Painting Process of applying pigment to a surface to secure effects involving forms and colors. Painting mediums: oils, watercolors, tempera, others. Surfaces: canvas, wood, paper and plaster.
Drawing The art of representing something by lines made on a surface or the process of portraying an object, scene, or forms of decorative or symbolic meaning through lines, shading, and textures in one or more colors. Medium: pencil, pen and ink, crayon, brush, and charcoal.
Graphic Processes Processes for making multi- reproduction of graphic works. Involve the preparation of master image of the drawing or design on some durable material such as wood, metal, or stone, from which printing is done. Processes: ◦ Raised (relief) ◦ Depressed (Intaglio) ◦ Flat (surface, or plane)
Relief Printing Unwanted portions of design are cut away on the master image. Printed image is formed by the remaining surfaces. Examples: linoleum cuts, woodcuts, wood
Intaglio Printing Printing from a plate on which incised lines, which carry the ink, leave a raised impression. Dry point: ◦ Artist draws directly on a metal plate with a sharp needle and scratches lines, or grooves, into the metal. ◦ For each print, ink is rubbed into the grooves and the unscratched surface is wiped clean. ◦ In printing, the ink in the grooves is transferred to paper.
Etching: ◦ Drawing or designs on metal plates covered with wax. ◦ Needle penetrates wax to the surface of the plate. ◦ Plate is then dipped in acid, which eats the lines into the metal. ◦ For printing, etched (bitten) lines are filled with ink which is transferred to the paper. Engraving: ◦ Done on a metal plate with a cutting tool called a barin, which leaves a V-shaped trough. ◦ Drawings or designs on the plate are entirely composed of lines or dots.
Surface Printing Includes all processes in which printing is done from a flat (plane) surface. Lithography: ◦ Printing from a flat stone or metal plate by am method based on the repulsion between grease and water. ◦ Design is put on the surface. ◦ Surface is treated so that ink adheres only to areas where drawing has been done. ◦ Ink is then transferred to the paper in printing.
Silkscreen: ◦ Silk is stretched over a rectangular frame and unwanted portions in the design are blocked out. ◦ Pigment is forced through the clear areas. ◦ For multi-color prints, a separate screen is used for each color.
Commercial Art Designing of books, advertisements, signs, posters, and other displays to promote sale or acceptance of product, service or idea.
Mechanical Processes Developed by commercial- mechanical process for rapid, large- quantity reproduction of words and pictures in one or more colors.
Photography Chemical- mechanical process by which images are produced on sensitized surfaces by action of light. Reproductions may be in black or white or in full colors of the original.
The Plastic ArtsAllfields of the visual arts in which materials are organized into three- dimensional forms.
Architecture The art of designing and constructing buildings and other types of structures. Materials: stone, concrete, brick, wood, steel, glass, plaster “mother of the arts”- it houses, serves as background for, or occurs in relation to other fields of art such as painting, sculpture, interior design, landscape architecture, and city
LandscapeArchitecture Planning outdoor areas for human use and enjoyment, especially gardens, parks, playgrounds, golf courses. Chief materials: plants, shrubs, trees, folwers, vines, and ground cover.
City Planning Planning and arranging the physical aspects of a large or small community. Structures and areas concerned with all phases of living and working are attractively and efficiently organized and related.
Interior Design Design and arrangement of architectural interiors for convenience and beauty. Includes backgrounds (wall, floors, ceilings), furnishings, and accessories. Fields: Design of wallpaper, furniture, textiles for curtains, and upholstery
Sculpture Design and construction of three dimensional forms representing natural objects or imaginary (sometimes abstract) shapes. Common materials: stone, wood, clay, metal; ivory, jade, wire, string and other materials. Sculpture of figures: statues
Crafts Designing and making of objects by hand for use or for pleasure. Ceramics, jewelry, leatherwork, and weaving. Mass- produced: industrial design.
Industrial Design Design of objects for machine production. Examples: automobiles, household appliances
Dress and Costume Designs Design of wearing apparel of all types- dresses, coats, suits, shoes, ties, etc.
Theater Design Design of settings for dramatic productions.
Essay Non-fiction,expository (descriptive or explanatory) writing ranging from informal, personal topics to closely reasoned critical treatments of important subjects.
Prose Fiction Includes narratives (stories) created by the author, as distinguished from true accounts. Fiction: comes from the Latin word which means “to form”, “to invent”, or “to feign.” Divided into: novel, novelette, and short story forms. Novel or short story: describes
Poetry Literature of a highly expressive nature using special forms and choice of words and emotional images. Narrative (story telling) poetry includes epics, romances, and ballads. Lyric forms: sonnet, ode, elegy and songs.
Miscellaneous History,biography, letters, journals, diaries, and other works not formally classified as literature often have literary appeal and status due to high quality of the writing.
Music The art of arranging sound in rhythmic succession and generally in combination. Melody results from this sequence, and harmony from combinations. Both creative and a performing art Common forms: songs, march, fugue, sonata, suite, fantasy, concerto, and symphony.
Vocal music Composed primarily to be sung. Voice or voices are generally accompanied by one or more instruments.
Instrumental music Written for instruments of four general types: ◦ Keyboard (piano, organ, etc.) ◦ Stringed ( violin, cello, guitar, etc.) ◦ Wind (flute, clarinet, etc.) ◦ Brass winds (trumpet, saxo-phone, etc.) ◦ Percussion (drum, xylophone, etc.)
Music combined with otherarts Opera: ◦ drama set to music ◦ Mostly or entirely sung with orchestral accompaniment ◦ Spectacularly staged with accomplished singers, elaborate scenery, and costumes.
Operatta and musical comedy: ◦ Drama set to music but is light, popular, romantic and often humorous or comic ◦ Use spoken dialogue instead of recitative
Oratorio and Cantata: ◦ Sacred musical drama in concert form. ◦ Made up of recited parts (recitative), arias, and choruses, with orchestral accompaniment. ◦ No action, sets, and costumes are used. ◦ Oratories are usually based on Biblical themes
Other forms Ballet music Background music for motion pictures
Drama or playA story re-created by actors on stage in front of an audience.
Tragedy One of literatures greatest dramatic art forms. A drama of serious nature in which the central character comes to sad or disastrous end. All tragedies portray
Melodrama Emphasis is on action rather than on character. The action is sensational or romantic and usually has a happy ending.
Comedy All plays with happy endings. Romantic comedy: light, amusing tale of lovers in some dilemma which is solved happily, Farce: light, humurous play. Emphasis is on jokes, humorous physical action, ludicrous situations, and improbable characters. Comedy of manners or “drawing room comedy”: sophisticated or satirical. Characters are usually high-society types, and situations have little to do with real
Miscellaneous Tragicomedy: drama blending tragic and comic elements but which ends happily. Miracle and mystery plays: dramatized stories from the Bible and lives of saints. Morality plays: characters represent specific vices and virtues. Closet drama: plays written for reading than for staging.
Piano drama: based on piano works which revolve around the musical pieces composed under the inspiration of a literary work. It combines the interpretation of music with the recitation of poetry and the literary source of music.
Dance Involves the movement of the body and feet in rhythm.
Ethnologic Includes folk dancing associated with national and cultural groups.
Social or Ballroom dances Popular types of dancing generally performed by pairs. Waltz, fox trot, rhumba and tango.
The Ballet Formalized type of dance which originated in the courts of the Middle Ages. Amy either be solo or concerted dances with mimetic actions accompanied by music. Generally built around a theme or story.
Modern Sometimes called contemporary or interpretative dances. Represents rebellion against the classical formalism of ballet: they emphasize personal communication of moods and themes. Past: movements were natural and untrained. Today: varied forms of movements usually based on the current trend.
Musical Comedy Refers to those dances performed by soloists, groups, and choruses in theaters, night clubs, motion pictures, and television. Combines various forms of ballet, modern, tap and acrobatics.