08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
1
ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
Seminar Report on
Aesthetics & Ergonomics i...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
2
ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
NIRMA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Any fruitful effort in a new work needs a direction and guidi...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
ABSTRACT
The advancement made in the field of design for the design main
elem...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
INDEX
1.Introduction 6-10
2. Aesthetics
2.1 What is Aesthetics? 6
2.1.1 Eleme...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
• Firstly, design plays an important part in understanding the end user and m...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
2.2 Consideration of aesthetics in design
There are four different 'pleasure ...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
Santayana’s definition of the word ‘aesthetics’ captures this dilemma. He sta...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
2.4 Experimental Aesthetics
Experimental aesthetics defines a branch of psych...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
2.5 The Future of Experimental Aesthetics
Since several factors influence aes...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.1 What is ERGONOMICS?
Like the manufacturing consideration, the program is ...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.1.1 Definition of Ergonomics
• Ergonomics or human factors are the scientif...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.1.2 Chart of Ergonomics
13
ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.2 Ergonomically designed products
An ergonomically designed toothbrush has ...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.3 Ergonomics in Design
Edward Grossmith, CPE Ergonomics Resource Group San ...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
3.7 Application of Ergonomics
Size and shape
Some years ago, researchers comp...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
Sports car
The emphasis is on aesthetics and performance. The car may go very...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
Where aesthetics may predominate
There are other products that conflict direc...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
6 Conclusion
• The advancements made in the field of automobile design increa...
08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design
7 Bibliography
Web sites:-
 www.ergonomic4school.com
 www.designofenggneeri...
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A seminar report on asthetics and ergonomics in design

  1. 1. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 1 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY Seminar Report on Aesthetics & Ergonomics in design Submitted By: Mitesh Prajapati (08DME006) Diploma in Mechanical Engineering. Semester – VI Year 2011-2012 INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMA STUDIES NIRMA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AHMEDABAD (GUJARAT- INDIA) 382481
  2. 2. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 2 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY NIRMA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMA STUDIES AHMEDABAD (GUJARAT- INDIA) 382481 INSTITUTE OF DIPLOMA STUDIES C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that following student of Diploma in Mechanical engg. Semester-VI has completed his seminar report title Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design satisfactorily in partial fulfillment Of requirement of Diploma in Mechanical engg. In the year 2011-12. Roll No.Name of the Student08DME006Mitesh prajapati Seminar Guide: - Mr. Suresh Pareek Mr. Darshan vaishnav H.O.D - ME (Lecturer –ME)
  3. 3. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Any fruitful effort in a new work needs a direction and guiding hands that shows the way. It is proud privilege and pleasure to bring out indebtness and warm gratitude to respect Mr. Darshan vaishnav, lecturer Institue of Diploma Studies, Nirma University, Ahmedabad for their support during my seminar report. I am also indebted to HOD of ME-IDS department Mr. Suresh pareek & Prof. Hani chotai for constantly guiding and showing us the correct path to reach towards our desired goal. Finally I would like to thank my family and my classmates for their continuous support and constant encouragement during the seminar work. I would like to thank each and everyone who directly or indirectly helped us in the accomplishment of the seminar. Mitesh Prajapati (08DME006). 3 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  4. 4. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design ABSTRACT The advancement made in the field of design for the design main elements are aesthetics & ergonomics that helps a lot of for the designing of any component of any good equipment for use with comfort & safety & comfortness is the prime concerns for any designing factors The paper provides a brief overview of the aesthetics definition, types, factor affecting, advantage, disadvantage etc. it also contains ergonomics & its brief introduction & detailing. In last we able to know how the designing play an important role in over daily life we should respect our standers of designing & follow it with awareness. 4 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  5. 5. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design INDEX 1.Introduction 6-10 2. Aesthetics 2.1 What is Aesthetics? 6 2.1.1 Element of Aesthetics 6 2.2 Consideration of aesthetics in design 7 2.3 Visual Aesthetics 7 2.4 Experimental Aesthetics 9 2.5 The Future of Experimental Aesthetics 10 3. Ergonomics 11-19 3.1 What is ERGONOMICS? 11 3.1.1 Definition of Ergonomics 12 3.1.2 Chart of Ergonomics 13 3.2 Ergonomically designed products 14 3.3 Ergonomics in Design 14 3.4 Ergonomics in Process Design 15 3.5 Liaison ergonomics in Product Design 18 3.6 Ergonomics in Design for the Environment 19 3.7 Application of Ergonomics 20 5. Aesthetics and ergonomics in product design 20 6. Working with aesthetics and Ergonomics 21 6. Conclusion 23 7. Bibliography 24 1 Introduction 5 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  6. 6. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design • Firstly, design plays an important part in understanding the end user and making products simple and effective to use. If you pick up a product and immediately know how to use it, that’s because the design has made aesthetically good to do so. If a product’s comfortable to handle that’s because it’s been designed to be ergonomic. • Now a day’s designer are so concern about design, raw material, money & aesthetics aspects about design. • They give more importance to the safety & flexibility of the customer. • They give importance of aesthetics & ergonomics generally in luxurious life of the customers. 2.1 What is aesthetics? • The term 'aesthetics' concerns our senses and our responses to an object. If something is aesthetically pleasing to you, it is 'pleasurable' and you like it. If it is aesthetically displeasing to you, it is 'displeasurable' and you don't like it. • Aesthetics involves all of your senses - vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell - and your emotions. 2.1.1 Elements of Aesthetics Vision Hearing Touch Taste Smell Colour Shape Pattern Line Texture Visual weight Balance Scale Movement Loudness Pitch Beat Repetition Melody Pattern Noise Texture Shape Weight Give Comfort Temperature Vibration Sharpness Ease of use Strength Sweetness Sourness Texture Strength Sweetness 'Pleasantness' Your opinion about a product may also be influenced by certain associations that are important to you, such as: • how fashionable it is • whether it is a novelty, or an old favorite • whether it is a symbol of wealth or love • how much danger or risk is involved • if it provides a link with your past 6 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  7. 7. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 2.2 Consideration of aesthetics in design There are four different 'pleasure types' to consider: • Physio-pleasure Pleasure derived from the senses from touch, smell, sensual pleasure etc. For example the smoothness of a curve in a hand-held product or the smell of a new car. • Socio-pleasure Pleasure gained from interaction with others. This may be a 'talking point' product like a special ornament or painting, or the product may be the focus of a social gathering such as a vending machine or coffee machine. This pleasure can also come from a product that represents a social grouping, for example, a particular style of clothing that gives you a social identity. • Psycho-pleasure Pleasure from the satisfaction felt when a task is successfully completed. Pleasure also comes from the extent to which the product makes the task more pleasurable, such as the interface of an ATM cash machine that is quick and simple to use. It is closely related to product usability. • Ideo-pleasure Pleasure derived from entities such as books, art and music. This is the most abstract pleasure. In terms of products, it is the values that a product embodies, such as a product that is made of eco-friendly materials, and processes that convey a sense of environmental responsibility to the user. 2.3 Visual Aesthetics Visual aesthetics is made up of two words visual and aesthetics. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) 2, visual pertains to vision or that which proceeds from sight, while aesthetics is defined as the philosophy of theory of taste, or the perception of the beautiful in nature or art. Therefore, visual aesthetics refers to the perception of beauty, or taste that is motivated by sight. Some of the fields where the study of visual aesthetics or aesthetics (as used in a more general context to represent the study of beauty for various forms of art, including music, dance, poetry and nature) has been central include Philosophy, Arts, Psychology, History, Communication/Media, and more recently, Human-Computer Interaction. Early work in aesthetics reveals an overwhelming overlap across disciplines, especially in dated fields of Philosophy, Art, Psychology and History making clear cut demarcations between fields less obvious. The quest for a discipline which most appropriately accommodates aesthetics and its various theories has been a long standing problem. 7 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  8. 8. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design Santayana’s definition of the word ‘aesthetics’ captures this dilemma. He states that “the word aesthetics is nothing but a loose term lately applied in academic circles to everything that has to do with works of art or with the sense of beauty”. He further describes the search for a self-contained aesthetic science as a “scholastic chimera”, as aesthetics lends itself to be studied in many other disciplines. While aestheticians who are philosophers have been concerned with reasoning about aesthetic theories and attempting to establish facts about the characteristics of beauty and works of art, artists have been more concerned with the production and study of the aesthetics of various pieces of art such as paintings, literature, poetry, and music. Psychologists who study aesthetics have been more interested in the response to aesthetic objects, and have therefore sought to understand the mental Processes involved in aesthetic appreciation of objects and the aesthetic behaviors exhibited by human beings in general. Aestheticians who are historians have been committed to keeping track of studies in aesthetics, especially for the dated fields. Media aestheticians have been more interested in understanding the role of Visual aesthetics in effective communication, while aestheticians within the Human-Computer Interaction community have set out to understand the place of beauty in interaction design. Consequently, we do not debate about where the study of aesthetics rightfully belongs; rather we discuss selected fields where it has received attention with the aim of understanding its practice in those disciplines. We focus in particular on Philosophy, where it is believed to have originated; Psychology, an area that has contributed immensely in expanding the knowledge of aesthetic preference through scientific experimentation; Communication and Media where its application has been particularly successful; Human-Computer Interaction, where visual aesthetics is currently receiving much attention; and more specifically, the Web. 8 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  9. 9. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 2.4 Experimental Aesthetics Experimental aesthetics defines a branch of psychology of arts which adopts scientific approaches to understanding aesthetic behavior of human beings for given stimuli of interest. Typically, studies in empirical aesthetics are concerned with the disposition of an artist when creating or performing a work of art, as well as that of an observer. The ancient field was founded by a German physicist, philosopher and psychologist named Gustav Theodor Fechner whose work on experimental psychology of arts as documented in “Vorschule der Asthetik” (Elementary Aesthetics) paved way for studies to begin in this area. Pioneering Work in Experimental Aesthetics - Fechner’s Work Fechner’s foundational work marked the beginning of an approach to psychology of arts which was not solely “artist-driven” as in traditional psychology of arts, but more “audience-driven”. Traditional psychology of arts relied upon interpretational insights from artists and other domain experts. Whereas, scientific psychology of arts was based on careful observation and analysis of problems relating to aesthetic preference by studying viewers of artifacts. Consequently, Fechner’s work replaced “abstract aesthetics” with “concrete aesthetics”. Fechner described his own approach to the study of aesthetics as “aesthetics from below”, where one began from low-level facts and worked up to more general concepts. In contrast, traditional practitioners of aesthetics moved from more general concepts to low-level ones, which Fechner called “aesthetics from above”. Some of the popular methods used by Fechner for conducting experiments were the “method of choice”, where participants were given objects and asked to rank them according to order of preference; the “method of production”, where participants were required to modify a given visual stimulus with the aim of improving preferred aesthetic qualities or aspects; and the “method of use”, where works of arts and objects in general where studied based on the assumption that typical attributes of the objects were those that were widely identified by the people who are familiar with the objects in question. This way, Fechner was able to study aesthetic preferences and establish theories accordingly. Modern Experimental Aesthetics - Berlyne’s Work Daniel Berlyne followed up on Fechner’s ideas and consolidated them by establishing an area he coined the “New Experimental Aesthetics”. Based on anecdotal and empirical evidence, Berlyne proposed a theory of aesthetic response which specified that human beings always tried to maintain average levels of “arousal potential”. Arousal potential was derived from the properties of the object being viewed. Where this arousal potential exceeded the allowed threshold, it became unpleasant. 9 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  10. 10. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 2.5 The Future of Experimental Aesthetics Since several factors influence aesthetic preference, Jacobsen argues for a multidisciplinary approach to the study of aesthetic preference in experimental psychology. He proposes a seven-fold framework which incorporates these different perspectives in order to understand how aesthetic opinions are processed. They include “Diachronia”, “Ipsichronia”, “mind”, “body”, “content”, “person” and “situation” and these different facets may also inter-relate. 10 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  11. 11. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.1 What is ERGONOMICS? Like the manufacturing consideration, the program is intended to consider ergonomics of a high so called “common sense” level. This differs from expert programs which address specific ergonomic problems in great detail for example the system is not intended to configure individual buttons it will receive multiple buttons keypads and control panels as predesigned entities the system must be able to layout the product so that the keypad assemblies are usable. Ergonomics issues play a large role in the spatial configuration of consumer electronics products, and unfortunately simple ergonomics guidelines are often overload the ergonomics texts compiled by MC Cormick and sanders (1982) and woodson (1981) were use as reference while formulating the guidelines below. • Design so components are not obscured during use. • Hand held object must be easy to grasp. • Organize component into functional grouping to avoid confusion. • Design the product so that is stable during operation. • Locate component so that they are appropriately accessible. • Avoid cluttering the primary surface of interaction. • Frequently used component belong on primary product surface, less frequently used on second surface. • Products should be configured to avoid uncomfortable use position. 11 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  12. 12. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.1.1 Definition of Ergonomics • Ergonomics or human factors are the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. • It deals with the scientific study of relationship between the humans and its environment. 12 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  13. 13. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.1.2 Chart of Ergonomics 13 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  14. 14. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.2 Ergonomically designed products An ergonomically designed toothbrush has a broad handle for easy grip, a bent neck for easier access to back teeth, and a bristle head shaped for better tooth surface contact. Ergonomic design has dramatically changed the interior appearance of automobiles. The steering wheel once a solid awkward disc is now larger and padded for an easier, more comfortable grip. Its center is removed to improve the view of the instruments on the dashboard. Larger, contoured seats, adjustable to suit a variety of body sizes and posture preferences, have replaced the small, upright seats of the early automobiles. Equipped with seatbelts and airbags that prevent the face and neck from snapping backwards in the event of a collision, modern automobiles are not only comfortable but they are also safer. Virtually, all automotive and component manufacturers already recognize ergonomics as an important part of the vehicle design process. An ergonomically designed chair 14 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  15. 15. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.3 Ergonomics in Design Edward Grossmith, CPE Ergonomics Resource Group San Jose CA Gregory Chambers, Manager Corporate Environmental Safety & Health Quantum Corporation Milpitas, CA May 1998 The role ergonomics plays in improving productivity and quality has been well documented although generally not well recognized. In most cases, ergonomics interventions have been reactive, i.e. initiated only after an injury has occurred and after losses have been sustained to both the organization and the worker(s). The opportunities for profitability that present themselves at the start of a manufacturing program production line, however, have been less apparent. The proactive evaluation of a new product and manufacturing process at the design stage, i.e. before losses occur, is of paramount importance. Ideally, these activities should occur with a fundamental need to support the productivity and profitability goals of the organization. This paper looks at the introduction of a new cohesive and cost-effective systems approach that encompasses Product Design, Process Design with Design for the Environment. 3.4 Ergonomics in Process Design The ergonomist has several responsibilities in this area. These responsibilities are set against the background of understanding and supporting the productivity and profitability goals of the organization. This is in conjunction with the need to provide a safe and healthy work environment. The ergonomist should determine whether there are stressors present in the task and environment, such as excessive force, high repetition and awkward postures, which do not meet recommended ergonomics guidelines. Then, these deviations from the guidelines need to be quantified and qualified. From these findings the ergonomist will need to render an opinion as to the possible correlation between the recorded injuries and the work place hazards that have been identified. A further responsibility for the ergonomist is to recommend engineering and/or administrative upgrades that will further reduce the employee exposure to discomfort and/or stressors associated with cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). Historically, ergonomic upgrades have been introduced after a production line has been in operation for some time and after employees have incurred CTDs. Profitability losses at this point cannot be recovered; these costs include workers compensation, lost work days, restricted work days, productivity losses in replacing temporarily absent employees, rework, scrap, employee turnover and other penalties associated with lowered employee morale. Ideally, management wants these upgrades to be simple, fast and of a relatively low cost. Unfortunately, on a retrofit basis this is not always practical, hence the rationale for a proactive ergonomics designs review. The problems of introducing retrofits to existing production lines are frequently profound. Changing a conveyor 15 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  16. 16. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 3.7 Application of Ergonomics Size and shape Some years ago, researchers compared the relative positions of the controls on a lathe with the size of an average male worker. It was found that the lathe operator would have to stoop and move from side to side to operate the lathe controls. A sized person to fit the lathe would be just 4.5 feet tall, 2 feet across the shoulders and have an arm span of eight feet This example epitomizes the shortcoming in design when no account has been taken of the user. People come in all shapes and sizes, and the ergonomist takes this variability into account when influencing the design process. The branch of ergonomics that deals with human variability in size, shape and strength is called anthropometry. 4 Aesthetics and ergonomics in product design "More and more people buy objects for intellectual and spiritual nourishment. People do not buy my coffee makers, kettles and lemon squeezers because they need to make coffee, to boil water, or to squeeze lemons, but for other reasons." Alberto Alessi, Designer This quote gives an indication of how the world of product design has changed over the past few decades. An appreciation of pleasure in product use is fast becoming of primary importance to both consumer and the design industry alike. Consumers' expectations have been raised; they no longer simply expect the products they buy to be functional and usable. Consumers demand functionality, expect usability and are seeking products that that elicit other feelings such as pleasure or that strike a certain emotional chord. It likely to be the aesthetics of the product; the way it looks, the feel of the material, the tactile or 'haptic' response of controls or more abstract feelings, such as reflected status, that give pleasure. Traditionally, product design has been considered to comprise three main elements: 16 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  17. 17. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design Sports car The emphasis is on aesthetics and performance. The car may go very fast, look beautiful and make all the right sort of noises. However, it is likely to be difficult to get in and out of, have little storage space, seat only two people and have limited visibility. The physical and functional ergonomics are not the best but the car is exactly what the consumer is expecting of a sports car. Ergonomics is compromised in order to achieve performance and aesthetics. Family saloon car The emphasis is on functionality and usability. The car should first serve the needs of the family, so will have adequate seating and storage space and be suitable for family travelling. It should also have aesthetic appeal but there may be compromises in design in order to provide the required levels of functionality and usability. 5 Working with aesthetics and Ergonomics Compromises need to be made in different ways depending upon the product. Where ergonomics and aesthetics meet Clearly, many aesthetic ideas are easily combined with good ergonomics, for example, chairs that look good and are comfortable too; buttons on your mobile phone that give good feedback. This Alessi corkscrew has obviously been designed to be more than just a corkscrew, but it is extremely functional as well. 17 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  18. 18. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design Where aesthetics may predominate There are other products that conflict directly with ergonomics principles. For example, cars that go so fast they thrill you despite (or is it because of?) the risk that you are taking. However, whilst speed limits and traffic calming measures exist to slow fast cars down in dangerous situations, these fast, thrilling objects of desire are still designed and manufactured. Another example of aesthetics having more influence than ergonomics is shoes that are beautiful and very fashionable, but are bad for your feet and your posture, and increase the risk of slipping and hurting yourself. We are all educated as small children about the need to wear well-fitting, flat shoes for healthy feet, but we would complain if all footwear had to be designed by ergonomic principles only. Where aesthetics must never predominate Conversely, there are situations where ergonomics principles must override aesthetics, such as products that are used in safety-critical situations. For example, equipment designed for use in operating theatres or by air traffic controllers. There is much legislation concerning the safety of products and designers must work within these constraints of legislation or their products will not be allowed to enter the market place. For more on product safety, see the product evaluation topic. Where to compromise Many products are not safety-critical and the designer must take the responsibility for balancing aesthetics and ergonomics appropriately. Miniaturization of products is an example worth considering. When mobile telephones were first designed, technology dictated that they were the size of a small house brick! The displays and controls were easily usable by most people, but they considered the phones to be too large and heavy to be very 'mobile'. Technological advances allowed the production of smaller phones and they became truly 'mobile'; fitting easily into handbags and pockets. However, the control and display sizes were compromised and many have become too small for easy use. The optimum compromise was not recognized. 18 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  19. 19. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 6 Conclusion • The advancements made in the field of automobile design increases the comfort level of the vehicle and provides a sense of satisfaction to the customers. • Market research has showed that the purchasing power of an Indian has increased over the past few years. • Driver comfort and accessibility of the vehicle’s controls during the car’s operation maximizes the performance capabilities of the car. • Customers value Ergonomics and they are ready to pay for it. 19 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
  20. 20. 08DME006 Aesthetics and Ergonomics in design 7 Bibliography Web sites:-  www.ergonomic4school.com  www.designofenggneering.com  www.eeurd.com  www.scribd.com  www.tiraq.org  www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gove Books:- Introduction to ergonomics – R.S Bridger Design for manufacturability – M.Helander / M.Nagmchi 20 ME DEPT., IDS, NIRMA UNIVERSITY

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