The kinds of text


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The kinds of text

  1. 1. Subject English Created By:Nurul Wulandari XI Science II
  2. 2. 1. PROCEDURESocial function Procedure: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set ofinstructions or directions.Text organization:1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)Language features : • Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..) • Use of action verbs (turn, put) • Use of connectives(first, then, finally)Example: Make the MeatballsIngredients : • 1 kilo of very fine minced meat (preferably beef) • 2 eggs • 300 grams of tapioca-flour • 4-8 cloves of garlic • 1 red onion • 1 teaspoon of white pepper • 2 teaspoons of saltSteps : • First of all,mix garlic, red onion, salt, and white pepper in a mortar or mixer. • Second step, mix the spice-mixture with the eggs, the tapioca-flour and the minced meat. • After that, use your fingers, add a cup of water, and keep on working until the mixture feels soft and smooth. • Then, boil some water in a rather large pot, at least about 2 liters. • Next step, start rolling the mixture into small meatballs. • Finally, lower the meatballs into the boiling water. When they float up to the surface the meatball are ready to serve.
  3. 3. 2. RECOUNTSocial function recount: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence ofevents.Generic Structure of Recount: 1. Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened) 2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order) 3. Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)Language features Recount: • Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she) • Use of action verbs in past (went, studied) • Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo) • Use of adverbial phrases • Use of adjectivesExample: Vacation to London Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. They are Mr. and Mrs. Richard with two sons.They went to London. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to theBritish Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They had booked fourteen days tour. Thisincludes travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London. They boarded a large Boeing flight. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. On theplane the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them news paper and magazine to read.They gave them food and drink. There was a film for their entertainment. They had a verypleasant flight. They slept part of the way. On arrival at Heathrow Airport, they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Theofficers were pleasant. They checked the document carefully but their manners were verypolite. Mr. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk.They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. The room had perfect view of the park.The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Instead of keys for the room, they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the third floor, there was a restaurant serving Asian and Europeanfood. They had variety of food. The two week in London went by fast. At the end of the 14-day, they were quite tiredbut they felt very happy.
  4. 4. 3. NARRATIVESocial function narrative: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginaryexperience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to theclimax and then turn into a solution to the problem.Generic Structure Narrative: 1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened) 2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems) 3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)Language features Narrative: • Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple) • Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago) • Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village) • Use of action verbs ( walked, slept) • Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)Example: The Old Woman and The SparrowOnce upon a time, there lived a kind hearted man and his wife. One morning, his wife founda poor little sparrow. She took it gently and fed it. To show its gratitude, the sparrow stayedwith them and sang every morning. But there was an ill-tempered old woman who didnt likethe sparrow. She cut the sparrows tongue. Thats why the bird flew away to its previous nest.Knowing that their sparrow flew away, the kind man and his wife looked for the sparrow.They walked a long way, crossed the bridges, climbed the mountains and passed the woods.At last, they could find the sparrows nest. The sparrow welcomed them and provided a feastfor them. Before they went home, the sparrow brought two baskets; one was large and lookedheavy, and the other one was small and light. The sparrow asked them to choose only one.They chose the small and that was the best choice. There were many rolls of silk and piles ofgold in it.Being jealous, the ill-tempered old woman did the same thing as the kind man and his wifedid. She chose the big basket which actually contained wasps and venomous crawlers, suchas scorpions, centipedes, and other horrible creatures. Finally, aaathey stung and bit her todeath.
  5. 5. 4. DESCRIPTIONSocial Function descriptive: To describe a particular person, place or thing.Generic Structure descriptive: 1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described) 2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)Language features descriptive: • Focus on specific participants • Use of attributive and identifying processes • Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups. • Use of the Simple Present TenseExample: Jatim ParkFor people in East Java, Jatim Park may have been heard many times as it is one of thefamous tourism object in East Java province. Jatim Park offers a recreation place as well as astudy center.Jatim Park is located at Jl. Kartika 2 Batu, East Java. To reach the location is not too difficultbecause the object is only 2, 5 kilos meters from Batu city. This Jatim Park tourism object isabout 22 hectares width.Visitor can enjoy at least 36 kinds of facilities which can attract them as well as give newknowledge. Just after the pass gate, the visitors will find an interesting view of ‘GaleriNusantara’ area. This study offering continues to step on ‘Taman Sejarah’ area, whichcontains of miniature temple in East Java like Sumberawan temple, customhouse of KiaiHasan Besari Ponorogo and Sumberawan Statue.The other facility which is able to be enjoyed is ‘Agro Park’ area. It presents crop andrareness fruits, animal diorama which consists of unique animals that have been conserved,and supporting games like bowling, throw ball, scooter disco, etcJatim Park is suitable for family and school recreation. The recreation area sites offerprecious tour and can used as alternative media of study.
  6. 6. 5. NEWS ITEMSocial function news item: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which areconsidered newsworthy or important.Generic structure news item: 1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form) 2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident) 3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)Language features news item: • Information on the use of head lines. • Use of action verbs( hit, attack) • Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed) • Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004) • Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)Example: Town ContaminatedNewsworthy events:Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclearcatastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.Background Events:Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion ofa nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactivefall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union.Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refithad been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean upoperation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.SourceSources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history ofthe Soviet Navy.
  7. 7. 6. REPORTSocial function report: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing,animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.Text organization report: 1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.) 2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).Language features report: • Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer) • Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg) • Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun) • Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen) • Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)Example: PLANTPlants are living beings. They need food, water and air for survival. (General Classification)Plants derive their food from the earth and the air. If you look at their roots, you will find thatends of these roots are like fine fibers. We call them root-hairs. They absorb water andminerals, then transport them upwards to the leaves through the trunk and the branches. It isthe leaves which prepare the food. (Description)The green material, chlorophyll, prepares the food like a machine. It converts the carbondioxide taken from the air and water from the ground into sugar with the help of sunlight.This chemical reaction is called photosynthes. In fact, the chlorophyll takes energy from thesunlight and uses it to synthesize the hydrogen from water and carbon from carbon dioxidefor making sugar. This reaction also gives out oxygen and water which are excreted by theleaves. (Description)
  8. 8. 7. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONSocial function analytical exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners thatsomething in the case, to analyze or to explain.Generic Structure analytical exposition: 1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position) 2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence) 3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented)Language features analytical exposition: • Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried. • Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably • Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore. • Usually present tense • Compound and complex sentencesExample: Corruption and Indonesian CultureThesis:Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia forthree reasonsArgument 1:Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen inmany places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reportedcorruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country.Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to getsome documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay.Manipulations happen everywhereArgument 2:The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come toan end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commitcorruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges,public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called MahkamahAgung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have
  9. 9. to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of briberyand other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture.Do you like it?Argument 3:The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations inwhich people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rulesbecause they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ridemotorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they arecaught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. Theofficer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doingcorruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, andwilling to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corruptingcountry in the world.Reiteration/ conclusion:Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culturein Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severepenalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country?
  10. 10. 8. SPOOFSocial function spoof: To tell an event with a humorous twist.Generic structure spoof text: 1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened) 2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order) 3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)Language features spoof: • Use of connectives (first, then, finally) • Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago) • Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)Example: Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. He went to the party bywearing old clothes. When he arrived in the party, nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Hegot no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes. Next he put on his best clothes. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again.The host at once got up and came to meet him. The host offered him the best table and gavehim a good seat and served him the best food. Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. He put his coat and said; “Eat the food, Coat!” thehosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin; “What are doing?” Nasreddinreplied calmly; “When I came here with my old clothes, nobody looked at me. Then I wenthome and put on my best clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me thisbest food and drink. So, you give food to my coat instead of me”. Getting Nasreddinsanswer, they just shook the head.