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Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
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Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput
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Engineering thermodynamics by R k Rajput

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  • 1. ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS THIRD EDITION SI Units Ve r s io n R. K. Rajput E N G I N E E R I N G S E R I E S
  • 2. ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
  • 3. Also  available  : STEAM TABLES and MOLLIER DIAGRAM (S.I. UNITS) Edited  by R.K. RAJPUT Patiala DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 i i
  • 4. ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS [For Engineering Students of All Indian Universities and Competitive Examinations] S.I. UNITS By R.K. RAJPUT M.E. (Heat Power Engg.) Hons.–Gold Medallist ; Grad. (Mech. Engg. & Elect. Engg.) ; M.I.E. (India) ; M.S.E.S.I. ; M.I.S.T.E. ; C.E. (India) Principal (Formerly) Punjab College of Information Technology PATIALA, Punjab LAXMI PUBLICATIONS (P) LTD BANGALORE l CHENNAI JALANDHAR l KOLKATA l COCHIN l GUWAHATI l HYDERABAD l LUCKNOW l MUMBAI l RANCHI NEW DELHI l BOSTON, USA
  • 5. Published by : LAXMI PUBLICATIONS (P) LTD 113, Golden House, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002 Phone : 011-43 53 25 00 Fax : 011-43 53 25 28 www.laxmipublications.com info@laxmipublications.com © All rights reserved with the Publishers. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-7637-8272-6 3678 Price : Rs. 350.00 Only. First Edition : 1996 Second Edition : 2003 Third Edition : 2007 Offices : India • • • • • • • • • • Bangalore (Phone : 080-26 61 15 61) Chennai (Phone : 044-24 34 47 26) Cochin (Phone : 0484-239 70 04) Guwahati (Phones : 0361-254 36 69, 251 38 81) Hyderabad (Phone : 040-24 75 02 47) Jalandhar (Phone : 0181-222 12 72) Kolkata (Phones : 033-22 27 37 73, 22 27 52 47) Lucknow (Phone : 0522-220 95 78) Mumbai (Phones : 022-24 91 54 15, 24 92 78 69) Ranchi (Phone : 0651-230 77 64) EET-0556-350-ENGG THERMODYNAMICS Typeset at : Goswami Printers, Delhi USA • Boston 11, Leavitt Street, Hingham, MA 02043, USA Phone : 781-740-4487 C—12751/06/07 Printed at : Ajit Printers, Delhi
  • 6. Preface to The Third Edition I am pleased to present the third edition of this book. The warm reception which the previous editions and reprints of this book have enjoyed all over India and abroad has been a matter of great satisfaction to me. The entire book has been thoroughly revised ; a large number of solved examples (questions having been selected from various universities and competitive examinations) and ample additional text have been added. Any suggestions for the improvement of the book will be thankfully acknowledged and incorporated in the next edition. —Author Preface to The First Edition Several books are available in the market on the subject of “Engineering Thermodynamics” but either they are too bulky or are miserly written and as such do not cover the syllabii of various Indian Universities effectively. Hence a book is needed which should assimilate subject matter that should primarily satisfy the requirements of the students from syllabus/examination point of view ; these requirements are completely met by this book. The book entails the following features : — The presentation of the subject matter is very systematic and language of the text is quite lucid and simple to understand. — A number of figures have been added in each chapter to make the subject matter self speaking to a great extent. — A large number of properly graded examples have been added in various chapters to enable the students to attempt different types of questions in the examination without any difficulty. — Highlights, objective type questions, theoretical questions, and unsolved examples have been added at the end of each chapter to make the book a complete unit in all respects. The author’s thanks are due to his wife Ramesh Rajput for rendering all assistance during preparation and proof reading of the book. The author is thankful to Mr. R.K. Syal for drawing beautiful and well proportioned figures for the book. The author is grateful to M/s Laxmi Publications for taking lot of pains in bringing out the book in time and pricing it moderately inspite of heavy cost of the printing. Constructive criticism is most welcome from the readers. —Author DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 v
  • 7. Contents Chapter Pages Introduction to S.I. Units and Conversion Factors Nomenclature 1. INTRODUCTION—OUTLINE OF SOME DESCRIPTIVE SYSTEMS 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. Steam Power Plant 1.1.1. Layout 1.1.2. Components of a modern steam power plant Nuclear Power Plant Internal Combustion Engines 1.3.1. Heat engines 1.3.2. Development of I.C. engines 1.3.3. Different parts of I.C. engines 1.3.4. Spark ignition (S.I.) engines 1.3.5. Compression ignition (C.I.) engines Gas Turbines 1.4.1. General aspects 1.4.2. Classification of gas turbines 1.4.3. Merits and demerits of gas turbines 1.4.4. A simple gas turbine plant 1.4.5. Energy cycle for a simple-cycle gas turbine Refrigeration Systems Highlights Theoretical Questions 2. BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. Introduction to Kinetic Theory of Gases Definition of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Systems 2.3.1. System, boundary and surroundings 2.3.2. Closed system 2.3.3. Open system 2.3.4. Isolated system 2.3.5. Adiabatic system 2.3.6. Homogeneous system 2.3.7. Heterogeneous system Macroscopic and Microscopic Points of View Pure Substance Thermodynamic Equilibrium Properties of Systems State (xvi)—(xx) (xxi)—(xxii) ... 1—13 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 12 13 ... 14—62 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 21 21
  • 8. ( vii ) Chapter 2.9. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. 2.14. 2.15. 2.16. 2.17. 2.18. 2.19. 2.20. Pages Process Cycle Point Function Path Function Temperature Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics The Thermometer and Thermometric Property 2.15.1. Introduction 2.15.2. Measurement of temperature 2.15.3. The international practical temperature scale 2.15.4. Ideal gas Pressure 2.16.1. Definition of pressure 2.16.2. Unit for pressure 2.16.3. Types of pressure measurement devices 2.16.4. Mechanical type instruments Specific Volume Reversible and Irreversible Processes Energy, Work and Heat 2.19.1. Energy 2.19.2. Work and heat Reversible Work Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 3. PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 3.12. 3.13. 3.14. 3.15. 3.16. 3.17. Definition of the Pure Substance Phase Change of a Pure Substance p-T (Pressure-temperature) Diagram for a Pure Substance p-V-T (Pressure-Volume-Temperature) Surface Phase Change Terminology and Definitions Property Diagrams in Common Use Formation of Steam Important Terms Relating to Steam Formation Thermodynamic Properties of Steam and Steam Tables External Work Done During Evaporation Internal Latent Heat Internal Energy of Steam Entropy of Water Entropy of Evaporation Entropy of Wet Steam Entropy of Superheated Steam Enthalpy-Entropy (h-s) Chart or Mollier Diagram DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 v i i ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 31 33 33 33 34 34 34 45 46 46 46 46 48 58 59 61 61 ... 63—100 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 63 64 66 67 67 68 68 70 72 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 75
  • 9. ( viii ) Chapter 3.18. Pages Determination of Dryness Fraction of Steam 3.18.1. Tank or bucket calorimeter 3.18.2. Throttling calorimeter 3.18.3. Separating and throttling calorimeter Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 4. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. Internal Energy Law of Conservation of Energy First Law of Thermodynamics Application of First Law to a Process Energy—A Property of System Perpetual Motion Machine of the First Kind-PMM1 Energy of an Isolated System The Perfect Gas 4.8.1. The characteristic equation of state 4.8.2. Specific heats 4.8.3. Joule’s law 4.8.4. Relationship between two specific heats 4.8.5. Enthalpy 4.8.6. Ratio of specific heats Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to Non-flow or Closed System Application of First Law to Steady Flow Process Energy Relations for Flow Process Engineering Applications of Steady Flow Energy Equation (S.F.E.E.) 4.12.1. Water turbine 4.12.2. Steam or gas turbine 4.12.3. Centrifugal water pump 4.12.4. Centrifugal compressor 4.12.5. Reciprocating compressor 4.12.6. Boiler 4.12.7. Condenser 4.12.8. Evaporator 4.12.9. Steam nozzle Throttling Process and Joule-Thompson Porous Plug Experiment Heating-Cooling and Expansion of Vapours Unsteady Flow Processes Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 viii ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 89 89 92 93 96 97 99 99 ... 101—226 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 101 101 103 103 104 105 105 105 106 107 107 108 109 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 109 150 152 155 155 156 157 157 158 159 159 160 161 162 183 210 215 216 219 219
  • 10. ( ix ) Chapter Pages 5. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ENTROPY 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9. 5.10. 5.11. 5.12. 5.13. 5.14. 5.15. 5.16. 5.17. 5.18. 5.19. Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics and Introduction to Second Law Performance of Heat Engines and Reversed Heat Engines Reversible Processes Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics 5.4.1. Clausius statement 5.4.2. Kelvin-Planck statement 5.4.3. Equivalence of Clausius statement to the Kelvin-Planck statement Perpetual Motion Machine of the Second Kind Thermodynamic Temperature Clausius Inequality Carnot Cycle Carnot’s Theorem Corollary of Carnot’s Theorem Efficiency of the Reversible Heat Engine Entropy 5.12.1. Introduction 5.12.2. Entropy—a property of a system 5.12.3. Change of entropy in a reversible process Entropy and Irreversibility Change in Entropy of the Universe Temperature Entropy Diagram Characteristics of Entropy Entropy Changes for a Closed System 5.17.1. General case for change of entropy of a gas 5.17.2. Heating a gas at constant volume 5.17.3. Heating a gas at constant pressure 5.17.4. Isothermal process 5.17.5. Adiabatic process (reversible) 5.17.6. Polytropic process 5.17.7. Approximation for heat absorbed Entropy Changes for an Open System The Third Law of Thermodynamics Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 6. AVAILABILITY AND IRREVERSIBILITY 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. Available and Unavailable Energy Available Energy Referred to a Cycle Decrease in Available Energy When Heat is Transferred Through a Finite Temperature Difference Availability in Non-flow Systems DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 i x ... 227—305 ... ... ... ... ... ... 227 227 228 229 229 229 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 229 230 231 231 233 235 237 237 252 252 252 253 254 255 257 257 258 258 259 260 260 261 262 263 264 265 298 299 302 302 ... 306—340 ... ... 306 306 ... ... 308 310
  • 11. (x) Chapter 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 6.8. Pages Availability in Steady-flow Systems Helmholtz and Gibb’s Functions Irreversibility Effectiveness Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 7. THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. General Aspects Fundamentals of Partial Differentiation Some General Thermodynamic Relations Entropy Equations (Tds Equations) Equations for Internal Energy and Enthalpy Measurable Quantities 7.6.1. Equation of state 7.6.2. Co-efficient of expansion and compressibility 7.6.3. Specific heats 7.6.4. Joule-Thomson co-efficient Clausius-Claperyon Equation Highlights Objective Type Questions Exercises 8. IDEAL AND REAL GASES 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4. 8.5. 8.6. 8.7. 8.8. 8.9. 8.10. 8.11. 8.12. Introduction The Equation of State for a Perfect Gas p-V-T Surface of an Ideal Gas Internal Energy and Enthalpy of a Perfect Gas Specific Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas Real Gases Van der Waal’s Equation Virial Equation of State Beattie-Bridgeman Equation Reduced Properties Law of Corresponding States Compressibility Chart Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 9. GASES AND VAPOUR MIXTURES 9.1. Introduction x 311 311 312 313 336 337 338 338 ... 341—375 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 341 341 343 344 345 346 346 347 348 351 353 373 374 375 ... 376—410 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 376 376 379 379 380 381 381 390 390 391 392 392 407 408 408 409 ... 411—448 ... DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 411
  • 12. ( xi ) Chapter 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 9.5. 9.6. 9.7. Pages Dalton’s Law and Gibbs-Dalton Law Volumetric Analysis of a Gas Mixture The Apparent Molecular Weight and Gas Constant Specific Heats of a Gas Mixture Adiabatic Mixing of Perfect Gases Gas and Vapour Mixtures Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 10. PSYCHROMETRICS 10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5. 10.6. Concept of Psychrometry and Psychrometrics Definitions Psychrometric Relations Psychrometers Psychrometric Charts Psychrometric Processes 10.6.1. Mixing of air streams 10.6.2. Sensible heating 10.6.3. Sensible cooling 10.6.4. Cooling and dehumidification 10.6.5. Cooling and humidification 10.6.6. Heating and dehumidification 10.6.7. Heating and humidification Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 11. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS 11.1. 11.2. 11.3. 11.4. 11.5. 11.6. 11.7. 11.8. 11.9. 11.10. 11.11. 11.12. 11.13. 11.14. 11.15. Introduction Classification of Fuels Solid Fuels Liquid Fuels Gaseous Fuels Basic Chemistry Combustion Equations Theoretical Air and Excess Air Stoichiometric Air Fuel (A/F) Ratio Air-Fuel Ratio from Analysis of Products How to Convert Volumetric Analysis to Weight Analysis How to Convert Weight Analysis to Volumetric Analysis Weight of Carbon in Flue Gases Weight of Flue Gases per kg of Fuel Burnt Analysis of Exhaust and Flue Gas DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 x i ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 411 413 414 417 418 419 444 444 445 445 ... 449—486 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 449 449 450 455 456 458 458 459 460 461 462 463 463 483 483 484 485 ... 487—592 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 487 487 488 489 489 490 491 493 493 494 494 494 494 495 495
  • 13. ( xii ) Chapter Pages 11.16. 11.17. 11.18. 11.19. Internal Energy and Enthalpy of Reaction Enthalpy of Formation (∆Hf) Calorific or Heating Values of Fuels Determination of Calorific or Heating Values 11.19.1. Solid and Liquid Fuels 11.19.2. Gaseous Fuels 11.20. Adiabatic Flame Temperature 11.21. Chemical Equilibrium 11.22. Actual Combustion Analysis Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 12. VAPOUR POWER CYCLES 12.1. 12.2. 12.3. 12.4. 12.5. 12.6. Carnot Cycle Rankine Cycle Modified Rankine Cycle Regenerative Cycle Reheat Cycle Binary Vapour Cycle Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 13. GAS POWER CYCLES 13.1. 13.2. 13.3. 13.4. 13.5. 13.6. 13.7. Definition of a Cycle Air Standard Efficiency The Carnot Cycle Constant Volume or Otto Cycle Constant Pressure or Diesel Cycle Dual Combustion Cycle Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Combustion Cycles 13.7.1. Efficiency versus compression ratio 13.7.2. For the same compression ratio and the same heat input 13.7.3. For constant maximum pressure and heat supplied 13.8. Atkinson Cycle 13.9. Ericsson Cycle 13.10. Gas Turbine Cycle-Brayton Cycle 13.10.1. Ideal Brayton cycle 13.10.2. Pressure ratio for maximum work 13.10.3. Work ratio 13.10.4. Open cycle gas turbine-actual brayton cycle 13.10.5. Methods for improvement of thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine plant DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 x i i ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 497 500 501 501 502 504 506 506 507 537 538 539 540 ... 543—603 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 543 544 557 562 576 584 601 601 602 603 ... 604—712 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 604 604 605 613 629 639 655 655 655 656 657 660 661 661 663 664 665 ... 667
  • 14. ( xiii ) Chapter Pages 13.10.6. Effect of operating variables on thermal efficiency 13.10.7. Closed cycle gas turbine 13.10.8. Gas turbine fuels Highlights Theoretical Questions Objective Type Questions Unsolved Examples 14. REFRIGERATION CYCLES 14.1. 14.2. 14.3. 14.4. 14.5. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 713—777 Fundamentals of Refrigeration ... 14.1.1. Introduction ... 14.1.2. Elements of refrigeration systems ... 14.1.3. Refrigeration systems ... 14.1.4. Co-efficient of performance (C.O.P.) ... 14.1.5. Standard rating of a refrigeration machine ... Air Refrigeration System ... 14.2.1. Introduction ... 14.2.2. Reversed Carnot cycle ... 14.2.3. Reversed Brayton cycle ... 14.2.4. Merits and demerits of air refrigeration system ... Simple Vapour Compression System ... 14.3.1. Introduction ... 14.3.2. Simple vapour compression cycle ... 14.3.3. Functions of parts of a simple vapour compression system ... 14.3.4. Vapour compression cycle on temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram ... 14.3.5. Pressure-enthalpy (p-h) chart ... 14.3.6. Simple vapour compression cycle on p-h chart ... 14.3.7. Factors affecting the performance of a vapour compression system ... 14.3.8. Actual vapour compression cycle ... 14.3.9. Volumetric efficiency ... 14.3.10. Mathematical analysis of vapour compression refrigeration ... Vapour Absorption System ... 14.4.1. Introduction ... 14.4.2. Simple vapour absorption system ... 14.4.3. Practical vapour absorption system ... 14.4.4. Comparison between vapour compression and vapour absorption systems ... Refrigerants ... 14.5.1. Classification of refrigerants ... 14.5.2. Desirable properties of an ideal refrigerant ... 14.5.3. Properties and uses of commonly used refrigerants ... Highlights ... Objective Type Questions ... Theoretical Questions ... Unsolved Examples ... DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 xiii 671 674 679 706 707 707 709 713 713 714 714 714 715 715 715 716 722 724 730 730 730 731 732 734 735 736 737 739 740 741 741 742 743 744 764 764 766 768 771 772 773 774
  • 15. ( xiv ) Chapter Pages 15. HEAT TRANSFER 15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 15.4. 15.5. Modes of Heat Transfer Heat Transmission by Conduction 15.2.1. Fourier’s law of conduction 15.2.2. Thermal conductivity of materials 15.2.3. Thermal resistance (Rth) 15.2.4. General heat conduction equation in cartesian coordinates 15.2.5. Heat conduction through plane and composite walls 15.2.6. The overall heat transfer coefficient 15.2.7. Heat conduction through hollow and composite cylinders 15.2.8. Heat conduction through hollow and composite spheres 15.2.9. Critical thickness of insulation Heat Transfer by Convection Heat Exchangers 15.4.1. Introduction 15.4.2. Types of heat exchangers 15.4.3. Heat exchanger analysis 15.4.4. Logarithmic temperature difference (LMTD) Heat Transfer by Radiation 15.5.1. Introduction 15.5.2. Surface emission properties 15.5.3. Absorptivity, reflectivity and transmittivity 15.5.4. Concept of a black body 15.5.5. The Stefan-Boltzmann law 15.5.6. Kirchhoff ’s law 15.5.7. Planck’s law 15.5.8. Wien’s displacement law 15.5.9. Intensity of radiation and Lambert’s cosine law 15.5.10. Radiation exchange between black bodies separated by a non-absorbing medium Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples 16. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 16.1. 16.2. 16.3. Introduction Basic Equations of Compressible Fluid Flow 16.2.1. Continuity equation 16.2.2. Momentum equation 16.2.3. Bernoulli’s or energy equation Propagation of Disturbances in Fluid and Velocity of Sound 16.3.1. Derivation of sonic velocity (velocity of sound) 16.3.2. Sonic velocity in terms of bulk modulus 16.3.3. Sonic velocity for isothermal process 16.3.4. Sonic velocity for adiabatic process DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 x i v ... 778—856 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 778 778 778 780 782 783 787 790 799 805 808 812 815 815 815 820 821 832 832 833 834 836 836 837 837 839 840 ... ... ... ... ... 843 851 852 854 854 ... 857—903 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 857 857 857 858 858 862 862 864 864 865
  • 16. ( xv ) Chapter Pages 16.4. 16.5. 16.6. Mach Number Propagation of Disturbance in Compressible Fluid Stagnation Properties 16.6.1. Expression for stagnation pressure (ps) in compressible flow 16.6.2. Expression for stagnation density (ρs) 16.6.3. Expression for stagnation temperature (Ts) 16.7. Area—Velocity Relationship and Effect of Variation of Area for Subsonic, Sonic and Supersonic Flows 16.8. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through a Convergent Nozzle 16.9. Variables of Flow in Terms of Mach Number 16.10. Flow Through Laval Nozzle (Convergent-divergent Nozzle) 16.11. Shock Waves 16.11.1. Normal shock wave 16.11.2. Oblique shock wave 16.11.3. Shock Strength Highlights Objective Type Questions Theoretical Questions Unsolved Examples l 865 866 869 869 872 872 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 876 878 883 886 892 892 895 895 896 899 901 902 Competitive Examinations Questions with Answers ... 904—919 Index l ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 920—922 Steam Tables and Mollier Diagram ... (i)—(xx) DHARM M-thermTITLE.PM5 x v
  • 17. Introduction to SI Units and Conversion Factors A. INTRODUCTION TO SI UNITS SI, the international system of units are divided into three classes : 1. Base units 2. Derived units 3. Supplementary units. From the scientific point of view division of SI units into these classes is to a certain extent arbitrary, because it is not essential to the physics of the subject. Nevertheless the General Conference, considering the advantages of a single, practical, world-wide system for international relations, for teaching and for scientific work, decided to base the international system on a choice of six well-defined units given in Table 1 below : Table 1. SI Base Units Quantity Name Symbol length metre m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A thermodynamic temperature kelvin K luminous intensity candela cd amount of substance mole mol The second class of SI units contains derived units, i.e., units which can be formed by combining base units according to the algebraic relations linking the corresponding quantities. Several of these algebraic expressions in terms of base units can be replaced by special names and symbols can themselves be used to form other derived units. Derived units may, therefore, be classified under three headings. Some of them are given in Tables 2, 3 and 4. (xvi)
  • 18. (xvii) INTRODUCTION TO SI UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Table 2. Examples of SI Derived Units Expressed in terms of Base Units SI Units Quantity Name Symbol area square metre m2 volume cubic metre m3 speed, velocity metre per second m/s acceleration metre per second squared m/s2 wave number 1 per metre m–1 density, mass density kilogram per cubic metre kg/m3 concentration (of amount of substance) mole per cubic metre mol/m3 activity (radioactive) 1 per second s–1 specific volume cubic metre per kilogram m3/kg luminance candela per square metre cd/m2 Table 3. SI Derived Units with Special Names SI Units Quantity Name Symbol Expression in terms of other units Expression in terms of SI base units frequency hertz Hz — s–1 force newton N — m.kg.s–2 pressure pascal Pa N/m2 m–1.kg.s–2 energy, work, quantity of heat power joule J N.m m2.kg.s–2 radiant flux quantity of electricity watt W J/S m2.kg.s–3 electric charge coloumb C A.s s.A electric tension, electric potential volt V W/A m2.kg.s–3.A–1 capacitance farad F C/V m–2.kg–1.s4 electric resistance ohm Ω V/A m2.kg.s–3.A–2 conductance siemens S A/V m–2.kg–1.s3.A2 magnetic flux weber Wb V.S. m2.kg.s–2.A–1 magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg.s–2.A–1 inductance henry H Wb/A m2.kg.s–2.A–2 luminous flux lumen lm — cd.sr illuminance lux lx — m–2.cd.sr dharm M-thermth0-1
  • 19. (xviii) ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Table 4. Examples of SI Derived Units Expressed by means of Special Names SI Units Quantity Name Symbol Expression in terms of SI base units dynamic viscosity pascal second Pa-s m–1.kg.s–1 moment of force metre newton N.m m2.kg.s–2 surface tension newton per metre N/m kg.s–2 heat flux density, irradiance watt per square metre W/m2 kg.s–2 heat capacity, entropy joule per kelvin J/K m2.kg.s–2.K–1 specific heat capacity, specific entropy joule per kilogram kelvin J/(kg.K) m2.s–2.K–1 specific energy joule per kilogram J/kg m2.s–2 thermal conductivity watt per metre kelvin W/(m.K) m.kg.s–3.K–1 energy density joule per cubic metre J/m 3 m–1.kg.s–2 electric field strength volt per metre V/m m.kg.s–3.A–1 electric charge density coloumb per cubic metre C/m 3 m–3.s.A electric flux density coloumb per square metre C/m 2 m–2.s.A permitivity farad per metre F/m m–3.kg–1.s4.A4 current density ampere per square metre A/m 2 — magnetic field strength ampere per metre A/m — permeability henry per metre H/m m.kg.s–2.A–2 molar energy joule per mole J/mol m2.kg.s–2mol–1 molar heat capacity joule per mole kelvin J/(mol.K) m2.kg.s–2.K–1.mol–1 The SI units assigned to third class called “Supplementary units” may be regarded either as base units or as derived units. Refer Table 5 and Table 6. Table 5. SI Supplementary Units SI Units Quantity Name plane angle radian rad solid angle dharm M-thermth0-1 Symbol steradian sr
  • 20. (xix) INTRODUCTION TO SI UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Table 6. Examples of SI Derived Units Formed by Using Supplementary Units SI Units Quantity Name Symbol angular velocity radian per second rad/s angular acceleration radian per second squared rad/s2 radiant intensity watt per steradian W/sr radiance watt per square metre steradian W-m–2.sr–1 Table 7. SI Prefixes Factor 1012 109 106 103 Prefix Symbol Factor Prefix Symbol tera T 10–1 deci d G 10–2 centi c M 10–3 milli m k 10–6 micro µ giga mega kilo 102 hecto h 10–9 nano n 101 deca da 10–12 pico p 10–15 fasnto f 10–18 atto a B. CONVERSION FACTORS 1. Force : 1 newton = kg-m/sec2 = 0.012 kgf 1 kgf = 9.81 N 2. Pressure : 1 bar = 750.06 mm Hg = 0.9869 atm = 105 N/m2 = 103 kg/m-sec2 1 N/m2 = 1 pascal = 10–5 bar = 10–2 kg/m-sec2 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 1.03 kgf/cm2 = 1.01325 bar = 1.01325 × 105 N/m2 3. Work, Energy or Heat : 1 joule = 1 newton metre = 1 watt-sec = 2.7778 × 10–7 kWh = 0.239 cal = 0.239 × 10–3 kcal 1 cal = 4.184 joule = 1.1622 × 10–6 kWh 1 kcal = 4.184 × 103 joule = 427 kgf-m = 1.1622 × 10–3 kWh 1 kWh = 8.6042 × 105 cal = 860 kcal = 3.6 × 106 joule 1 kgf-m = dharm M-thermth0-1 FG 1 IJ kcal = 9.81 joules H 427 K
  • 21. (xx) ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS 4. Power : 1 watt = 1 joule/sec = 0.860 kcal/h 1 h.p. = 75 m kgf/sec = 0.1757 kcal/sec = 735.3 watt 1 kW = 1000 watts = 860 kcal/h 5. Specific heat : 1 kcal/kg-°K = 0.4184 joules/kg-K 6. Thermal conductivity : 1 watt/m-K = 0.8598 kcal/h-m-°C 1 kcal/h-m-°C = 1.16123 watt/m-K = 1.16123 joules/s-m-K. 7. Heat transfer co-efficient : 1 watt/m2-K = 0.86 kcal/m2-h-°C 1 kcal/m2-h-°C = 1.163 watt/m2-K. C. IMPORTANT ENGINEERING CONSTANTS AND EXPRESSIONS Engineering constants and expressions M.K.S. system SI Units 1. Value of g0 9.81 kg-m/kgf-sec2 1 kg-m/N-sec2 2. Universal gas constant 848 kgf-m/kg mole-°K 848 × 9.81 = 8314 J/kg-mole-°K (3 1 kgf-m = 9.81 joules) 3. Gas constant (R) 29.27 kgf-m/kg-°K for air 4. Specific heats (for air) cv = 0.17 kcal/kg-°K cp = 0.24 kcal/kg-°K 8314 = 287 joules/kg-K 29 for air cv = 0.17 × 4.184 = 0.71128 kJ/kg-K cp = 0.24 × 4.184 = 1 kJ/kg-K 5. Flow through nozzle-Exit velocity (C2) 91.5 U , where U is in kcal 44.7 U , where U is in kJ 6. Refrigeration 1 ton = 50 kcal/min = 210 kJ/min Q = σT4 kcal/m2-h when σ = 4.9 × 10–8 kcal/h-m2 -°K4 Q = σT4 watts/m2-h when σ = 5.67 × 10–8 W/m2 K4 7. Heat transfer The Stefan Boltzman Law is given by : dharm M-thermth0-1
  • 22. INTRODUCTION TO SI UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Nomenclature A area b steady-flow availability function C velocity °C temperature on the celsius (or centigrade) scale c specific heat cp specific heat at constant pressure cv specific heat at constant volume Cp molar heat at constant pressure Cv molar heat at constant volume D, d bore ; diameter E emissive power ; total energy e base of natural logarithms g gravitational acceleration H enthalpy h specific enthalpy ; heat transfer co-efficient hf specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (fluid) hfg latent heat hg specific enthalpy of saturated vapour ; gases K temperature on kelvin scale (i.e., celsius absolute, compressibility) k thermal conductivity, blade velocity co-efficient L stroke M molecular weight m mass m N rate of mass flow rotational speed n polytrop