foreign keys – Secondary keys• In commercial practice often managed by DBA’s for large databasesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 51 Indexes Basic syntax: Create [unique] index <index-name> On <table-name> (field-name> [desc]) Note: can place index on a composite key; ex: state and cityBookstore SQL201W Module 3 52 26
  • 98. Indexes Basic example: create index state_inx on customers(customer_state)Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 53 Customers table with indexBookstore SQL201W Module 3 54 27
  • 99. Dropping an indexBasic Syntax: – Drop index <table-name.index-name>;Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 55 Modifying a Table Design• Applies to tables• Use ALTER statement – Add columns – Delete columns – Rename columns – Add column constraints – Add table constraintsBookstore SQL201W Module 3 56 28
  • 100. Modifying a Table Design Basic syntax: Alter <table-name> Add <field-name>, Add <table-constraint>, Modify <field-name> Etc.Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 57 Modify a Table Design Example: add a phone number field alter table publishers add phone char(12);Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 58 29
  • 101. After alter publishers tableBookstore SQL201W Module 3 59 SQL/200 SQL Programming Part 4 – SecurityBookstore SQL201W Module 3 60 30
  • 102. Security• Important DBA function – Beyond scope of this course – Typically controlled through Enterprise Manager or Studio GUI’s• In commercial practice application security frequently controlled via own login and a “users” table or similarBookstore SQL201W Module 3 61 Security• Specifics can vary by product• Access: workgroup administrator• SQL Server: users, roles• Oracle: users, rolesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 62 31
  • 103. SQL Security Statements • Grant • Revoke • DenyBookstore SQL201W Module 3 63 Grant Syntax: Grant <access-right> [with grant option] On <object> to <user> Note: by default only tables owners and admins can access a table. Others must be granted the relevant rights.Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 64 32
  • 104. Access Rights• Select• Update• Insert• Delete• References• All privilegesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 65 Grant Example: Grant update On employees to ddursoBookstore SQL201W Module 3 66 33
  • 105. Revoke• Revokes the rights• Syntax similar to grant [end module]Bookstore SQL201W Module 3 67 NotesBookstore SQL201W Module 3 68 34
  • 106. Orange Coast Database Associates Course (800)355-9855 or http://www.d2associates.com Accelerated Computer Training Orange Coast Database Associates Specializing in Microsoft Office, Access, SQL, and related technologies Computer Training, Programming & Consulting 32422 Alipaz St., Suite A-15 San Juan Capistrano, CA (800)355-9855 (Toll Free) | (949)489-1472 (Direct) | (949)485-6284 (Fax) http://www.d2associates.com | sales@dhdursoassociates.comAccelerated Computer Training for Working Professionals

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