Marine BiodiversityIndicators for PolicyMakingWard AppeltansIOC/UNESCOiMarine e-Infrastructure for data driven decision making and research, 14-15 May 2013,Brussels
We are losing our natural habitatsvan Hooidonk et al. 2013. Temporary refugia for coral reefs in a warming world. Nature Clim. Changehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate182950% 100%
We are losing our natural habitats
Fish and invertebrate stocks areover-exploitedSource: FAO
Introduction and establishment ofmarine invasive alien speciesCopyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).
We are losing species at anunprecedented rate
Currently 2,4% of the ocean is protected
The loss of Biodiversity is a globalconcern• 1992 – UN Conference on Environment andDevelopment, Rio de Janeiro– Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): objectives arethe conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable useof its components and the fair and equitable sharing of thebenefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources,• 2002 – World Summit on Sustainable Development inJohannesburg regarded biodiversity a benefit tosociety and important to alleviate poverty– CBD target to significantly reduce the current rate ofbiodiversity loss by 2010.– In 2003, EU target to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2010.
EU Biodiversity Indicators• Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators(SEBI)– In 2005, the EU established a process tostreamline national, regional and globalindicators and, crucially, to develop asimple and workable set of indicators tomeasure progress and help reach the2010 target.– By the end of 2007 : 26 indicators werepublished by the EEA.
Global BiodiversityIndicators• 2006, CBD COP8 established a consortium ofindicator developers and the BiodiversityIndicators Platform (BIP) was formed.
Post 2010• 2010, 3rdGlobal Biodiversity Outlook (based on BIPindicators) reported that the UN biodiversity targethad not been met and warned that the pressures onbiodiversity continue to intensify• 2010, EU biodiversity assessment report concludedthat also the EU has missed its target.
Post 2010• 2010, 10thCBD COP in Nagoya adopted theStrategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.– 5 strategic goals and 20 new targets.• 2011, EU Biodiversity Strategy – Our lifeinsurance, our natural capital– 2050 vision and 2020 headline target and 6 key targets1. Fully implement the Birds and Habitats Directives.2. Maintain and restore ecosystems and their services.3. Increase the contribution of agriculture and forestry tomaintaining and enhancing biodiversity.4. Ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources.5. Combat invasive alien species.6. Help avert global biodiversity loss.
Post 20102012, United Nations Conference on SustainableDevelopment (Rio+20)“The future we want”“Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability”•Actions to reduce stressors and maintain or restore the structureand function of marine ecosystems for equitable and sustainableuse of marine resources and ecosystems.•Implement Actions to Adapt to and Mitigate Ocean Acidification•Develop and Execute a Global Program aimed at GreaterProtection and Restoration of Vital Ocean and Coastal Habitats,•Strengthen the Legal Framework to Effectively Address AquaticInvasive Species
Ocean BiogeographicInformation SystemOBIS is the world’s largest open access, online datasystem on the diversity, distribution and abundance ofmarine species35 million distribution records120,000 marine species1,130 datasets>800 publicationsData legacy of 10-year Census of Marine LifeAdopted by UNESCO-IOC, project of IODE, hosted by IOC projectoffice for IODE in Oostende (Belgium)
Nr of observation records (5D) in OBIS
Nr of observation records (1D) in OBISWhite is no data
Arctic view: number of records inOBIS per 5d (left) and 1d (right) cell
Pacific view: number of records inOBIS per 5d (left) and 1d (right) cell
Very few historical dataOnly 100 marine species for which we have yearly records between 1955-2005
Nr of observation records per depth and distancefrom coastline in OBIS – vast mid waters areunexplored2013 has around 2.7x more records (almost 19Million, cf. almost 7M) compared to 2009, and therange of sample depths represented has increased slightly, from 0-10670m in 2009 to 0-10900mnow.
OBIS data growth: # records35 million geo-referenced species observations (+ 5 million since Jan 2011)
OBIS data growth:# records.k/dataset
OBIS data growth: # marine species.K120,000 marinespecies (+ 5,000since Jan 2011)
Nr of species (5D) in OBIS
Nr of species expected in a sampleof 50 specimens per 5D in OBIS
Nr of observation records and Nr ofspecies in OBIS per year
Marine Species Diversity – currentknowledge700K – 1 million marine species230K described120K in OBIS12K OBIS/year5,4K IUCN assessmentAppeltans et al (2012). The Magnitude of GlobalSpecies Diversity, Current Biology 22
Trendylyzer• Trends in global species composition:– Are we observing more or fewer species?– What are the most common species (10 - 25 or n) and isthis changing over time and space?– Can we detect regime shifts?• Trends in distribution and abundance of selectedspecies:– What is the extinction risk of species?• The protected area overlays indicator:– Does the global protected area system covers arepresentative sample of the world’s biodiversity (includingthreatened species), and is it targeting the most importantsites for biodiversity?
Most observed species (Nr ofrecords)
High global variations per year
King pinguins invasion in 2004!Photo credits: Eric WhoelerI don’t think so
North Sea has the highest Nr ofrecords
Most observed pelagic species in theNorth Sea
Trends of most observed North Seaspecies
Trends of pelagic North Sea speciesRegime shiftHerring recoveredafter the fish ban
Marine species conservation statusin EUProtected vs Endangered species in Europe:•77 marine species on EU Habitat directive list•35 marine species on EU Bird directive list•35 marine species on OSPAR list•18 marine species on CITES list•71 EU marine species threatened according to IUCNRed list (16 CR, 16 EN and 39 VU)Source PESI/EU-nomen
Marine species conservation statusin EU• bulletCopyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).EU Habitat Directive; number of assessments in brackets.
fin whaleBalaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758)Threatened with extinction and are or may be affected bytrade. Commercial trade in wild-caught specimens ofthese species is illegal (permitted only in exceptionallicensed circumstances)Species of community interest, in need of strictprotectionThis species is threatened and/or declining in the entireNorth-East AtlanticThis species is endangered and is considered to befacing a very high risk of extinction in the wild
Fin whale: global distributionOBIS-SEAMAP, Ocean Biogeographic Information System -Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations
Fin whale : global annual trendsNr of RecordsAbundance
Fin whale : EU annual trendsNr of RecordsAbundance
Fin whale : summer sightings 1950-1990
Fin whale : summer sightings since 2000
46Non-indigenous species and likely vectors of theirintroductions in the North SeaIn total 167 alien andcryptogenic speciesDominant vectors:shipping (~50%,ballast water + hullfouling) and intentionalintroductions forstocking oraquaculture purposes(14-30%)Relative importance ofvectors: (black = hullfouling, dark grey =aquaculture, stocking,light grey = ballastwater, etc.)[slide: Sergey Olenin](Gollasch et al. 2009)
Ensis directus in 1960Source: OBIS, 2013
Ensis directus in 1965Source: OBIS, 2013
Ensis directus in 1979Source: OBIS, 2013
Ensis directus in 1995Source: OBIS, 2013
Ensis directus in 2000Source: OBIS, 2013
Ensis directus in 2005Source: OBIS, 2013
10% of coastal and marine areas areprotected by 2020…• EBSA• VME• Natura2000• MPA• UNESCO WHS• UNESCO Biospheres• …
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs):Criteria1. Uniqueness or rarity2. Special importance for life history of species3. Importance for threatened, endangered or decliningspecies and/or habitats4. Vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity, slow recovery5. Biological productivity6. Biological diversity7. Naturalness2008 COP9 criteria established
CBD-COP10 listed OBIS as a key source ofinformation for the identification of Ecologically orBiologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) part of CBDAreas of high biodiversityAreas of special importancefor the life history of aspeciesAreas of significant naturalnessAreas ofuniqueness or rarity
North Pacific regional EBSA workshop, Moscow,25 Feb – 1 March 2013OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA process
OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA processMarine Mammal ObservationsEastern Tropical & TemperatePacific EBSA workshop, GalapagosEcuador, August 2012IUCN Red-List SpeciesWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012examples
OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA processBiological Diversity all taxaWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012Proposed site meeting EBSA criteria:Abrolhos Bank & Vitoria-Trindade ChainDescribed in-part due to high regional biodiversityas depicted using OBIS data.
Compilation of scientific data & informationPatrick Halpin, Jesse Cleary, Corrie Curtice, Ben DonnellyFebruary 20, 2012Prepared for the Secretariat of the Convention onBiodiversity (SCBD)Data to inform theCBD Workshopto Facilitate the Description ofEcologically or BiologicallySignificant Marine Areasin the Wider Caribbeanand Western Mid-Atlantic~60-70 GIS data layersOverlay & AnalysisData types•Biogeography•Biological Data•Physical DataWorkshop Data ReportCBD EBSA workshops
Global Map of proposed EBSAsThe North Pacific and South-East Atlantic workshops March-April 2013 will identify more areas.
Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems database(VME-DB) and iMarineIn line with the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)Resolution 61/105 FAO developed:• InternationalGuidelines for the Management of Deep-Sea Fisheries on theo to provide guidance for States and regional fisheriesmanagement organizations or arrangements(RFMOs/As)o to ensure long-term conservation and sustainableuse of marine living resources in the deep seas andprevent significant adverse impacts (SAIs) onvulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs)
VME Criteria (as per FAO guidelines)• Uniqueness or rarity• Functional significance of the habitat• Fragility• Life-history traits of component species that makerecovery difficult• Structural complexity
iMarine VRE, FIGIS, and the VME databaseThe VME-DB can use i-Marine resources for:Biodiversity/Taxonomic data-INDEEP World Register of Deep-Sea Species(WoRDSS)-CenSeam and other OBIS sources, accessiblethrough OBIS-FAO Deep sea species distribution maps-Aquamaps for Deep sea speciesEnvironmental/Physical data-Geomorphology and predicted habitat (Gold)- GEBCOFisheries data- FAO or regional catch time series
Current inventory of VME locations
Protected area overlays withbiodiversityDoes the global protected area system covers arepresentative sample of the world’s biodiversity, and isit targeting at the most important sites forbiodiversity?• Potential indicators:–How many species with IUCN red list status per Marine ProtectedArea?–How many species with IUCN status in < n MPAs?–How many endemic species per MPA (Nr and occurrences)?–What is the edge effect; MPA in the center or close to outer limitof the species distribution range?
OBIS holds 1,000,000 species observationsof 15,000 marine species in UNESCO’s 46marine world heritage sites
Conclusionsbiodiversity indicators : status• We still need to improve geographic, taxonomic, andtemporal coverage of data to unravel globalbiodiversity trends (lack of data and lack of sharing).• The complexity of biodiversity and ecosystemfunctioning requires a selection of species at varioustrophic levels.• An Ecosystem-Approach to the management of ourliving resources requires an holistic approach: linkingbiodiversity indicators to pressures, threats andimpacts on goods and services.
We need to move from uneven,coarse resolution data...The futureHigh resolution, contiguouscoverage in space & time…This data needs to be aggregatedand made freely available to allnations, institutions and individualsTo…Our shared goal is to movefrom ad hoc scientific expertprocesses to moresystematic scientificassessments.
Recommendations• Improve global coordination of marine biodiversityand ecosystem monitoring.• Establish Essential Biodiversity Variables (incollaboration with GOOS/GEO BON/GEO BluePlanet)• Establish permanent marine biodiversityobservatories.• Improve standardization and sharing of data.• Build capacity through training, standards, bestpractices and guidelines (in collaboration with IODE).– Contribute to CBDs report on the "adequacy of observations, and of datasystems, for monitoring the biodiversity attributes addressed in the AichiBiodiversity Targets".
"We are all data hungry”Major processes to assess progress of the Biodiversitytargets:•2013: EU Habitat Directive (6-year report)•2014: EU marine ecosystem & service assessment•2014: CBD 4th Global Biodiversity Outlook•2015: UN 1st World Ocean Assessment•2018: 1st IPBES assessment
Role of iMarine• iMarine can support the assessment processes byproviding generic tools like TrendyLyzer to helpMember States assess the state of the environmentand of biodiversity.• iMarine provides a collaborative researchenvironment.• iMarine contributes to the standardization andsharing of data
One Planet – One OceanOne Planet – One Ocean72Thank you!Thank you!Special thanks to :Angela Italiano and Gianpaolo Coro (CNR)Pat Halpin and Ei Fujioka (OBIS-SEAMAP), Anton Ellenbroek,Aureliano Gentile and Fabio Carocci (FAO), Tom Webb (U.Sheffield)