Introduction to Robots

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Introduction to Robots

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Introduction to Robots

  1. 1. 5/4/2013 1 INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTS Prof. Gunjan Bhatt Mechanical Engineering Department Institute of Diploma Studies Nirma University Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Content What is a Robot? Why use Robots? Robot History Components Classification Robot Applications Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  2. 2. 5/4/2013 2 What is a Robot? Robotics Institute of American A robot (industrial robot) is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University What is a Robot? By general agreement, a robot is: A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature–usually a human. To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to: 1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings 2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects 3) Re-programmable: can do different things 4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  3. 3. 5/4/2013 3 Types of Robots Robot Manipulators •Mobile Manipulators Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Types of Robots • Locomotion Legged robots Underwater robots Wheeled mobile robotsAerial Robots Humanoid Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  4. 4. 5/4/2013 4 Why Use Robots? Application in 4D environments Dangerous Dirty Dull Difficult 4A tasks Automation Augmentation Assistance Autonomous Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Why Use Robots? Increase product quality Superior Accuracies (thousands of an inch, wafer-handling: microinch) Repeatable precision Consistency of products Increase efficiency Work continuously without fatigue Need no vacation Increase safety Operate in dangerous environment Need no environmental comfort – air conditioning, noise protection, etc Reduce Cost Reduce scrap rate Lower in-process inventory Lower labor cost Reduce manufacturing lead time Rapid response to changes in design Increase productivity Value of output per person per hour increases Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  5. 5. 5/4/2013 5 AUTOMATION AND ROBOT Robots are highly automated mechanical manipulators. Automation as a technology concerned with the use of mechanical, electrical/electronic, and computer base system to control production processes. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University AUTOMATION AND ROBOT FIXED AUTOMATION: is used for high production volume and utilizes expensive special equipment to process only one product. ex: a good example of this automation can be found in the automobile industry, where highly integrated transfer lines are used to perform machining operations on engine and transmission components. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  6. 6. 5/4/2013 6 AUTOMATION AND ROBOT FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION: is used for medium production volume and utilizes a central computer to control the process of different products at same time. Flexible automation consists typically consists of a series of workstations that are interconnected by material handling and storage equipment to process different product configurations at the same time on the same manufacturing system. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University AUTOMATION AND ROBOT PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION: is used for low production volume operated under control of a program. it processes one batch of similar products at a time. In this case, the production configuration equipment is designed to be adaptable to variations in a product configuration. This adaptability feature is accomplished by operating the equipment under the control of a “program” of instructions that has been prepared especially for the given product. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  7. 7. 5/4/2013 7 Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University BASIC COMPONENTS The basic components of an industrial robot are the MANIPULATOR THE END EFFECTOR (WHICH IS THE PART OF THE MANIPULATOR). THE POWER SUPLLY AND THE CONTROLLER. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  8. 8. 5/4/2013 8 BASIC COMPONENTS The manipulator, which is the robot’s arm, consists of segments jointed together with axes capable of motion in various directions allowing the robot to perform work. The end effectors which is a gripper tool, a special device, or fixture attached to the robot’s arm, actually performs the work. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University BASIC COMPONENTS Power supply provides and regulates the energy that is converted to motion by the robot actuator, and it may be either electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic. The controller initiates, terminates, and coordinates the motion of sequences of a robot. also it accepts the necessary inputs to the robot and provides the outputs to interface with the outside world. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  9. 9. 5/4/2013 9 Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University MANIPULATOR Is a mechanical unit that provides motion similar to that of a human arm. Its primary function is to provide the specific motions that will enable the tooling at the end of the arm to do the required work. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  10. 10. 5/4/2013 10 MANIPULATOR Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University ROBOT ANATOMY ROBOT CONFIGURATIONS: • Industrial robots are available in a wide range of shapes, sizes, speeds, load capacities, and other capabilities. • The vast majority of today’s commercially available robots possess five distinct design configurations: Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  11. 11. 5/4/2013 11 ROBOT ANATOMY rectangular (or Cartesian) cylindrical (or post-type) spherical (or polar) jointed arm (articulated or revolute) SCARA (selective compliance assembly robot arm) Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University ROBOT SELECTION Robot must be matched properly by capabilities to task requirements. An objective approach to robot selection provides fewer restrictions in system design by allowing for the optimum system design to be achieved regardless of the specific robot need. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  12. 12. 5/4/2013 12 Criteria for robot selection: Techinical issues: type: nonservo, servo, servo-controlled work envelope: rectangular, cylindircal, spherical, jointed arm, scara payload cycle time repeatability drive: electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, any combination unique capabilities ROBOT SELECTION Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University ROBOT SELECTION Non-technical issues: cost and benefit consideration commonality of equipment training and maintenance requirements reliability service “systems” help safety Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  13. 13. 5/4/2013 13 CLASSIFICATION Classification: Classified into six categories Arm geometry: rectangular;cylindrical;spherical; jointed- arm(vertical);joined-arm(horizontal). degrees of freedom: robot arm; robot wrist. Power sources: electrical;pneumatic;hydraulic;any combination. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University CLASSIFICATION Type of motion: slew motion; joint- interpolation; straight-line interpolation; circular interpolation. Path control: limited sequence; point-to- point; continuous path; controlled path. Intellligence level: low technology(nonservo); high-techonology(servo). Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  14. 14. 5/4/2013 14 Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Cartesian Coordinated Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  15. 15. 5/4/2013 15 Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Cylindrical Coordinated Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  16. 16. 5/4/2013 16 Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Spherical Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  17. 17. 5/4/2013 17 Revolute/Articulated Configuration Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Example Kuka KR6/2 Payload: 13 lb (6 kg) Max Reach: 62 in (1570 mm) Repeatability: <± 0.004 in (<± 0.1 mm) Weight: 450 lb (205 kg) Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  18. 18. 5/4/2013 18 SCARA Configuration Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Example Nimbl Junior 500 Payload: 11 lb (5 kg) Max Reach: 20 in (500 mm) Repeatability: <± 0.001 in (<± 0.025 mm) Weight: ??? lb (?? kg Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  19. 19. 5/4/2013 19 Industrial Applications Industrial Robot Applications can be divided into: Material-handling applications: Involve the movement of material or parts from one location to another. It include part placement, palletizing and/or depalletizing, machine loading and unloading. Processing Operations: Requires the robot to manipulate a special process tool as the end effector. The application include spot welding, arc welding, riveting, spray painting, machining, metal cutting, deburring, polishing. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University Industrial Applications Assembly Applications: Involve part-handling manipulations of a special tools and other automatic tasks and operations. Inspection Operations: Require the robot to position a workpart to an inspection device. Involve the robot to manipulate a device or sensor to perform the inspection. Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University
  20. 20. 5/4/2013 20 Thank you! Prof. Gunjan Bhatt, IDS, Nirma University

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