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Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
Philip crosby
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Philip crosby

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Philip crosby

Philip crosby

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  • 1. Philip Bayard Crosby A presentation by : ABHISHEK KUMAR AND VISHAKHA CHOPRA
  • 2. About Philip Crosby • Introduced the Zero Defects program at Martin-Marietta in the early 1970s • Published Quality Is Free in 1979 after fourteen years as a vice president at International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) • Started the management consulting group Philip Crosby Associates, Inc. (PCA) in 1979
  • 3. Most important contributions • Do It Right the First Time • Zero Defects and Zero Defects Day • Four Absolutes of Quality • Prevention Process • Quality Vaccine • Six C's • Quality Maturity Grid • Quality is Free
  • 4. • DRIFT (Doing it right the first time) is a theory from managerial accounting that relates to just-in-time (JIT) inventory (where a company only receives goods as they are needed to cut down on inventory costs) and production management. The idea behind DRIFT is that management wants all of the processes that make up the JIT philosophy to be done correctly and efficiently so there are no delays in the production process DRIFT (Doing it right the first time)
  • 5. • The importance of DRIFT arises from the fact that a JIT production system is heavily reliant on the movement of parts and information along the production process. • Subsequently, if there is the slightest error at one of the stages of production the whole production process will be affected. By "doing it right the first time" a company is able to run a smooth production process without needing to carry excessive inventory and greatly diminish the costs of production DRIFT (Doing it right the first time)
  • 6. Principles of Zero Defects and DRIFT Zero defects is referred to as a philosophy, a mentality, or a movement which is aimed at minimizing the number of defects in manufactured products and service as much as possible. It is often considered as having no distinct steps to follow or rules to abide by, which leaves companies open to customizing how they want it to work for themselves. 1. QUALITY IS CONFORMANCE TO REQUIREMENTS Every product or service has a requirement: a description of what the customer needs. When a particular product meets that requirement, it has achieved quality, provided that the requirement accurately describes what the enterprise and the customer actually need. In the technical sense of Zero Defects, the inexpensive disposable pen is a quality product if it meets requirements: it writes, does not skip or clog under normal use, and lasts the time specified.
  • 7. Principles of Zero Defects and DRIFT 2. Defect prevention is preferable to quality inspection and correction The second principle is based on the observation that it is nearly always less troublesome, more certain and less expensive to prevent defects than to discover and correct them. 3. ZERO DEFECTS IS THE QUALITY STANDARD The third is based on the normative nature of requirements: if a requirement expresses what is genuinely needed, then any unit that does not meet requirements will not satisfy the need and is no good. If units that do not meet requirements actually do satisfy the need, then the requirement should be changed to reflect reality. Further, the idea that mistakes are inevitable is rejected out of hand. Just as the CEO wouldn't accept 'mistakenly' not getting paid occasionally, his/her chauffeur 'mistakenly' driving them to the wrong business, or their spouse 'mistakenly' sleeping with someone else, so the company shouldn't take the attitude that they'll 'inevitably' fail to deliver what was promised from time to time. Aiming at an "acceptable" defect level encourages and causes defects. 4. QUALITY IS MEASURED IN MONETARY TERMS – THE PRICE OF NONCONFORMANCE (PONC) The fourth principle is key to the methodology. Phil Crosby believes that every defect represents a cost, which is often hidden. These costs include inspection time, rework, wasted material and labor, lost revenue and the cost of customer dissatisfaction. When properly identified and accounted for, the magnitude of these costs can be made apparent, which has three advantages. First, it provides a cost-justification for steps to improve quality. The title of the book, "Quality is free," expresses the belief that improvements in quality will return savings more than equal to the costs. Second, it provides a way to measure progress, which is essential to maintaining management commitment and to rewarding employees. Third, by making the goal measurable, actions can be made concrete and decisions can be made on the basis of relative return.
  • 8. Four absolutes of quality management: 1. “Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as 'goodness' nor 'elegance'” Crosby’s most popular definition of quality is: “Quality is defined as conformance to requirements”. He says that poor quality is not an “outcome of a failure”. Instead, poor quality is what deviates from set standards. 2. “The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal” According to Crosby defects or non-conformance cannot be completely eliminated. He believed that one cannot stop operators from making mistakes. Nevertheless, organizations must not expect their employees to make mistakes. Thus he stressed on the need for an approach to constantly reduce defects. According to Crosby, the catch line to improve quality is “prevention of non- conformance, not appraisal.”
  • 9. 3. “The performance standard must be zero defects, not “that's close enough”. Crosby emphasized that organizations aim at zero defects. This approach would help organizations improve quality substantially. Further, he also discourages organizations from being complacent after reaching high quality standards. Quality is a continuous improvement process and must be aimed at pushing the envelope of quality even further. 4. “The measurement of quality is the Price of Non-conformance, not indices”. Crosby avers that the metric to quality is not the number of defects. Rather, the price of non-conformance is the best way to measure quality Four absolutes of quality management:
  • 10. Absolutes Of Quality Chart
  • 11. Cost Of Quality • “Quality is free, but no one is ever going to know it if there isn’t some sort of agreed-on system of measurement.” • “The purpose of calculating COQ is really only to get management’s attention and to provide a measurement base for seeing how quality improvement is doing.” • This is measured by the fully loaded costs of 1. All efforts involved in doing work over, including clerical work 2. All scrap 3. Warranty (including in-plant handling of returns) 4. After-service warranty 5. Complaint handling 6. Inspection and test 7. Other costs such as engineering change notices and purchasing change orders
  • 12. Definitions by Philip Crosby: QUALITY MANAGEMENT : • is a philosophy, a gathering of concepts that establish an organizations management style and policy. This is the “Good Ship Integrity” that morally and physically supports everything else. When management acts and works in accord with the concept of Quality Management then the organization can put useful “systems” to work. To cause quality management we must deliberately create an environment where all transactions are completed correctly each time, and where relationships with employees, suppliers, and Customers are successful. QUALITY ASSURANCE: • is Work discipline, a gathering of procedures that document what people are supposed to do. This is intended to organize information for the intent of building a path for work to follow. ISO-9000, Mil-Q-9858; Baldrige Award criteria', and TQM are examples of this information. Unfortunately many leaders are led into thinking that installing a QA system takes care of quality management. This is like thinking that possessing a driver’s license produces a safe driver.
  • 13. Definitions by Philip Crosby: QUALITY CONTROL: is a scientific measurement process, a gathering of statistics that evaluate the compliance of work by sampling its flow. This is intended to let operators continually measure the work that is in process so that nonconforming output is not produced. Statistical quality control is something you don’t want to know about, it is based on never getting things right. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTOL (SPC): is process measurement in real terms, a gathering of numerical data. The speedometer in an automobile is an SPC chart. Place minimum and maximum speeds on it and the chart is complete. When we exceed the limits we are causing non-conformanceY Management has to learn to recognize the signals that SPC produces and take preventative action as a result of that observation. APPRAISAL : is inspecting and testing, a gathering of observations to measure completeness. In manufacturing Appraisal is obvious as we watch people look at things; in administrative work it goes on all the time also but is not
  • 14. • The Six Stages or 6 C’s of Implementing a Quality Improvement Process • According to Mr. Philip Crosby, there are six stages of change that every company goes through if it is to have a real and viable quality improvement process. Mr. Crosby taught the six C’s must be met if managers, particularly senior level managers, are going to deal with the changing attitudes toward quality. The six C’s are comprehension, commitment, competence, communication, correction, continuance. Six Stages or 6 C’s
  • 15. 6 C’s Stage 1 – Comprehension Comprehension is the understanding of the four Absolutes of Quality: Initially comprehension must begin at the management level and then as the quality improvement process is implemented, all employees must learn that quality is definable, measurable and manageable. 6 C’s Stage 2 – Commitment Once comprehension occurs management must define a quality policy and quality teams must be initiated. Once top management displays their commitment all employees will join in. Everyone must accept zero defects as their personal performance standard. 6 C’s Stage 3 – Competence Competence means management has learned to apply the four absolutes in a routine manner. There is a method and a plan for quality improvement and this is understood by and participated in by everyone. Six Stages or 6 C’s
  • 16. 6 C’s Stage 4 – Communication Communications is not only the most important of the 6 C’s but the most neglected. If a close look is taken at ISO 9001 its ability to be used as a communication tool becomes clear. Management must clearly communicate successes and tools used to create quality improvement and recognize those who contributed to the change. 6 C’s Stage 5 – Correction As Dr. Deming also said, a culture of change must occur. Most attempts at correction fail because they focus on symptoms or are limited to specific situations. This leads to repetitive failures (non- conformances). Correction is the implementation of permanent preventive measures. 6 C’s Stage 6 – Continuance Quality must be the first among equals of cost and schedule and quality. Improving quality will reduce costs and improve on-time delivery. Therefore the quality improvement process must become part of the context and systems of the company. Do It Right the First Time must become a tenet of every employee Six Stages or 6 C’s
  • 17. Crosby’s 14 Steps To Quality Improvement: The start of Total Quality Management
  • 18. Step 1: Management Commitment • Discuss the need for quality improvement with management, emphasizing the need for defect prevention. Do not confuse “communication” with “motivation.” The results of communication are real and long-lasting; the results of motivation are shallow and short-lived. Prepare a quality policy that states each individual is expected to “perform exactly like the requirement or cause the requirement to be officially changed to what we and the customer really need.” Agree that quality improvement is a practical way to profit improvement. • It is necessary to determine the status of quality throughout the company. Quality measurements for each area of activity must be established where they don’t exist and reviewed where they do. Record quality status to show where improvement is possible and where corrective action is necessary and to document actual improvement later.
  • 19. Step 2: Quality Improvement Team • Bring together representatives of each department to form the quality improvement team. • These should be people who can speak for their departments to commit operations to actions. • Preferably, the department heads should participate—at least on the first go around. Orient the team members as to the content and purpose of the program. Explain their roles—which are to cause the necessary actions to take place in their departments and the company. • Accomplishment. All the tools necessary to do the job are now together in one team. It works well to appoint one of the members as the chair of the team for this phase.
  • 20. Step 3: Quality Measurement • It is necessary to determine the status of quality throughout the company. Quality measurements for each area of activity must be established where they don’t exist and reviewed where they do. • Record quality status to show where improvement is possible and where corrective action is necessary and to document actual improvement later. Nonmanufacturing measurements, which are sometimes difficult to establish, are shown. There are innumerable ways to measure any procedure. The people doing the work will respond team. These should be people who can speak for with delight to the opportunity to identify some their departments to commit operations to actions. If a supervisor says her area is completely immeasurable, she can be helped by asking how she knows who is doing the best work, how she knows who to keep and who to replace.
  • 21. Step 4 : Cost of Quality Evaluation • Initial estimates are likely to be shaky (although low), and so it is necessary at this point to get more accurate figures. The comptroller’s office must do this. They should be provided with detailed information on what constitutes COQ. • COQ is not an absolute performance measurement; it is an indication of where corrective action will be profitable for a company. The higher the cost, the more corrective action that needs to be taken. • Having the comptroller establish COQ removes any suspected bias from the calculation. More important, a measurement of quality management performance has been established in the company’s system.
  • 22. Step 5 : Quality Awareness Step • It is time now to share with employees the measurements of what non-quality is costing. This is done by training supervisors to orient employees and by providing visible evidence of the concern for quality improvement through communication material such as booklets, films and posters. Don’t confuse this with some get motivated-quick scheme. It is a sharing process and does not involve manipulating people. This is an important step. It may be the most important step of all. Service and administrative people should be included just like everybody else. • Accomplishment. The real benefit of communication is that it gets supervisors and employees in the habit of talking positively about quality. It aids the process of changing, or perhaps clarifying, existing attitudes toward quality. And it sets the basis for the corrective action and error cause removal steps.
  • 23. STEP 6 : Corrective Action for Process Improvement • As people are encouraged to talk about their problems, opportunities for correction come to light, involving not just the defects found by inspection, audit or self-evaluation, but also less obvious problems—as seen by the working people themselves—that require attention. These problems must be brought to the supervision meetings at each level. • Those that cannot be resolved are formally passed up to the next level of supervision for review at their regular meeting. If a specific functional area does not hold such meetings, the team should take action to establish them in that department.
  • 24. Step 7: Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for the Zero Defects Program • Select three or four members of the team to investigate the zero defects concept and ways to implement the program. • The quality manager must be clear, right from the start, that zero defects is not a motivation program. • Its purpose is to communicate to all employees the literal meaning of the words “zero defects” and the thought that everyone should do things right the first time. This must be transmitted to every member of the team. In particular, the ad hoc group should seek ways to match the program to the company’s personality.
  • 25. STEP 8: SUPERVISOR TRAINING • Conduct a formal orientation with all levels of management prior to implementation of all the steps. All managers must understand each step well enough to explain it to their people. • The proof of understanding is the ability to explain it. • Eventually all supervisors will be tuned into the program and realize its value for themselves. Then they will concentrate their actions on the program.
  • 26. STEP 9: ZERO DEFECTS DAY • Establishment of zero defects as the performance standard of the company should be done in one day. That way, everyone understands it the same way. Supervisors should explain the program • to their people and do something different in the facility so everyone will recognize it is a “new attitude” day. • Accomplishment. Making a day of the zero defects
  • 27. Step 10: Goal Setting • Action. During meetings with employees, each supervisor requests they establish the goals they would like to strive for. Usually, there should be 30-, 60- and 90-day goals. All should be specific and measurable. • This phase helps people learn to think in terms of meeting goals and accomplishing specific tasks as a team.
  • 28. Step 11: Error Cause Removal Ask individuals to describe any problem that keeps them from performing error free work on a simple, one-page form. This is not a suggestion system. All they have to list is the problem; the appropriate functional group (for example, industrial engineering) will develop the answer. It is important that any problems listed be acknowledged within 24 hours. Typical inputs might be: • This tool is not long enough to work right with all the parts. • The sales department makes too many errors on their order entry forms. • We make a lot of changes in response to telephone calls, and many of them end up having to be done all over again. • I don’t have any place to put my pocketbook. People now know their problems can be heard and answered. Once employees learn to trust this communication, the program can go on forever.
  • 29. Step 12: Recognition • Establish award programs to recognize those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts. It is wise not to attach relative values to the identification of problems. • Problems identified during the error cause removal stage should all be treated the same way because they are not suggestions. The prizes or awards should not be financial. • Recognition is what is important. • Genuine recognition of performance is something people really appreciate. They will continue to support the program whether or not they, as individuals, participate in the awards.
  • 30. Step 13: Quality Councils • Action. Bring the quality professionals and team chairpersons together regularly to communicate with each other and determine actions necessary to upgrade and improve the solid quality program being installed. • These councils are the best source of information on the status of programs and ideas for action. They also bring the professionals together on a regular basis.
  • 31. Step 14: Do It Over Again • The typical program takes a year to 18 months. By that time, turnover and changing situations will have wiped out most of the education effort. • Therefore, it is necessary to set up a new team of representatives and begin again. For instance, mark zero defects day as an anniversary. Or give a special lunch for all employees. • The point is that the program is never over. • Repetition makes the program perpetual and, thus, “part of the woodwork.” If quality isn’t ingrained in the organization, it will never happen.
  • 32. 1. The Quality Management Maturity Grid (QMMG) is an organizational maturity matrix conceived by Philip B. Crosby first published in his book Quality is Free in 1979.] The QMMG is used by a business or organization as a benchmark of how mature their processes are, and how well they are embedded in their culture, with respect to service or product quality management. 2. The QMMG is credited with being the precursor maturity model for the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) created a decade later that also has five levels of maturity. 3. The Quality Management Maturity Grid describes 5 maturity levels through which an organization or business will go through: – Uncertainty – Awakening – Enlightenment – Wisdom – Certainty 4. Six measurement categories – Management understanding and attitude – Quality organization status – Problem handling – Cost of quality as a percent of sales – Quality improvement actions – Characteristic statement Quality Management Maturity Grid
  • 33. • According to Crosby, five characteristics of a highly successful organizations are: • - People routinely do things right first time - Change is anticipated and used to advantage - Growth is consistent and profitable - New products and services appear when needed - Everyone is happy to work there Crosby’s five characteristics of highly successful organizations
  • 34. In the Crosby style, the "Vaccine" is explained as medicine for management to prevent poor quality. It is in five sections that cover the requirements of Total Quality Management. • Section 1 - Integrity Treat quality seriously throughout the whole business organization from top to bottom. That the companies future will be judged on its performance on quality. • Section 2 - Systems Appropriate measures and systems should be put in place for quality costs, education, quality, performance, review, improvement and customer satisfaction. • Section 3 - Communication The communication systems are of paramount importance to communicate requirements and specifications and improvement opportunities around the organization. Customers and operators know what needs to be put in place to improve and listening to them will give you the edge. • Section 4 - Operations Work with and develop suppliers. Processes should be capable and improvement culture should be the norm. • Section 5 - Policies Must be clear and consistent throughout the business. The Crosby "Vaccine"
  • 35. Philip Crosby Associates- started by Philip Crosby • In 1979, as a Vice President of the mega-conglomerate ITT, Philip Crosby turned his operating philosophy into the groundbreaking book Quality Is Free. In defiance of the conventional wisdom, Crosby defined quality in simple and absolute terms so anyone could quickly establish whether or not quality existed in the workplace, or even at a single workstation. In this best-selling book, Crosby also introduced his Absolutes of Quality Management™ which remain the cornerstone of PCA’s approach today. • Today, Philip Crosby Associates impacts a worldwide clientele, applying Crosby's philosophy of Quality Management and customer success with executives, managers, government ministers, and production workers who understand its crucial importance. They are creating and sustaining the reliable, capable, and successful organizations that prove every day that quality is indeed an achievable, lucrative, strategic, and hassle-free absolute. And it is through their daily efforts, where quality is consistently caused, productivity continually increased, profitability diligently grown, and customers ultimately made successful, that Crosby’s principles are applied, affirmed, and extended.
  • 36. Most Notable Books By Philip Crosby: • 1967. Cutting the cost of quality. Boston, Industrial Education Institute. OCLC 616899. • 1969. The strategy of situation management. Boston, Industrial Education Institute. OCLC 13761. • 1979. Quality is Free. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBM 0-07-014512-1. • 1981. The Art of Getting Your Own Sweet Way. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014527-X. • 1984. Quality Without Tears. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014511-3. • 1986. Running things. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014513-X. • 1988. The Eternally Successful Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014533-4. • 1989. Let's talk quality. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014565-2. • 1990. Leading, the art of becoming an executive. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014567-9. • 1994. Completeness: Quality for the 21st Century. Plume. ISBN 0-452-27024-3. • 1995. Philip Crosby's Reflections on Quality. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014525-3. • 1996. Quality is still free: Making Quality Certain in Uncertain Times. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07- 014532-6. • 1997. The Absolutes of Leadership (Warren Bennis Executive Briefing). Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879- 0942-4. • 1999. Quality and Me: Lessons from an Evolving Life. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879-4702-4.
  • 37. Case Study of Crosby • 1967. Cutting the cost of quality. Boston, Industrial Education Institute. OCLC 616899. • 1969. The strategy of situation management. Boston, Industrial Education Institute. OCLC 13761. • 1979. Quality is Free. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBM 0-07-014512-1. • 1981. The Art of Getting Your Own Sweet Way. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014527-X. • 1984. Quality Without Tears. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014511-3. • 1986. Running things. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014513-X. • 1988. The Eternally Successful Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014533-4. • 1989. Let's talk quality. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014565-2. • 1990. Leading, the art of becoming an executive. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014567- 9. • 1994. Completeness: Quality for the 21st Century. Plume. ISBN 0-452-27024-3. • 1995. Philip Crosby's Reflections on Quality. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-014525-3. • 1996. Quality is still free: Making Quality Certain in Uncertain Times. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0- 07-014532-6. • 1997. The Absolutes of Leadership (Warren Bennis Executive Briefing). Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0- 7879-0942-4. • 1999. Quality and Me: Lessons from an Evolving Life. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879-4702-4.
  • 38. Case Study of Crosby
  • 39. Case 2 Study of Crosby
  • 40. Bibliography • Quality is free – Philip Crosby • Philip Crosby's Reflections on Quality. McGraw-Hill. • http://www.creativesafetysupply.com/zero-defects • http://www.vectorstudy.com/management_gurus/philip_crosby.htm • http://asq.org/about-asq/who-we-are/bio_crosby.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_B._Crosby • http://www.grantland.net/zerodefects.htm • http://asq.org/knowledge-center/index.html • http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?QualityIsFree • http://www.wppl.org/wphistory/philipcrosby/QualityIsFreeIfYouUnderstandIt.pdf • http://www.philipcrosby.com/25years/explore.html • http://technacon.com/category/philip-crosby-quality-management-philosophy • http://www.philipcrosby.com/pca/B.Overview.html

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