Mexico and China Education and Science & Technology Policies In perspective with OECD countries

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José Antonio Ardavín
Acting Head
OECD Mexico Centre for Latin America
Seminar “Towards a dialogue between China and Mexico: three and two decades of transformations and structural socioeconomic changes”
9 September 2009

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  • Funds Ministry
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  • Mexico and China Education and Science & Technology Policies In perspective with OECD countries

    1. 1. Mexico and China Education and Science & Technology Policies In perspective with OECD countries Comments to panel contributions from: José Antonio Ardavín Acting Head OECD Mexico Centre for Latin America Seminar “Towards a dialogue between China and Mexico: three and two decades of transformations and structural socioeconomic changes” 9 September 2009
    2. 2. Some of the recent OECD studies on Mexico’s and China’s Innovation Policies Avaliable in www.oecdilibrary.org MEXICO
    3. 3. Summarizing the pannel interventions, a number of key issues: <ul><li>Innovation and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic policies </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of change </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and circulation of talent </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Dimension </li></ul>
    4. 4. Innovation has become the key driver of economic growth and improvement in quality of life… Source: OECD Mexico Economic Survey 2007 GDP per capita
    5. 5. “ Most of the rise in material standards of living since the industrial revolution has been the consequence of innovation. New or improved products and services have for a long time been the main motor of economic growth.” (Going for Growth, OECD 2006) Source: The Knowledge Economy, the Kam methodology and World Bank operations. Derek C. Chen and Carl J. Dahlman
    6. 6. OECD countries invest on average 2.2% of GDP in R&D OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Science and technology - Research and Development (R&D) - Expenditure on R&D
    7. 7. China and Mexico, as developing countries have an important road to go… OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Science and technology - Research and Development (R&D) - Researchers
    8. 8. … but speed is an very important variable… OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Science and technology - Research and Development (R&D) - Researchers
    9. 9. … and strategic policies OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Science and technology - Research and Development (R&D) - Researchers
    10. 10. … and strategic policies Source: OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy China (2008)
    11. 11. … and strategic policies Source: OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy China (2008)
    12. 12. … oriented to achieve results OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Science and technology - Communications - Exports of information and communications equipment
    13. 13. FDI vs FDI+ OECD Factbook 2009, Dinamic Graphs using Trendalyser
    14. 14. Paradoxically FDI in Mexico is not leading to the desired spillovers, as S&T expenditures highest among manufacturing domestic firms Source: OECD Regional Innovation Reviews: 15 Mexican States based on Dussel-Peters for the OECD based on data from INEGI Big Manufacturing Firms by FDI share, 2003
    15. 15. Talent is the key input for innovation… Percentage of patents with foreign co-inventors
    16. 16. … and talent is created through a system of quality education… OECD Factbook 2009: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics - ISBN 92-64-05604-1 - © OECD 2009 Education - Outcomes - International student assessment
    17. 17. High level innovation requires high level, competitive talent Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators - OECD © 2009 - ISBN 9789264024755 Indicator A4 Indicator A4: What is the profile of 15-year-old top performers in science? Version 1 - Last updated: 19-Aug-2009
    18. 18. Talent is attracted to regions... <ul><li>Shanghai aims to increase R&D intensity to 3.5% by 2020 </li></ul>Source: Science & Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (STCSM), October 2006
    19. 19. … but policies and structure of incentives can also lead to concentration of inputs of innovation… Source: INEGI 2008 Source: OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: 15 Mexican States, (2009)
    20. 20. … Producing limited and concentrated innovation, translating into low technological output… Source: own calculations based on INEGI Economic Survey 2004 Source: OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: 15 Mexican States, (2009)
    21. 21. … and limited knowledge generation Source: own calculations based on OECD Regional Database Source: OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: 15 Mexican States, (2009)
    22. 22. Challenges <ul><li>Fostering innovation is more than investing in R&D, patenting, etc… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating framework conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in inputs of innovation (human capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing systemic failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology brokers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate governance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry-Science linkages </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Mexico and China Education and Science & Technology Policies In perspective with OECD countries Comments to panel contributions from: José Antonio Ardavín Acting Head OECD Mexico Centre for Latin America www.oecd.org/centrodemexico

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