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Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
Recent trends in manufacturing
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Recent trends in manufacturing


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  • 1. 5/4/2013 1 Introduction • “to adapt” means to change a behavior to conform to new circumstances. • An adaptive controller a controller that can modify its behavior in response to the changes in dynamics of the processes and the disturbances acting on the process. a controller with adjustable parameters and a mechanism for adjusting the parameters. Contd.. • An adaptive control system automatically & continuously identifies the online performance by measuring process variables. • It monitors the performance compare it with predefined limits & modifies the process by adjusting the process variables. • AC has the characteristics of both feedback system & optimal control system.
  • 2. 5/4/2013 2 A block diagram of the adaptive controller Description • An adaptive control system can be thought of as having two loops. • One loop is a normal feedback with the process and the controller. • The other loop is the parameter adjustment loop.
  • 3. 5/4/2013 3 Applications of Adaptive control • Aerospace – flight control • process control • ship steering • robotics and automotive • biomedical systems. Sources of variability in machining are • Variable geometry of cut in the form of changing depth or width of cut – profile milling or contouring operations • Variable workpiece hardness – hard spots • Variable workpiece rigidity – if the workpiece deflects due to insufficient rigidity in the set-up, feed rate must be reduced to maintain accuracy • Air gaps during cutting – workpiece may contain sections where no machining is done, feed rate is increased by factor of 2 or 3 when air gaps are there.
  • 4. 5/4/2013 4 Direct Numerical Control • According to EIA defination, DNC is a system which connects a set of numerically controlled machines to common memory for part program storage, with provision for on demand distribution of data to be machined. • Components of DNC: 1 Central or mainframe computer 2 Memory 3 Communication lines / network 4 Machine tools Block diagram of DNC Machine Control Unit Transformation Process Machine Control Unit Machine Control Unit Central Computer NC Pgms Computer Network
  • 5. 5/4/2013 5 Advantages of DNC • Computer can be remotely located • Provides central control of machine tools • Eliminates use of punched tapes & tape readers • It collects & reports the production performance data of NC machines • It stores all part programs in computer files • It can program simultaneously many NC machines Computer Integrated Manufacturing • The Society of Manufacturing Engineers defines, CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational & personal efficiency • CIM covers use of different technologies, divided broadly in four groups.
  • 6. 5/4/2013 6 Components of CIM CIM Product design Manufacture Process planning Systems management RoboticsFMS NC/CNC/ DNC Cells and centers Automated inspection AGV, ASRS JIT/ kanban DSS/ES/ AI LAN, TOP, satellites TQM Bar codes, EDI MRP GTCAECAD IGES, PDES, DMIS DFM Cellular manufacturing MAP, STEP CAD/CAM CAPP Benefits of CIM • CIM improves operational control • It reduces inventory • It increases machine utilization • Engineering design costs can be reduced by 15-30% • Lead times reduced by 30-60% • Product quality increased • Productivity increased by 40-70% • Work in process reduced by 30-60% • Reduces time to market
  • 7. 5/4/2013 7 Flexible Manufacturing System Definition: • “FMS consist of a group of processing work stations interconnected by means of an automated material handling & storage system and controlled by integrated computer control System.” Simple layout of FMS
  • 8. 5/4/2013 8 Processing Centres • Work station • Deburring • Wash station • Coordinate maeasuring machines Material Storage & Handling • FMS material handling layout configurations In-line, loop, ladder, open field, robot centered • Material Handling Equipments Conveyor, AGV, AS/RS, Industrial Robots Tool System • Tool Supply System • Tool Monitoring System Computer Control System Computer Hardware & Software
  • 9. 5/4/2013 9 Advantages of FMS • Greater labor productivity • Greater machine efficiency • Improved machine utilization • Improved quality • Increased system reliability • Reduced parts inventories • Improved scheduling capabilities • Adaptability to CAD/CAM operations • Reduces non productive time Disadvantages of FMS • Limited ability to adapt to changes in product or product mix (machines are of limited capacity & the tooling necessary for products, even of the same family, is not always feasible in a given FMS) • Expensive, costing millions of rupees • Technological problems of exact component positioning & precise timing necessary to process a component • Long time orientation in building up the system • Substantial pre-planning activity • Highly skilled personnel required