OBIS & capacity-building needs for marine biodiversity data management
OBIS&capacity-buildingneeds for marinebiodiversity datamanagementGeneral Assembly Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to theconservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of nationaljurisdictionMay 7, 2013P.N. Halpin1 & W. Appeltans21 Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab, Duke University, Durham,NC, USA2 Ocean Biogeographic Information System, UNESCO – IOC/IODE, Oostende, Belgium
Panel questions:What are the capacity needs to apply conservation andmanagement tools, including area-based management andenvironmental impact assessments?What are the capacity-building activities that assist in applyingthose tools?What is the nature of the arrangements currently in place for thetransfer of marine technology?What are the challenges to effective cooperation andcoordination and transfer of marine technology?What mechanisms may be implemented to address thosechallenges?
Panel questions:What are the capacity needs to apply conservation andmanagement tools, including area-based management andenvironmental impact assessments?What are the capacity-building activities that assist in applyingthose tools?What is the nature of the arrangements currently in place for thetransfer of marine technology?What are the challenges to effective cooperation andcoordination and transfer of marine technology?What mechanisms may be implemented to address thosechallenges?I will address these questions through a discussionof how the UNESCO/IOC Ocean BiogeographicInformation System (OBIS) is working to buildinternational capacity to address marine scienceand management challenges in areas beyondnational jurisdiction (ABNJ).
• 2,700 scientists• 80+ nations• 540 expeditions• US$ 650 million (direct & associated funds)• 2,600+ scientific publications• 6,000+ potential new species• 30 million distribution records and countingCensus of Marine Life (2000-2010)OBIS was established as the data repository andinformation dissemination system for CoML
OBIS at IOC-UNESCOIn June 2009, the 25th Session of the IOC Assembly decided throughResolution XXV-4 to adopt OBIS as part of IODE, because:1. Knowledge of the oceans biodiversity is of such importance to nationaland global environmental issues that the responsibility for its continuingsuccess should be assumed by governments.2. IOC Member States have repeatedly identified the need to acquireocean biogeographic data for national ocean and coastal resourcemanagement.3. Without accurate, repeatable and timely biological data it isimpossible to address adequately the global ocean environmentalissues of pollution, climate impact and mitigation, ocean acidification,ecosystem management, biodiversity loss, and habitat destruction(Resolution of the UN General Assembly A/RES/63/111)4. OBIS provided the opportunity to adopt an existingglobal network for biogeographic data and to attractthe associated research community that can andshould be a continuous part of the Commission’s oceanmandate.
Ocean BiogeographicInformation SystemOBIS is the world’s largest open access, onlinerepository of spatially referenced marine life data that:-- Nations can use to develop national and regionalassessments, to discover trends, gaps and biodiversityhotspots and to meet their obligations to the Convention onBiological Diversity and other international commitments.-- Stimulates research about our oceans to generate newhypotheses concerning evolutionary processes, speciesdistributions, and roles of organisms in marine systems ona global scale.-- Forms a baseline of marine life’s diversity,distribution, and abundance against whichfuture change can be measured.
OBIS NetworkOBIS is astrategicalliance ofhundreds ofscientists andorganisationswho contributedata, informationand expertise toOBIS.OBISOBISSteeringGroupOBIS taskteamsOBISGroup ofExpertsOBIS NodesData providersUserspolicy makers,managers,researchers,publicStakeholdersPartnerships with CBD,GBIF, EOL, GOBI, GOOS,FAO, UNEP-WCMC, ICES,SMEBD/WoRMS,Species2000, GCMD, SCOR,CBOL, !contributing data providers & data nodes
http://www.iobis.org/Ocean Biogeographic Information SystemSearch data based on• Taxonomy• Datasets• Geographical boundaries• Time, season, depth• Oceanographic variables• >35,000,000 records• >120,000 species
OBIS data growth: # records0510152025303540Apr-01 Sep-02 Jan-04 May-05 Oct-06 Feb-08 Jul-09 Nov-10 Apr-12 Aug-13#rrecordsinmillions35 million geo-referenced species observations (+ 5 million since Jan 2011)post CoML
OBIS data growth: # datasets020040060080010001200!"#$%& ()"$%* +,-$%. /,0$%1 234$%5 6)7$%8 +9:$%; <=>$&% !"#$&* !9?$&@1,130 datasets (+ 219 since Jan 2011)post CoML
OBIS data growth: # marine species0.0020.0040.0060.0080.00100.00120.00140.00Apr-01 Sep-02 Jan-04 May-05 Oct-06 Feb-08 Jul-09 Nov-10 Apr-12 Aug-13120,000 marine species (+ 5,000 since Jan 2011)#speciesx1000post CoML
Global view: Marine Biological Diversity2010 National Geographic map1 of marine biologicaldiversity interpolated from a statistical analysis2 basedon CoML & OBIS data1 Halpin et al. 2010 2 Tittensor et al. 2010
Global view: number of records in OBIS per 50 cellsEven with >35,000,000 observations on-line we continue tohave significant data gaps and biases.These data gaps can be attributed to eitherlack of data or lack of data sharing.• Northern hemisphere• Coastal• Surface or shallow
Global view: : number of records in OBISrecords per 50 cellsrecords per 10 cellsEffect of resolution!
Pacific view: number of records in OBIS per50 (left) and 10 (right) cell
Arctic view: number of records in OBIS per50 (left) and 10 (right) cell
The Unknown Ocean: A sliceRed = many records, dark blue noneThe vast midwaters,Earth s largesthabitat by volume,mostly unexplored (~95%)Source: CoML OBISWebb, O Dor, Vanden BergheCoastal areas > open waters;Surface areas > the deep sea;Vertebrates and other large animals> smaller invertebrates;Northern hemisphere > southern.?
The Unknown Ocean: A sliceRed = many records, dark blue none2013 has around 2.7x more records (almost 19Million, cf. almost 7M) compared to 2009, and the range ofsample depths represented has increased slightly, from 0-10670m in 2009 to 0-10900m now.progress filling in data
OBIS contributions to the UN processes:"(1) national reporting and (2) open oceans & deep seas"National EEZ data queries Open-ocean ABNJ data queriesOpen-access data madeavailable to all countriesand communitiesInternational collaborativedata and research in areasbeyond national jurisdictionOBIS is unique in thisinternational role
10th Conference of the Parties to theConvention on Biological DiversityIn Nagoya October 2010, the 10th Conference of theParties to the Convention on Biological Diversity(Decision COP10/29 para 10 and 35;) requestedMember States to further enhance globally networkedscientific efforts, such as the Ocean BiogeographicInformation System (OBIS), to continue to update acomprehensive and accessible global database ofall forms of life in the sea, and further assess and mapthe distribution and abundance of species in the sea!
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs):Criteria1. Uniqueness or rarity2. Special importance for life history of species3. Importance for threatened, endangered or decliningspecies and/or habitats4. Vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity, slow recovery5. Biological productivity6. Biological diversity7. Naturalness2008 COP9 criteria establishedOBIS data can play an importantrole in identifying areas that meetspecific EBSA criteria & also FAO-VME and UNESCO-WH criteria
CBD-COP10 listed OBIS as a key source of information for theidentiﬁcation of Ecologically or Biologically Signiﬁcant Areas(EBSAs)"Areas of high biodiversityAreas of special importancefor the life history of aspeciesAreas of significant naturalnessAreas ofuniqueness or rarity
Compilation of scientific data & information!!!!!!! !"#$%&(!)#*+&,-!./00/!1*/#%2-!13%%&/!14%$&/-!5/,!63,,/**2!7/8%4#%2!9:-!9:;9!"%/+#%/<!=3%!$>/!?/%/$#%&#$!3=!$>/!13,@/,$&3,!3,!5&3<&@/%0&$2!A?156B!! !!6#$#!$3!&,=3%C!$>/!!156!D3%(0>3+!!$3!7#&*&$#$/!$>/!6/0%&+$&3,!3=!E3*3F&#**2!3%!5&3*3F&#**2!?&F,&=&#,$!G#%&,/!H%/#0!&,!$>/!D&</%!1#%&88/#,!!#,<!D/0$/%,!G&<IH$*#,$&!~60-70 GIS data layersOverlay & AnalysisData types• Biogeography• Biological Data• Physical DataWorkshop Data ReportCBD EBSA workshops
North Pacific regional EBSA workshop, Moscow,25 Feb – 1 March 2013OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA process"
OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA process"Marine Mammal ObservationsEastern Tropical & Temperate PacificEBSA workshop, GalapagosEcuador, August 2012IUCN Red-List SpeciesWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012examples
OBIS contributions to the CBD EBSA process"Biological Diversity all taxaWider Caribbean and WesternMid-Atlantic workshop, Recife,Brazil, February 2012Proposed site meeting EBSA criteria:Abrolhos Bank & Vitoria-Trindade ChainDescribed in-part due to high regional biodiversityas depicted using OBIS data.
Need for regional capacity building"(a) Capacity building & training• Training materials• Workshop training• Data & analysis facilitationDRAFTTraining Manual for the Description of Ecologicallyand Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs)in Open-ocean Waters and Deep-sea Habitats(b) Regional data collection• Data collection• Data aggregation• Data exchange
Need for international capacity building"(a) Support to expand & sustain the iOBIS central data portal• Sustained operational support• Targeted resources to support international ABNJ activities (UNGA-BBNJ, CBD-EBSAs, FAO-VMEs!)(b) Support contributing OBIS nodes• Data collection• Data aggregation• Data exchange
We need to move from uneven,coarse resolution data...The futureHigh resolution, contiguouscoverage in space & time!This data needs to be aggregatedand made freely available to allnations, institutions and individualsTo!Our shared goal is to movefrom ad hoc scientific expertprocesses in ABNJ to moresystematic scientificassessments.
Summary"-- New resources are required to expandand sustain the iOBIS data portal and thecontributing OBIS data nodes to supportABNJ science needs.-- International processes in Areas Beyond National Jurisdictionrequire unbiased, open-access biological data.-- The OBIS network provides the worlds largest informationsystem providing data on ocean biogeographic information.-- Capacity building must address:• regional capacity development to develop & use data;• international capacity to provide comprehensive ocean data;
“OBIS is worlds largest online systemfor absorbing, integrating, andaccessing data about life in theocean”Questions?