Medium of the visual arts


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Medium of the visual arts

  2. 2. MEDIUM Refers to the materials which are used by an artist. A means by which he communicates his ideas. Very essential to art.
  3. 3. Painting The art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigments. Each medium exerts a pronounced effect on the finished product, is capable of varied treatment, and determines its own stroke. The materials of the painter are pigments applied to wet plaster, canvas, wood or paper.
  4. 4. Oil Pigments are mixed in oil. Surface: canvas, wood, paper, metal Most familiar type of painting is done with oils on canvas. Surface most suitable: must receive oil freely and yet not absorb it, can withstand temperature changes, and not crack the pigment on it.
  5. 5.  Pigments mixed with oil provide a medium that gives richness in the opacity of light and depth of shadow. Pigments can come from different sources: minerals, vegetable matter, coal tars, and other chemical combinations.  Ground by hand or machine then mixed with oil. Painters usually depend upon those pigments which do not change through the years.
  6. 6.  Oil painting: popular because there are many ways of handling oil pigments. It is possible to get a wide range of separate effects. Pigment may be applied in a thick and heavy manner or in washes of almost water color transparency. Oil color is the best method for a convincing representation where reproduction of color is necessary.
  7. 7.  Its ease of handling, the easy blending of tones, and the possibility of painting over and covering any mistake are some of the reasons why oil painting is a very popular technique. Two methods of painting in oil:  Direct method- paints are opaque and are applied to the surface just as they are to look in the finished product; more flexible  Indirect method: paint is applied in many thin layers of transparent color
  8. 8.  Disadvantages:  Dries slowly and has a tendency to rise to the surface and form a film over the picture, making it appear dull.  Has a tendency to become yellow and crack so that preservation usually becomes a problem.
  9. 9. “Maria Makiling” by Carlos “Botong” Francisco
  10. 10. Tempera Mixture of ground pigments and an albuminous or colloidal vehicle, either egg, gum, or glue, used by Egyptian, Medieval, and Renaissance painters. Special characteristic: being an emulsion  Watery, milk-like texture of oily and watery consistency.
  11. 11.  Usually done on a wooden panel that has been smooth with a coating of plaster. The colors are mixed with egg yolk. There is little blending or fusing of colors since paint dries rapidly. Colors are laid on side by side or superimposed. Needs careful details. It is hard to obtain rich, deep tones, and shadows.
  12. 12.  Advantages:  Dries readily with the evaporation of water  Great luminosity of tone  Colors are clear and beautiful.
  13. 13. “Madonna Enthroned with Four Saints”
  14. 14. Watercolor Pigments are mixed with water and applied to fine white paper. Good watercolor paintings are not easy to make.  Require a high degree of technical dexterity. In pure watercolor painting, all the light comes from the ground. Paper is the most commonly used ground. Other ground: parchment, ivory, silk, and cambric.
  15. 15.  A medium familiar to every school child. Gouache: opaque water color  Made by grinding opaque colors with water and mixing the product with a preparation of gum and adding Chinese white to transparent watercolors.  It differs from the brilliant quality of translucent water color painting whose major effects are caused by the white paper.
  16. 16. Pastel The most recent medium. Possesses only surfaces of light, gives no glazed effect, and most closely resembles dry pigment. Pigment is bound so as to form a crayon which is applied directly to the surface, usually, paper. As support for pastel painting paper, pasteboard or canvas is used.
  17. 17.  As far as the technique is concerned, the painter is free to handle the material to suit himself. It is a very flexible medium. Varied effects may be produced. Not a very popular medium because no one has yet to discovered the way to preserve its original freshness. The chalk tends to rub off and the picture loses its brilliance.
  18. 18. Fresco The most popular type of painting. Colors are mixed with water and applied to fresh plaster which absorbs the color. Since the pigment has been incorporated with the plaster, it lasts until the wall is destroyed. Flourished during the 15th and 16th century. Fresco means “fresh.”
  19. 19.  The process begins with preliminary sketches, later enlarged to full-size cartoons which are transferred to rough plaster. The coloring must be ready as soon as the plaster is put on the wall. It is prepared by mixing a pigment with water or with water and lime. When this is applied to the wet plaster, the lime binds the pigment to the plaster and makes the painting part of the wall.
  20. 20.  Since fresco must be done quickly, it is a very exacting method. There is no changing once the design is begun. Only earth pigments are used because of the chemical action of the plaster on the paint. These colors have uniformity of tone and no glaring contrasts.
  21. 21.  Disadvantages:  Almost impossible to move a fresco  Painting is subject to disasters that may happen to the wall of which it has become a part.
  22. 22. Acrylic The newest medium and one that is used widely by painters today. Synthetic paints using acrylic emulsions as binder. Combine transparency and quick- drying qualities of watercolor and are as flexible as oil. They are completely insoluble when dry and can be used almost on any surface. They do not tend to crack, and tun yellow with age.
  23. 23. SCULPTURE In choosing a subject for the sculpture, the most important thing to consider is the material. Substances available for sculpture are limitless. Different materials require different methods of handling.
  24. 24.  Soft medium: will lend itself to a modelling technique that uses squeezing and shaping and continuously adding itself to it as the work goes on.  Allows for the expansion of gesture. Hard medium: requires the process of cutting and taking away from the block.  Confined to the limits of the piece of wood or stone.
  25. 25. Two Major Sculpture Processes Subtractive process:  Unwanted material is cut away  Carving of stone and wood Additive process:  Example: Construction of figure by putting together bits of clay, or by welding together parts of metal.  Final result if putting together smaller segments of the material.
  26. 26. Two types of Sculpture Relief: figures which are attached to the ground
  27. 27.  Free standing: can be seen from all sides
  28. 28. Stone and Bronze Stone:  durable, resistant to the elements, fire, and other hazards  Heavy and breaks easily  Marble- Favorite material in Greece and Italy; high gloss when polished
  29. 29.  Metals:  Most commonly used is bronze  May be solid in small statues  Hallowed in most large statues (heavy and expensive)  Tendency to crack when cooled  Disadvantages: difficulty and intricacy in casting bronze  Rich color and texture: most beautiful media  Light and can support itself in many positions  Other metals: forged iron, welded steel, and duraluminum
  30. 30. Wood Advantage: cheap, readily available, and easy to cut Polishes well and has a smooth shiny surface and beautiful color. Relatively light and can be easily made into a variety of shapes. Popular in Paete, Pkil in Laguna and Betis, Pampanga, Drawback: limited in size, burn easily, discolor and decay easily
  31. 31. Ivory Intrinsic value of the material. Lends itself to technical mastery. Lacks the vigor of wooden statues Like wood, it also cracks Seldom used today.
  32. 32. Terra Cotta Plastic clay Yields to even the slightest pressure and can be worked and re-worked until the artist has achieved what he wants to do. Unfired clay is a fragile material and sculpture in this medium would have a short life. For a more durable work in clay, the sculptor can fire the original in a kiln.
  33. 33.  Result is terra cotta which means “cooked earth” Moderately coarse clay product fired at comparatively low temperature. Usually painted and coated with heavy glaze. Breaks and chips easily. Not a strong material and it cannot stand strain or weight. Beautiful and versatile medium.
  34. 34. Other Materials Aluminum Chromium Steel Plastic  Less expensive  Less fragile  light Chemically treated clay Stone for casting in liquid form
  35. 35. Architecture Art of designing and constructing building. Functional definition: to fulfil a need that leads to its creation. Materials used and the methods of assembling them are among the factors contributing to architectural style. Materials: stone, wood, brick, concrete, glass.
  36. 36.  Wood:  Common building material  Advantages: abundance, relative durability, and high tensile and compressions strength  Disadvantages: Easily destroyed by moisture, insects, and fire  Plywood: improved the structural possibilities of wood; stronger than any known material.
  37. 37.  Stone:  Material used when permanence is desired  Concrete:  made of sand and gravel mixed with cement  high compressive strength  doesn’t crumble or break down when subjected to heavy weight  Does not corrode and is fire resistant  Stronger: ferro-concrete or reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel)
  38. 38.  Steel:  Tough alloy of iron in variable amounts  Malleable under proper conditions and greatly hardened by sudden cooling  Tensile strength  Made possible the building of the high-rise structures which are very popular this days.
  39. 39. Types of Construction Post-and-lintel:  Consists of two vertical posts for support (post) and horizontal one (lintel).  Generally used for wooden buildings.
  40. 40.  Arch  Dominant in Roman architecture  Architectural forms built from pieces of wood called voussoirs with joints between them and are arranged in semi-circle.  All materials are in compression  Typical for stone construction: can stand great pressure  Dome is an extension of the arch  Roof resembling an inverted cup or hemisphere, formed by round arches or vaults rising from a round or many-sided base.
  41. 41.  Cantilever  Any structural part projecting horizontally and anchored at one end only.  Needs a beam with tensile strength, and does not crack or break easily  Largely utilized in buildings with steel as medium  Wood is also used but is limited since it has a tendency to warp, sag or rot.  Used in construction of skyscrapers which depends for support upon a steel skeleton.