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Marine biodiversity indicators
 

Marine biodiversity indicators

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  • Indicator trends for (A) the state of biodiversity, (B) pressures upon it, (C) responses to address its loss, and (D) the benefits humans derive from it. Data scaled to 1 in 1970 (or for first year of data if >1970), modeled (if >13 data points; see Table 1), and plotted on a logarithmic ordinate axis. Shading shows 95% confidence intervals except where unavailable (i.e., mangrove, seagrass, and forest extent, nitrogen deposition, and biodiversity aid). WBI, Wild Bird Index; WPSI, Waterbird Population Status Index; LPI, Living Planet Index; RLI, Red List Index; IBA, Important Bird Area; AZE, Alliance for Zero Extinction site; IAS, invasive alien species. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines
  • Of the fish stocks assessed by the FAO, 29.9 percent were outside safe biological limits in 2009. Those overexploited stocks produced lower than they could biologically and requires strict management plans to rebuild their stock abundance for maximum sustainable productivity. At the global level, the proportion of overexploited stocks has increased continuously from 10 percent in 1974 to the current 29.9 percent.
  • Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. PRESSURE Status of alien species invasion is expressed as the number of documented IAS per country. Geographic coverage: all European countries with marine/estuarine waters. Casual records are to some extent included (casual records from before 1920) excluded as well as casual records that have later not been found again and therefore assumed extinct). For an additional 31 species (15 primary producers, 16 invertebrates) the date of establishment is unknown. Alien species in European marine/estuarine waters (October 2008) - the indicator on the cumulative number of alien species established in European countries with marine/estuarine waters, as well as non-European countries bordering European seas. The cumulative number of alien species introduced in Europe has been constantly increasing since the 1900s. In the 2000s, the total number of marine alien species increased to more than 1 300 species (EEA, 2009).
  • Target 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained For example: • One-quarter of the world’s primary habitat producing species, such as reef-building corals, mangroves and seagrasses, are at elevated risk of extinction. • More than one-quarter of seabirds are threatened. • 17% of sharks and 12% of grouper species are listed as critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable to extinction. (Carpenter et al. 2011; Polidoro et al. 2009).
  • Aichi Biodiversity Target: Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes. (in 2011) = 2.4%
  • Having set a target to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2010, it became essential to examine and report on progress. To make this process meaningful to a range of audiences, a set of indicators was needed. This would provide a quick, easy-to-understand reference point for measuring progress that would be understandable to both technical and non‑technical audiences alike. The indicators would be underpinned by sound scientific knowledge and analysis.
  • Three main objectives of BIP to generate information on biodiversity trends, which is useful to decision-makers; to ensure improved global biodiversity indicators are implemented and available; to establish links between biodiversity initiatives at the regional and national levels to enable capacity building and improve the delivery of the biodiversity indicators.
  • 2050 vision By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides — its natural capital — are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided. 2020 headline target Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss. The six key targets are the following: • Target 1: Fully implement the Birds and Habitats Directives. • Target 2: Maintain and restore ecosystems and their services. • Target 3: Increase the contribution of agriculture and forestry to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. • Target 4: Ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources. • Target 5: Combat invasive alien species. • Target 6: Help avert global biodiversity loss.
  • 2050 vision By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides — its natural capital — are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided. 2020 headline target Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss. The six key targets are the following: Fully implement the Birds and Habitats Directives. Maintain and restore ecosystems and their services. Increase the contribution of agriculture and forestry to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources. Combat invasive alien species. Help avert global biodiversity loss.
  • * OBIS_Arctic__N_OBS_5D - number of records per 5d cell, natural breaks classification ** OBIS_Arctic__N_OBS_1D - number of records per 1d cell, natural breaks classification.  I used different classes than the 5D maps since the data range is much smaller (smaller cells = less data per cell).  I included this map since the 5D map may over-represent Arctic sampling.
  • * OBIS_Pacific__ES50_5D - es(50) statistic per 5D cell, natural breaks classification.   * OBIS_Pacific__N_OBS_1D - number of records per 1D cell, natural breaks classification (same as Arctic 1D)
  • 700,000 to 1,000,000 marine species (Expert opinion in Appeltans et al (2012). The Magnitude of Global Species Diversity, Current Biology 22). 100% 230,000 marine species described (WoRMS + expert opinion in Appeltans et al (2012). The Magnitude of Global Species Diversity, Current Biology 22). 25-30% 120,000 marine species observed in OBIS in total 10-15% 12,000 marine species observed in OBIS per year 5,414 marine species with assessed status in IUCN
  • King pinguin Fulmar Swordfish Yellowfin tuna Hottentot seabream
  • Fulmar Guillemot Kittewake Whiting Cod Common dab Herring
  • 6 year report part of the Habitat Directive: Some 74 % of the assessments of marine species linked to marine ecosystems are unknown. Twenty-four per cent of the assessments are unfavourable. Only 2 % of the assessments are favourable and are represented only in the Atlantic, Boreal and Marine Atlantic regions. The Atlantic, Continental and Marine Baltic regions have more than 80 % of unfavourable assessments. The Marine Atlantic, Marine Macaronesian and Marine Mediterranean regions have the highest percentage of unknown assessments (more than 70 %). Geographical coverage: EU except Bulgaria and Romania; number of assessments in brackets.
  • 6 year report part of the Habitat Directive: Some 74 % of the assessments of marine species linked to marine ecosystems are unknown. Twenty-four per cent of the assessments are unfavourable. Only 2 % of the assessments are favourable and are represented only in the Atlantic, Boreal and Marine Atlantic regions. The Atlantic, Continental and Marine Baltic regions have more than 80 % of unfavourable assessments. The Marine Atlantic, Marine Macaronesian and Marine Mediterranean regions have the highest percentage of unknown assessments (more than 70 %). Geographical coverage: EU except Bulgaria and Romania; number of assessments in brackets.
  • Background The International Guidelines for the Management of Deep-Sea Fisheries on the High Seas (the FAO Deep-sea Guidelines; FAO 2008) 1 provides guidance to States and regional fisheries management organizations or arrangements (RFMOs/As) to ensure the long-term conservation and sustainable use of marine living resources in the deep seas by preventing significant adverse impacts (SAIs) on vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). This is an important aspect of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 61/1052 and consistent with the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) 3. FAO has developed a full programme to support the implementation of the FAO Deep-sea Guidelines. This includes a VME database that will raise awareness on VMEs to fishery policy makers, managers and scientists, conservationists, the fishing industry, and the public at large.
  • System architecture and main components The system architecture is devised considering the current technology available in FAO. The list of major components is here below described The VME repositories are based on relational databases (e.g. Oracle, PosgresSQL, MySQL) connected with GeoServer servicing maps and providing spatial geographic functions. The VME-DB portal relies on the FIGIS platform for data repository (VMEs, Maps and other information references). The content of the VME database is disseminated through the portal in the form of fact sheets (XML format) integrated with GIS based maps and search interface. The iMarine e-infrastructure provides to data owners, under a controlled access, a collaborative space through Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for enhancing the capacity of input, information sharing, and analysis. iMarine also allows to publish selected information products, such as a VME defined as output of this input-sharing-analysis process.
  • Main functionalities of the portal for public dissemination Content submission: web-based input forms (e.g. through iMarine VRE); uploading of structured documents and geographic locations (e.g. FIGIS Word/Excel converter tool); dynamic retrieval from external databases. Content management: on-line editing for fact sheets updates; publishing workflow; definition of access rights. Content analysis and summary: aggregation geographical operators; summary reports (e.g. number of VME by oceans, ranking of most used VME criteria by oceans). Content dissemination: export, print and embedding facilities for fact sheets and maps.
  • Does the global protected area system covers a representative sample of the world’s biodiversity, and is targeted at the most important sites for biodiversity? Nr of Species with IUCN red list status per Marine Protected Area Nr of Species with IUCN status in < n MPAs Nr of Endemic species per MPA (Nr and occurrences) Edge effect; MPA near species distribution range?
  • OBIS_Global__N_OBS_5D - number of records per 5D cell, natural breaks classification (same as Arctic 5D).
  • Need for Data   The UN General Assembly (A/RES/63/111) expressed its serious concern over the current and projected adverse effects of climate change on the marine environment and marine biodiversity. However,  
  • You may also refer to iMarine under the recommendations saying that iMarine can contribute to the standardization and sharing of data.

Marine biodiversity indicators Marine biodiversity indicators Presentation Transcript

  • Marine BiodiversityIndicators for PolicyMakingWard AppeltansIOC/UNESCOiMarine e-Infrastructure for data driven decision making and research, 14-15 May 2013,Brussels
  • We are losing our natural habitatsvan Hooidonk et al. 2013. Temporary refugia for coral reefs in a warming world. Nature Clim. Changehttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate182950% 100%
  • We are losing our natural habitats
  • Fish and invertebrate stocks areover-exploitedSource: FAO
  • Introduction and establishment ofmarine invasive alien speciesCopyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).
  • We are losing species at anunprecedented rate
  • Currently 2,4% of the ocean is protected
  • The loss of Biodiversity is a globalconcern• 1992 – UN Conference on Environment andDevelopment, Rio de Janeiro– Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): objectives arethe conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable useof its components and the fair and equitable sharing of thebenefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources,• 2002 – World Summit on Sustainable Development inJohannesburg regarded biodiversity a benefit tosociety and important to alleviate poverty– CBD target to significantly reduce the current rate ofbiodiversity loss by 2010.– In 2003, EU target to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2010.
  • EU Biodiversity Indicators• Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators(SEBI)– In 2005, the EU established a process tostreamline national, regional and globalindicators and, crucially, to develop asimple and workable set of indicators tomeasure progress and help reach the2010 target.– By the end of 2007 : 26 indicators werepublished by the EEA.
  • Global BiodiversityIndicators• 2006, CBD COP8 established a consortium ofindicator developers and the BiodiversityIndicators Platform (BIP) was formed.
  • Post 2010• 2010, 3rdGlobal Biodiversity Outlook (based on BIPindicators) reported that the UN biodiversity targethad not been met and warned that the pressures onbiodiversity continue to intensify• 2010, EU biodiversity assessment report concludedthat also the EU has missed its target.
  • Post 2010• 2010, 10thCBD COP in Nagoya adopted theStrategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.– 5 strategic goals and 20 new targets.• 2011, EU Biodiversity Strategy – Our lifeinsurance, our natural capital– 2050 vision and 2020 headline target and 6 key targets1. Fully implement the Birds and Habitats Directives.2. Maintain and restore ecosystems and their services.3. Increase the contribution of agriculture and forestry tomaintaining and enhancing biodiversity.4. Ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources.5. Combat invasive alien species.6. Help avert global biodiversity loss.
  • Post 20102012, United Nations Conference on SustainableDevelopment (Rio+20)“The future we want”“Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability”•Actions to reduce stressors and maintain or restore the structureand function of marine ecosystems for equitable and sustainableuse of marine resources and ecosystems.•Implement Actions to Adapt to and Mitigate Ocean Acidification•Develop and Execute a Global Program aimed at GreaterProtection and Restoration of Vital Ocean and Coastal Habitats,•Strengthen the Legal Framework to Effectively Address AquaticInvasive Species
  • Ocean BiogeographicInformation SystemOBIS is the world’s largest open access, online datasystem on the diversity, distribution and abundance ofmarine species35 million distribution records120,000 marine species1,130 datasets>800 publicationsData legacy of 10-year Census of Marine LifeAdopted by UNESCO-IOC, project of IODE, hosted by IOC projectoffice for IODE in Oostende (Belgium)
  • Nr of observation records (5D) in OBIS
  • Nr of observation records (1D) in OBISWhite is no data
  • Arctic view: number of records inOBIS per 5d (left) and 1d (right) cell
  • Pacific view: number of records inOBIS per 5d (left) and 1d (right) cell
  • Very few historical dataOnly 100 marine species for which we have yearly records between 1955-2005
  • Nr of observation records per depth and distancefrom coastline in OBIS – vast mid waters areunexplored2013 has around 2.7x more records (almost 19Million, cf. almost 7M) compared to 2009, and therange of sample depths represented has increased slightly, from 0-10670m in 2009 to 0-10900mnow.
  • OBIS data growth: # records35 million geo-referenced species observations (+ 5 million since Jan 2011)
  • OBIS data growth:# records.k/dataset
  • OBIS data growth: # marine species.K120,000 marinespecies (+ 5,000since Jan 2011)
  • Nr of species (5D) in OBIS
  • Nr of species expected in a sampleof 50 specimens per 5D in OBIS
  • Nr of observation records and Nr ofspecies in OBIS per year
  • Marine Species Diversity – currentknowledge700K – 1 million marine species230K described120K in OBIS12K OBIS/year5,4K IUCN assessmentAppeltans et al (2012). The Magnitude of GlobalSpecies Diversity, Current Biology 22
  • Trendylyzer• Trends in global species composition:– Are we observing more or fewer species?– What are the most common species (10 - 25 or n) and isthis changing over time and space?– Can we detect regime shifts?• Trends in distribution and abundance of selectedspecies:– What is the extinction risk of species?• The protected area overlays indicator:– Does the global protected area system covers arepresentative sample of the world’s biodiversity (includingthreatened species), and is it targeting the most importantsites for biodiversity?
  • Most observed species (Nr ofrecords)
  • High global variations per year
  • King pinguins invasion in 2004!Photo credits: Eric WhoelerI don’t think so
  • North Sea has the highest Nr ofrecords
  • Most observed pelagic species in theNorth Sea
  • Trends of most observed North Seaspecies
  • Trends of pelagic North Sea speciesRegime shiftHerring recoveredafter the fish ban
  • Marine species conservation statusin EUProtected vs Endangered species in Europe:•77 marine species on EU Habitat directive list•35 marine species on EU Bird directive list•35 marine species on OSPAR list•18 marine species on CITES list•71 EU marine species threatened according to IUCNRed list (16 CR, 16 EN and 39 VU)Source PESI/EU-nomen
  • Marine species conservation statusin EU• bulletCopyright holder: European Environment Agency (EEA).EU Habitat Directive; number of assessments in brackets.
  • fin whaleBalaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758)Threatened with extinction and are or may be affected bytrade. Commercial trade in wild-caught specimens ofthese species is illegal (permitted only in exceptionallicensed circumstances)Species of community interest, in need of strictprotectionThis species is threatened and/or declining in the entireNorth-East AtlanticThis species is endangered and is considered to befacing a very high risk of extinction in the wild
  • Fin whale: global distributionOBIS-SEAMAP, Ocean Biogeographic Information System -Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations
  • Fin whale : global annual trendsNr of RecordsAbundance
  • Fin whale : EU annual trendsNr of RecordsAbundance
  • Fin whale : summer sightings 1950-1990
  • Fin whale : summer sightings since 2000
  • 46Non-indigenous species and likely vectors of theirintroductions in the North SeaIn total 167 alien andcryptogenic speciesDominant vectors:shipping (~50%,ballast water + hullfouling) and intentionalintroductions forstocking oraquaculture purposes(14-30%)Relative importance ofvectors: (black = hullfouling, dark grey =aquaculture, stocking,light grey = ballastwater, etc.)[slide: Sergey Olenin](Gollasch et al. 2009)
  • Ensis directus in 1960Source: OBIS, 2013
  • Ensis directus in 1965Source: OBIS, 2013
  • Ensis directus in 1979Source: OBIS, 2013
  • Ensis directus in 1995Source: OBIS, 2013
  • Ensis directus in 2000Source: OBIS, 2013
  • Ensis directus in 2005Source: OBIS, 2013
  • 10% of coastal and marine areas areprotected by 2020…• EBSA• VME• Natura2000• MPA• UNESCO WHS• UNESCO Biospheres• …
  • Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs):Criteria1. Uniqueness or rarity2. Special importance for life history of species3. Importance for threatened, endangered or decliningspecies and/or habitats4. Vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity, slow recovery5. Biological productivity6. Biological diversity7. Naturalness2008 COP9 criteria established
  • CBD-COP10 listed OBIS as a key source ofinformation for the identification of Ecologically orBiologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) part of CBDAreas of high biodiversityAreas of special importancefor the life history of aspeciesAreas of significant naturalnessAreas ofuniqueness or rarity
  • North Pacific regional EBSA workshop, Moscow,25 Feb – 1 March 2013OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA process
  • OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA processMarine Mammal ObservationsEastern Tropical & TemperatePacific EBSA workshop, GalapagosEcuador, August 2012IUCN Red-List SpeciesWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012examples
  • OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA processBiological Diversity all taxaWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012Proposed site meeting EBSA criteria:Abrolhos Bank & Vitoria-Trindade ChainDescribed in-part due to high regional biodiversityas depicted using OBIS data.
  • Compilation of scientific data & informationPatrick Halpin, Jesse Cleary, Corrie Curtice, Ben DonnellyFebruary 20, 2012Prepared for the Secretariat of the Convention onBiodiversity (SCBD)Data to inform theCBD Workshopto Facilitate the Description ofEcologically or BiologicallySignificant Marine Areasin the Wider Caribbeanand Western Mid-Atlantic~60-70 GIS data layersOverlay & AnalysisData types•Biogeography•Biological Data•Physical DataWorkshop Data ReportCBD EBSA workshops
  • Global Map of proposed EBSAsThe North Pacific and South-East Atlantic workshops March-April 2013 will identify more areas.
  • Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems database(VME-DB) and iMarineIn line with the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)Resolution 61/105 FAO developed:• InternationalGuidelines for the Management of Deep-Sea Fisheries on theo to provide guidance for States and regional fisheriesmanagement organizations or arrangements(RFMOs/As)o to ensure long-term conservation and sustainableuse of marine living resources in the deep seas andprevent significant adverse impacts (SAIs) onvulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs)
  • VME Criteria (as per FAO guidelines)• Uniqueness or rarity• Functional significance of the habitat• Fragility• Life-history traits of component species that makerecovery difficult• Structural complexity
  • iMarine VRE, FIGIS, and the VME databaseThe VME-DB can use i-Marine resources for:Biodiversity/Taxonomic data-INDEEP World Register of Deep-Sea Species(WoRDSS)-CenSeam and other OBIS sources, accessiblethrough OBIS-FAO Deep sea species distribution maps-Aquamaps for Deep sea speciesEnvironmental/Physical data-Geomorphology and predicted habitat (Gold)- GEBCOFisheries data- FAO or regional catch time series
  • Current inventory of VME locations
  • Protected area overlays withbiodiversityDoes the global protected area system covers arepresentative sample of the world’s biodiversity, and isit targeting at the most important sites forbiodiversity?• Potential indicators:–How many species with IUCN red list status per Marine ProtectedArea?–How many species with IUCN status in < n MPAs?–How many endemic species per MPA (Nr and occurrences)?–What is the edge effect; MPA in the center or close to outer limitof the species distribution range?
  • OBIS holds 1,000,000 species observationsof 15,000 marine species in UNESCO’s 46marine world heritage sites
  • Conclusionsbiodiversity indicators : status• We still need to improve geographic, taxonomic, andtemporal coverage of data to unravel globalbiodiversity trends (lack of data and lack of sharing).• The complexity of biodiversity and ecosystemfunctioning requires a selection of species at varioustrophic levels.• An Ecosystem-Approach to the management of ourliving resources requires an holistic approach: linkingbiodiversity indicators to pressures, threats andimpacts on goods and services.
  • We need to move from uneven,coarse resolution data...The futureHigh resolution, contiguouscoverage in space & time…This data needs to be aggregatedand made freely available to allnations, institutions and individualsTo…Our shared goal is to movefrom ad hoc scientific expertprocesses to moresystematic scientificassessments.
  • Recommendations• Improve global coordination of marine biodiversityand ecosystem monitoring.• Establish Essential Biodiversity Variables (incollaboration with GOOS/GEO BON/GEO BluePlanet)• Establish permanent marine biodiversityobservatories.• Improve standardization and sharing of data.• Build capacity through training, standards, bestpractices and guidelines (in collaboration with IODE).– Contribute to CBDs report on the "adequacy of observations, and of datasystems, for monitoring the biodiversity attributes addressed in the AichiBiodiversity Targets".
  • "We are all data hungry”Major processes to assess progress of the Biodiversitytargets:•2013: EU Habitat Directive (6-year report)•2014: EU marine ecosystem & service assessment•2014: CBD 4th Global Biodiversity Outlook•2015: UN 1st World Ocean Assessment•2018: 1st IPBES assessment
  • Role of iMarine• iMarine can support the assessment processes byproviding generic tools like TrendyLyzer to helpMember States assess the state of the environmentand of biodiversity.• iMarine provides a collaborative researchenvironment.• iMarine contributes to the standardization andsharing of data
  • One Planet – One OceanOne Planet – One Ocean72Thank you!Thank you!Special thanks to :Angela Italiano and Gianpaolo Coro (CNR)Pat Halpin and Ei Fujioka (OBIS-SEAMAP), Anton Ellenbroek,Aureliano Gentile and Fabio Carocci (FAO), Tom Webb (U.Sheffield)