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  • 1. -327660225425<br />http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images/lt19cmap.gif From ancient times, Chinese proud themselves and looked down on all foreigners until Qing emperor accepted to trade with Great Britain. Britain exported the new technologies which were not invented in China. However, China emperor sent a letter to Great Britain’s King, George III. A letter said “Chinese already had everything they needed. We were not interest in the ‘strange objects’” and they did not show interest to it. After the time passed, Great Britain was importing Chinese silk, tea, and peppers, but there are no items which export to Qing. Thus, Britain was smuggling a lot of opium to China, but Chinese government banned the drug with law. So, Chinese burned about 2 tons of the opium and stop trading with Britain. To get more profits, Britain attacked China and opened 5 ports for trades, and it is called Treaty of Nanking<br />Economic Motives<br />36252151597025China was only “allowed foreigners to do business was a southern port of Guangzhou” and also, “the balance of trade at Guangzhou was clearly in China’s favor.” It means that China could receive more profits than Great Britain. Finally, China closed their ports, so Britain could not receive any profits from China. To get more profits, Britain attacked China (Beck 371).<br />Nationalism motives<br />This is a picture of imperialism of Britain. Britain conquer the land surround them as octpass which has more than 8 legs and takeover a land with one hand for each.http://hemi.nyu.edu/cuaderno/politicalperformance2004/colonialism/colonialism/imperialism.gif In 19century, many Europeans were trying to conquer more land because their nationalists thought that if they control more land than others, it represent their country is the strongest. Also, Britain had same thinking and sometimes, there were conflicts between Europeans. Britain defeated French, Italy, and countries surround it to satisfy with their strength.<br />Military: Early 1800s, Britain was buying some Chinese tea, pepper, and silk, but China did not buy anything because they did not have any interest in foreign countries. For keep fair profits of trading, Britain imports the opium, but Chinese government banned and burned tons of opium and they closed their ports. Britain had no choice but sent “steam-powered gunboats” and defeat Chinese outdated ships. They alerted to China before the invasion that if they do not open the ports for trade with Britain, armies are going to destroy the city of Nangjing. China refused Britain’s suggestion and alert, so Britain attacked China. <br />Politically: Britain controlled Hong Kong with extraterritorial rights. Also, Britain controlled surround of Chang Jing River and opened more ports for trading items. <br />Treaty of Nanking in 1842:<br />When China was defeated by Great Britain opium war, Chinese opened five ports for Britain and other foreign countries free to trade items in there. Also, it gave Britain the Hong Kong and two years later, many foreign citizens gained extraterritorial rights. This makes foreigners did not affect by any Chinese laws in five ports. However, to the opium which they have abolished once bustled again.<br />Main ideas of Treaty of Nanking (Caswell)<br />Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese<br />Open several ports to British trade<br />Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong<br />Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China<br />Open door policy in 1899:<br />Open door policy is a policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism. It purpose is that “China’s ‘doors’ be open to merchants of all nations.” It gave rights for trading in China to many Western countries and “China’s freedom from colonization.” All Britain and European nation agreed (Beck)<br />May fourth movement in 1919:<br />The May Fourth Movement began a patriotic outburst of new urban intellectuals against foreign imperialists and warlords. Intellectuals identified the political establishment with China's failure in the modern era, and hundreds of new periodicals published attacks on Chinese traditions, turning to foreign ideas and ideologies. The movement split into leftist and liberal wings. The time was the period of warlord, nights fought for the land and country, because there is no emperor in Qing. So, scholars can suggest and get anything they want and believed. While Qing emperor was ruling the Qing, scholars could not speak all about wealth and desires because Qing would punish them. Thus, students protest against the government to overthrow it. (Wright)<br />2739390406400Image of Boxer Rebellion. Picture is showing that Boxers are attacking the Christian and foreign people.http://www.battlefield-site.co.uk/boxer.jpg <br />1900- Boxer Rebellion<br />It is the rebellion of Boxers, “poor peasants and workers resented the special privileges granted to foreigners” (Beck 374). The purpose of Boxer Rebellion is that to kill and kicked foreigners from China. They went to Beijing and screamed “Death to the foreign Devils” because they thought that foreigner broke their traditional and government, but they defeated by Dowager Empress who is acting like emperor in Qing after Qing emperor defeated. <br />POSITIVE:<br />Gradually, China was getting interested in foreign technology and western items and trade with China continued for a long time.<br />Got more profits from China<br />Chinese government and technology developed<br />NEGATIVE:<br />Opium spread wide areas and because of it, many people died. <br />Declaim of Chinese government citizens lost their trust to the government and a lot of civil war was happened in China.<br />WORK CITED<br />Beck, Roger. Modern World History: McDougal Littell, 2005<br />Caswell, Thomas. http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/china.cfm <br />Pottinger, Henry. http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob24.html <br />The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0832352.html <br />Wright, David. History of China. Conneticut: Greebwiid Press, 2001<br />