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  1. 1. Chapter 1:Chapter 1: Steam BoilersSteam Boilers
  2. 2. Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR)Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR) As per IBR, any closed vesselAs per IBR, any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres in capacity andexceeding 22.75 litres in capacity and which is used expressively forwhich is used expressively for generating steam under pressure isgenerating steam under pressure is termed as steam boiler.termed as steam boiler.
  3. 3. Terms for Steam Boilers:Terms for Steam Boilers: Boiler ShellBoiler Shell Combustion ChamberCombustion Chamber GrateGrate FurnaceFurnace Flue gasesFlue gases FlueFlue MountingsMountings AccessoriesAccessories
  4. 4. Characteristics of Good BoilerCharacteristics of Good Boiler 1.1. Maximum steam generation rate with minimumMaximum steam generation rate with minimum fuel consumptionfuel consumption 2.2. Should accommodate load variationShould accommodate load variation 3.3. Can be started and stopped immediatelyCan be started and stopped immediately 4.4. Less erection time and detachable partsLess erection time and detachable parts 5.5. Tubes should not accommodate soot or scale.Tubes should not accommodate soot or scale. 6.6. Less frictional lossesLess frictional losses 7.7. High heat transfer rate and good efficiencyHigh heat transfer rate and good efficiency
  5. 5. Characteristics of GoodCharacteristics of Good Boiler(cont.)Boiler(cont.) 8.8. Less initial, running and maintenanceLess initial, running and maintenance costcost 9.9. Occupy less floor areaOccupy less floor area 10.10. Should be easily accessible for cleaningShould be easily accessible for cleaning and inspectionand inspection 11.11. Should comply IBR actsShould comply IBR acts
  6. 6. Factors affecting boiler selection:Factors affecting boiler selection: 1.1. Working pressure and power requiredWorking pressure and power required 2.2. Steam generation rate at working pressureSteam generation rate at working pressure 3.3. Type of fuel usedType of fuel used 4.4. Availability of fuel and waterAvailability of fuel and water 5.5. Floor space occupiedFloor space occupied 6.6. Type of load- steady or fluctuatingType of load- steady or fluctuating 7.7. Initial cost, running cost and maintenance costInitial cost, running cost and maintenance cost
  7. 7. Classification of Boilers:Classification of Boilers: According to Contents in the tube:According to Contents in the tube: (a) Fire Tube (b) Water tube(a) Fire Tube (b) Water tube According to Position of furnace:According to Position of furnace: (a) Internally fired (b) Externally fired(a) Internally fired (b) Externally fired According to Axis of shell:According to Axis of shell: (a) Vertical Boiler (b) Horizontal Boiler(a) Vertical Boiler (b) Horizontal Boiler According to number of tubes:According to number of tubes: (a) Single tube (b) Multi-tubular boiler(a) Single tube (b) Multi-tubular boiler According to method of water circulation:According to method of water circulation: (a) Natural Circulation (b) Forced circulation(a) Natural Circulation (b) Forced circulation According to Use:According to Use: (a) Stationary Boiler (b) Mobile Boiler(a) Stationary Boiler (b) Mobile Boiler According to source of heat:According to source of heat: (Solid, liquid, gas fuels, hot waste gas products, electricity etc(Solid, liquid, gas fuels, hot waste gas products, electricity etc
  8. 8. Fire Tube BoilersFire Tube Boilers
  9. 9. Cochran BoilerCochran Boiler
  10. 10. Features:Features: Vertical fire tube boilerVertical fire tube boiler Size: 1 to 3 m diameter, 2 to 6 m heightSize: 1 to 3 m diameter, 2 to 6 m height Steam generation capacity: 3600 kg/hrSteam generation capacity: 3600 kg/hr Pressure limit : 11 barPressure limit : 11 bar Tube diameter: 62.5 mmTube diameter: 62.5 mm No. of tubes: 165No. of tubes: 165 Hemispherical shape of crown and fire boxHemispherical shape of crown and fire box requires least material and improves heatrequires least material and improves heat radiationradiation
  11. 11. Lanchasire Boiler:Lanchasire Boiler:
  12. 12. Features:Features: Horizontal, stationary, fire tube boilerHorizontal, stationary, fire tube boiler Used for moderate operating pressureUsed for moderate operating pressure Size: 2 to 3 m diameter, 7 to 9 m lengthSize: 2 to 3 m diameter, 7 to 9 m length Steam generation capacity: 8500 kg/ hrSteam generation capacity: 8500 kg/ hr Pressure limit: 14.7 barPressure limit: 14.7 bar Tube diameter: ¼ times drum diameterTube diameter: ¼ times drum diameter Large heating surface area per unitLarge heating surface area per unit volumevolume Can handle load fluctuation easilyCan handle load fluctuation easily
  13. 13. Cornish BoilerCornish Boiler
  14. 14. Features:Features: Horizontal fire tube boilerHorizontal fire tube boiler Less capacityLess capacity Size: 1.25 to 1.75 m diameter, 4 to 7 mSize: 1.25 to 1.75 m diameter, 4 to 7 m lengthlength Steam generation capacity: 6500 kg/hrSteam generation capacity: 6500 kg/hr Pressure limit: 10.5 barPressure limit: 10.5 bar Tube diameter: 0.6 times drum diameterTube diameter: 0.6 times drum diameter
  15. 15. Water Tube BoilersWater Tube Boilers
  16. 16. Babcock and Wilcox BoilerBabcock and Wilcox Boiler
  17. 17. Features:Features: Horizontal, stationary water tube boilerHorizontal, stationary water tube boiler Size: 1 to 2 m diameter, 6 to 9 m lengthSize: 1 to 2 m diameter, 6 to 9 m length Steam generation capacity: 20,000 toSteam generation capacity: 20,000 to 40,000 kg/hr40,000 kg/hr Pressure limit: 11.5 to 17.5 barPressure limit: 11.5 to 17.5 bar Tube diameter: 100 mm (approx)Tube diameter: 100 mm (approx)
  18. 18. High Pressure Boilers:High Pressure Boilers: Boiler operating with steam pressureBoiler operating with steam pressure above 80 bar is termed as high pressureabove 80 bar is termed as high pressure boiler.boiler. Circulation of feed water is under pressureCirculation of feed water is under pressure hence increasing its saturationhence increasing its saturation temperature. Feed water is generallytemperature. Feed water is generally heated up to saturation temperature inheated up to saturation temperature in economizer.economizer. Boiler supplies only latent heat.Boiler supplies only latent heat.
  19. 19. Features of High Pressure Boilers:Features of High Pressure Boilers: High steam pressure and temperatureHigh steam pressure and temperature Forced water circulationForced water circulation Large number of small diameter tubesLarge number of small diameter tubes (increases surface area to volume ratio)(increases surface area to volume ratio) Improved heat transfer (radiation)Improved heat transfer (radiation) Pressurised combustion (uses Pressurised air)Pressurised combustion (uses Pressurised air) CompactnessCompactness High efficiencyHigh efficiency Intensive heatingIntensive heating
  20. 20. High Pressure boilers:High Pressure boilers: La Mount BoilerLa Mount Boiler Loeffler BoilerLoeffler Boiler Benson BoilerBenson Boiler
  21. 21. La Mount Boiler:La Mount Boiler:
  22. 22. Features:Features: Steam Generation rate: 50 tonnes/hrSteam Generation rate: 50 tonnes/hr Operating pressure and temperature: 130Operating pressure and temperature: 130 bar, 300bar, 30000 CC
  23. 23. Loeffler BoilerLoeffler Boiler
  24. 24. Features:Features: Uses oil as fuelUses oil as fuel Steam generation capacity: 100 tonne/hrSteam generation capacity: 100 tonne/hr Pressure limit: 140 barPressure limit: 140 bar Use of superheated steam instead of flueUse of superheated steam instead of flue gases for evaporating feed water. Hencegases for evaporating feed water. Hence clean operationclean operation Responds rapidly to sudden load variationResponds rapidly to sudden load variation
  25. 25. Benson BoilerBenson Boiler
  26. 26. Features:Features: Super critical (operating above criticalSuper critical (operating above critical pressure), drum-less, once through boilerpressure), drum-less, once through boiler Steam generation capacity: 135 tonne/ hrSteam generation capacity: 135 tonne/ hr Pressure limit: 250 barPressure limit: 250 bar Can be started within 15 minutesCan be started within 15 minutes Drum-less, hence less weightDrum-less, hence less weight High pressure avoids bubble formationHigh pressure avoids bubble formation and improve heat transfer rateand improve heat transfer rate