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Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
Academic writing - An overview of types of writing
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Academic writing - An overview of types of writing

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What is academic writing? How to proceed from start to finish? What should any piece of writing contain?

What is academic writing? How to proceed from start to finish? What should any piece of writing contain?

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  • 1. “No tears in the writer, no tears in thereader. No surprise in the writer, nosurprise in the reader.”― Robert FrostAcademic Writing – An overview of writing
  • 2. IntroductionAcademic writing:• Is a social practice• Has a clear purpose and obvious audience• Is earned by observation, study and experiment• Has a process• Includes research• Is Organized• Has rhetoric functions (different voices)• Is clearly structured• Avoids Plagiarism• Is reporting people’s / your own ideas• Comprises different genres• Includes list of references• Follows grammar rules• Requires a spelling system• Is formal and linear• Can include a check-list• May leave the reader with a thought or an exercise• Should include references
  • 3. Social practiceWriting with a readership in mind
  • 4. Purpose and Audience• Students• Lecturers• ExaminersExplainInformPersuadeGuide
  • 5. Observation, Study and ExperimentYou can’t write, if you can’t relate
  • 6. ProcessWriting Procedure for an AssignmentTask Skills Result1 Read- QuestionUnderstand- NeedThink – Subject,purpose, audienceThinking academically- Notpractical/ directly useful,Areas of study, confirming torules, traditions, conventionalSubject2 Think and jot downwhat is knownBrainstorming Notes, figures3 Library or internet Research Reading list4 Books to read Skim, Scan List of materials5 Identify relevantcontentNote-making Content6 Organise ideas/thoughtsOrder Plan7 First draft Share and revise Changes8 Proof read Spellings, punctuation,structure, style, vocabulary,organisation, ref, plagiarismEditSeconddraftRewrite
  • 7. ResearchUnderstand the question / problemIdentify the topic – restricted or can be expandedAnalyze the question / problemAnalyze the title- Compare from audience point of view- Consider thoughts- Describe- Evaluate- Explore- Illustrate- JustifyPlan a solution
  • 8. OrganisedPreliminariesMain TextEnd MatterConnectivityFlowTransition
  • 9. Rhetoric FunctionsBased on: Werlich (1976) and Lackstrom, Selinker & Trimble (1973), are:Descriptive1.Describing objects, location, structure and direction2.Reporting and narrating3.Defining4.Writing instructions5.Describing function6.Describing processes, developments and operations7.Classifying / categorising8.Giving examples9.Including tables and chartsCriticalWriting criticallyArguing and discussingEvaluating other points of viewComparing and contrasting: similarities and differencesGeneralisingExpressing degrees of certaintyExpressing reasons and explanations / cause and effectReflectiveWriting reflectively
  • 10. StructuredMeaningful ParagraphsOne idea per paragraphWoven around a central themeUse signalling words -• Time/order• Compare/contrast• Cause/effectExamples - SupportExplanations/ GeneralisationsEmphasis - SolutionConclusion
  • 11. Plagiarism
  • 12. ReportingContinuewriting inyour ownstyleUnderstandsource contentList out ideasin your ownwords afterjotting orhighlightingthemAcknowledgeother’s workExpressrelationshipwith yourtopic –signalling
  • 13. GenresWhat does texts in genres do?Communicate, explain, present, argue, inform, describe, narrate etc.Essays –DescriptiveNarrativeExpositoryPersuasiveReportsCase StudiesResearch proposalsBook reviewsBrief research reportsLiterature reviewsReflective writingIntroductionsResearch methodsResearch resultsResearch discussionsWriting conclusionsResearch abstractsOthers:Journal writingLetter writingBiographical writingPoetry writingStory writingNovelsCreative assignmentsLab reports
  • 14. FeaturesComplexityObjectivityPrecisionFormalityHedgingAccuracyResponsibility
  • 15. CitationTwo ways to refer /cite another persons work:a) by reportingb) by direct quotation
  • 16. Grammar
  • 17. Spellings
  • 18. Check-listHere are some useful questions to ask yourself about yourwriting:1.Does your writing deal with the topic that was set?2.Does it answer the question/deal with the brief that was set?3.Is the the correct genre? i.e is it a report or an essay or areview?4.Does it cover all the main aspects and in sufficient depth?5.Is the content accurate and relevant?6.Is everything relevant to the topic?7.Is the material logically arranged?8.Is each main point well supported by examples andargument?9.Is there a clear distinction between your ideas and those ofother authors?10.Is your voice clear throughout?11.Have you acknowledged all the sources you have used?12.Is the length of the text right for its purpose?13.Is it written in a suitable style?14.Is it written plainly and simply, without clumsy or obscurephrasing?15.Is the grammar, punctuation and spelling acceptable?16.Is it neat and legibly written?
  • 19. ReferencesMention references:• Books• Authors – one, two, many• Edited collection – edition/ revised edition / translationArticles• Book reviews• Magazine article• Newspaper article• Letter to editor• Journal articleElectronic sources• Blogs• Wikipedia• Online journals• You-tube / videos• E-mails
  • 20. Exercise
  • 21. Thank-you

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