“STUDY OF LUBRICANT IN
I am heartily thankful to my supervisor, PROF: Darshan
Vaishnav & PROF: Hani Chotai, whose encouragement, guidance
and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to
develop an understanding of the subject.
I am also thankful to our HOD: PROF Suresh Pareek to give a
chance to understanding this subject.
Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all of those who
supported me in any respect during the completion of the project.
Lubricant is the basic requirement in all manufacturing industries
to lubricate the sliding and rolling component to reduce the wear
and tear and for increasing the life component.
Now a day there are many types of the lubricant are used
depending upon their requirement so we can select proper
lubricant according the working condition of the component.
So we will see in this seminar basic types of lubricant which is
used in the industries.
topics Page no.
Lubrication system component 2
Requirements & characteristic of
Types of lubrication system 4
Splash lubrication system.(fig.) 5
Parameters affect to lubricant 6
Types of Lubricants. 7
Castor oils. 8
Synthetic oils 9
Solid Lubricant & figure. 12
What is lubricant?
It is a viscous liquid which is applied between the two
moving or sliding surfaces which reduces the friction, wear
No metal to metal contact occurs.
Lubrication is the act of applying lubricant and lubrication
substance which are capable of reducing friction between
moving mechanical parts.
Lubricants are liquid, semi-liquid or solid substances that
are used between two surfaces which are in close condition
and are in motion, to reduce the friction caused between
Lubrication is the process or the method adopted to
introduce take lubricant between the two surfaces
to reduce the wear and tear of the surfaces and to help
in easing the pressure generated between the opposing
The introduced lubricant film can be a liquid, solid,
solid-liquid dispersion, liquid-liquid dispersion
(greases) or in unusual circumstances even a gas. In
most cases it is a liquid.
Requirements & Characteristic of Lubricants.
The Most important characteristic is its viscosity.
The resistance of an oil to flow.
High viscosity is oil that flows slowly.
Low viscosity is oil that flows freely.
• Lubrication reduces sliding and rolling frictions for
increasing the life of parts and components and also
prevents the wear.
• Reduce Electrical and Mechanical power consumption.
• Protect bearing and other Components from corrosion and
• Obtain smooth and noiseless working.
• To reduce wear and tear.
• Wide range of variety so selection of lubricant is easy
according to our requirement.
• Lubricants will occupy the clearance between moving parts
through the capillary force, thus sealing the clearance. This
effect can be used to seal pistons and shafts.
TYPES OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM
a. Pressure lubrication.
i. A mechanical pump supplies oil under
pressure to the bearings throughout the engine.
ii. The mechanical pump is mostly used in all
Pressure lubrication systems.
b. Splash lubrication.
i. Used in addition to pressure lubrication on aircraft
ii. A scoop is provided through which lubrication is
iii. A scoop is attached to the piston which move with
the piston directly.
iv. Working is easy though the quantity is not
c. Combination of pressure & Splash.
i. Positive introduction of oil to the bearings and other
ii. Cooling effect is done by the large quantities of oil.
iii. It is directly supply to the component so Satisfactory
lubrication in various parts of the engine.
iv. No waste of any oil during lubrication.
d. Wet sump lubrication.
i. System consists of a sump, in which the oil supply is
ii. The sump is attached to the bottom of the engine and
through which whole engine is lubricated..
e. Dry sump lubrication.
i. Oil supply is carried in a separate tank.
ii. Scavenger pumps used to return the oil to the tank.
iii. Used in radial engines and engines capable of
sustained inverted flight.
Splash lubrication system.
Parameters affect to lubricant
A no. of factors affects to determine effectiveness of
These factors include load, temperature, viscosity, flow
rate, speed, alignment, condition of surface, and
purity of the lubricant.
At low speed cohesiveness is required to keep the lubricant
from being squeezed out from between the two
If the load is higher than lubricant required the use of high
Purity is main consideration to obtain effective lubrication
to whole engine and also prevent scaling because
impure substance causes ineffective lubrication.
Flow rate is also maintained to prevent the wastage of the
lubricant oil and also control the heat generation.
Lubricant is supplied to according to the whole surface
Types of Lubricants.
AA Castor oils.
Castor oil is natural plant oil obtained from the seed of the
castor plant. The castor seed is the important products as
one of the world's most important industrial oils.
Castor oil was one of the earliest commercial products.
Synthetic oils that are use where extreme
temperature, fire resistance, and other special application
requiring their chemical characteristics.
Advantage of synthetic oils.
A Better chemical & shear stability
A Decreased evaporative loss.
A Improved fuel economy in certain engine configurations.
A Better lubrication on cold starts
A Longer engine life
A The production and capital cost of synthetic oils is high.
A Environmental question in handling and disposing of some
type of synthetic oils have also been a more difficult..
A These commonly consist of 80-90% mineral oil with 10-
20% of Bingham oil.
A Normally Grease is semisolid.
A This semisolid nature of grease provides some shear
strength, when the applied shear stress is greater than a
A Greases are typically applied in areas where a continuous
supply of oil cannot be retained, such as gears.
A Normally grease can sustain temperature up to 180
A It Provide film between two moving parts to reduce
friction and wear, usually for following:-
A high temperature,
A nuclear radiation,
A And other environment high temperature where not
tolerated by oils and grease.
A Solid lubricants are materials which are able to
reduce friction between two surfaces sliding against each
other without the need for a liquid media.
A Graphite, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum
disulfide and tungsten disulfide are examples of materials
that can be used as solid lubricants, often to very high
temperature. The use of some such materials is sometimes
restricted by their poor resistance to oxidation
a. Used in extreme temperature and pressure.
b. Solid lubricants are effective in application where the
lubricated equipment is immersed in water that may be
polluted by other lubricants, such as oils and grease.
Lubrication is fundamental to the operation of all engineering
machines. It is required to minimize friction, wear and also
provides a cooling function and a surface protection function.
There are any varieties available like liquid lubricant, solid
lubricant & Gas lubricant so the study of lubricant is very
important to satisfy and to improve performance of
After this seminar we can conclude that Lubricant is very
important substance in the all mechanical component and also
in sliding and rolling component to improve working.
Applied Tribology By, Michel M. khonsari.
Tribology Hand Book By
For Friction, Wear, & Lubricants.
McGarey, William G. The Oil That Heals: A
Physician's Successes with Castor Oil
Treatments. A.R. E. Press, 1993.
Wilson, Billie Ann, et al. Nurses Drug Guide
1995. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1995