Concept of Management Prepared by: ERIC F. PAZZIUAGAN, RN, MAN
A process by which a cooperative group directs actions towards common goals. It involves techniques by which a distinguished group of people coordinates the services of people. It includes moral and ethical standards in the selection of right ends toward which the managers should strive. Definition of Management
Three- fold Concept (Harbizon and Myers): Economic resource: management is one of the factors of production, together with land, labor and capital. System of authority: management first develops with top individuals determining the course of action for the rank and file. Class and status sytem: Managers have become an elite group of brains and education.
ROLE OF MANAGERS (Mintsberg) Interpersonal role: A symbol because of the position he/ she occupies (duties such as signing of papers/ documents) A leader (hires, trains, encourages, fires, remunerates, and judges) Liaison (between and outside contacts such as the community, suppliers, and the organization).
Informational role One who monitors information. Disseminates information from both external and internal resources. Spokesperson or representative of the organization.
Decision role Entrepreneur or innovator, problem discoverer, a designer to improve projects that direct and control the organization. Trouble- shooter who handles unexpected situations such as resignation of subordinates, and loss of clients Negotiator when conflicts arise
Necessary Skills of a Manager (Katz) Technical skills Proficiency in performing an activity in the correct manner with the right technique. Human relationship skills Dealing with people and how to “get along” with them Conceptual skills Ability to see individual matters as they relate to the total picture and to develop creative pertinent factors, responding to the big problems, and discarding irrelevant facts.
Knowledge, attitude and ability factors (Summer) Knowledge factors: ideas, concepts or principles that can be expressed and are accepted because they have logical proofs. Attitude factors: beliefs, feelings, and values that may be based on emotions and may not be subjected to conscious verbalization. Interest in one’s work Confidence in one’s mental competence Desire to accept responsibility Respect for the dignity of one’s associates Desire to accept responsibility Respect for the dignity of one’s associates Desire for creative contribution Ability factors: skill, art, judgment, and wisdom
In the Philippines: Chief Nurses/ Nursing Service Directors (at least 100 bed): Master’s Degree in Nursing with a major in nursing administration Supervising Nurses: at least 9 units of graduate studies in nursing Managerial staff development programs for the staff who have the potential to become administrators
Planning: Forecast estimate future Set objectives; determine results desired Develop and schedule programs; define activities needed and set time frame Prepare budget; allocate resources Establish policies, procedures, definite course of actions and methods
Organizing: Set- up organizational structure; identify groupings, roles and relationships Determine staff needed, develop and maintain staffing patterns; distribute in areas needed. Develop job descriptions; define qualifications and functions of personnel
Directing: Delegate nursing care assignments Utilize/ revise/ update policies and procedures Supervise, harmonize goals thru guidance Coordinate, unite personnel and services Communicate, ensure common understanding via various routes Develop people; provide staff development programs Decide/ make judgment
Controlling: Performance appraisal; assess, interpret, correct, apply discipline Monitor and evaluate nursing care/ services; utilize various methods Specify criteria and standards; utilize performance standards
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT:
Administrators: Form the highest level of hierarchy in the institution which is the policy making body. Formulates the vision, mission, philosophy and objectives of the agency Use the framework of management at a higher level and call this the administrative process. Together with their middle managers, allocate the human and material resources of their particular departments.
Reviews critical problems that require immediate attention through the manager’s reports. Get input from clinical managers to determine necessary improvements in delivering patient care services (e.g., staff development programs, patient education, discharge planning, staff education programs, and staffing). Make selective rounds to get first- hand information by observing clinical practice, work environment, personal relationships, and patient’s reactions to the care they receive.
Managers: Oversee the clinical practice in their respective areas. Solve problems at the level where these occur and inform higher management of results and outcomes.