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  • 1. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION General Objective C3001 / UNIT 2 / 1 : To understand a systematic introduction to fire behavior, prevention and control Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to: • identify the causes of fire. • describe the types of fire prevention equipment and the system. • understand the fire prevention rules. • identify fire prevention symbols in building plans.
  • 2. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 2.0 INTRODUCTION What is a fire ? C3001 / UNIT 2 / 2 Fire are the largest accidental killer in Malaysia, behind motor vehicle accidents, falls, and drowning. It is also a disaster that families are mostly likely to experience. Over 80 percent of all fire deaths occur where people sleep, such as in homes or hotels. Most fires occur when people are likely to be less alert such as in homes or hotels and as between midnight and morning. 84 percent of house and building fires are accidental, such as those caused by poor electrical wiring or negligence. However, 16 percent are set intentionally through arson or acts of terrorism.
  • 3. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 3 DID YOU KNOW? Fires in buildings are nearly always man – made, resulting from error or negligence. Primitive man used heat for cooking, warming and lighting his dwelling with the inherent risk that misuse or accident in his control of fuel might precipitate disaster. Today as in primitive society, that risk has not been eliminated despite the apparent sophistication of modern living. With the development of habitation, attitudes to fire protection or fire precautions also developed, sometimes subtly, but mostly from bitter experience. The principal aims of fire precautions are simply to safeguard life and property. A fire extinguisher is a portable device used to put out fires of limited size. Such fires are grouped into four classes, according to the type of materials that is burning. Yes….I understand now, this unit will explore the causes for the spreading of fire…I should make a list of all I have to read today.
  • 4. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 4 WHAT CAUSES A FIRE? Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur. FUEL – Fuel can be any combustible material – solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they burn. OXYGEN – The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen HEAT- Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. CHEMICAL REACTION – A chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in proper conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this rapid oxidation or burning takes place. Take any one these factors away, and a fire will not occur or will be extinguished if it was already burning.
  • 5. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 2.1 C3001 / UNIT 2 / 5 Preventing The Causes For The Spreading Of Fire a) Conduction This is a process in which thermal energy can transfer through a solid or liquid that is under the influence of a thermal stress or gradient. In most building materials it is a molecular process by which the thermal energy can travel like a sound wave along a solid. However, in the metallic material this energy transfer is caused by electron movement within the solid material. In building materials there are up to three distinct modes of energy transfer possible, these being: i- Thermal conduction by atomic and molecular vibration • The ease at which thermal energy can be transferred down a rod or other structure depends on the type of bonding between the molecules. • The materials that have a rigidly-bound structure pass more energy than those with a weakly – bound structure. • This is due to the fact that the frequency of vibration for rigidly molecules is high, thus the rate at which the energy is transferred is also high. The energy is transmitted down the road by very-highfrequency elastic waves.
  • 6. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION • C3001 / UNIT 2 / 6 These waves can be compared to sound waves, but have much higher wave frequencies. • The quantum of energy associated with such wave motion is called the phonon, which is passed from molecule in turn all the way down the length of the rod. • In an insulation-type material, the conduction process is dominated by these waves and their phonon-lattice framework collision processes. • So, if the interaction between phonons increases, as it must do with an increase in temperature, this will cause the thermal conductivity. • Most masonry materials are polycrystalline, that is they consist of more than one crystal type, and since the phonons are scattered by crystal boundaries and by porosity it is not surprising that such materials have a lower phonon-conductivity than the single-crystal type. • The situation of an amorphous type material, such as glass, is one in which the phonon-scattering process dominates thus making the conductivity of an amorphous material independent of temperature for practical purposes. ii- Thermal conduction due to radiation • Radiation passes through solids and undergoes scattering at structure imperfections, crystal boundaries and at pores. In a highly porous
  • 7. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION • C3001 / UNIT 2 / 7 material this type of conductivity can be shown to be proportional and become quite significant at temperatures above 500 • C. However, in opaque-type materials this type of conductivity only starts to become important at 1000 iii-   C or above. Thermal conduction due to mass transfer ( gaseous conduction ) • In this case a gas, such as air, which fills the pores within the material, can add to the ability of the material to pass heat energy through the material under a thermal gradient or by a buoyancy effect.
  • 8. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 8 Figure 2.1 : Thermal conduction routes within a building structure b) Radiation This physical process unlike conduction or convection does not require a mechanical medium to enable energy to be transferred from a hot radiant surface to a combustible material. Radiation, which may be in the ultra-violet, visible or heat radiation (infra-red) range, is an electromagnetic wave. Figure 2.2 : Sketch of rectangular radiations surface for work
  • 9. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION c) C3001 / UNIT 2 / 9 Convection The convection process plays a very important role in the spreading of fire throughout a building since approximately 76 – 80 per cent of energy released from a fire is by this process. In simple terms when a heat source is introduced to a fluid as shown in figure 2.3 and 2.4. Layer of gas close to ceiling Figure 2.3 : Hot layer of gas forming at ceiling level Layer of hot gas Figure 2.4 : Radiation feedback from hot gas layer at ceiling to combustible materials below
  • 10. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 10 Questions 1. How does a fire start? 2. List the causes for the spreading of fire? 3. What process? is a conduction
  • 11. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Answer 1. Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur. • • • Fuel - fuel can be any combustible material, example solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they burn. Oxygen – The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. Heat – heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. C3001 / UNIT 2 / 11
  • 12. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 12 Answers The causes are • conduction • radiation • convection 3. Conduction is a process in which thermal energy can transfer through a solid or liquid that is under the influence of a thermal stress or gradient. In most building materials it is a molecular process by which the thermal energy travels like a sound wave along a solid. However, in the metallic material energy transfer is caused by electron movement within the solid material
  • 13. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 2.2 C3001 / UNIT 2 / 13 Type Of Fire Prevention Equipment And The System HOW ARE FIRES CLASSIFIED? Fires are caused by the different materials, and thus classified into 4 categories: CLASS A Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics
  • 14. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 14 CLASS B Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane . CLASS C Energized electrical equipment, such as appliance, switches, panel boxes and power tools CLASS D Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care.
  • 15. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 15 HOW ARE FIRES PREVENTED? Class A – Ordinary combustibles: Keep storage and working areas free of trash. Place oily rags in covered containers. Class B – Flammable liquids or gases: Don’t refuel gasoline-powered equipment in a confined space, especially in the presence of an open flame such as a furnace or water heater. Don’t refuel gasoline-powered equipment while it’s hot. Keep flammable liquids stored in tightly closed, self-closing, spill-proof containers. Pour from storage drums only what you’ll need. Store flammable liquids away from spark-producing sources Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas.
  • 16. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 16 Class C – Electrical equipment Look for old wiring, worn insulation and broken electrical fittings. Report any hazardous conditions to your supervisor. Prevent motors from overheating by keeping them clean an in good working order. A spark from a rough-running motor can ignite the oil and dust in it. Utility light should always have some type of wire guard over them. Heat from an uncovered light bulb can easily ignite ordinary combustibles. Don’t misuse fuses. Never install a fuse rated higher than specified for the circuit. Investigate any appliance or electrical equipment that smells strange. Unusual odors can be the first sign of fire. Don’t overload wall outlets. Two outlets should have no more than 2 plugs. Class D-Flammable metals: Flammable metals such as magnesium and titanium generally take a very hot heat source to ignite. However, once ignited they are difficult to extinguish as the burning reaction produces sufficient oxygen to support combustion, even under water.
  • 17. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 17 In some cases, covering the burning metals with sand can help contain the heat and sparks from the reaction. Class D extinguishing agents are available (generally as dry powder in a bucket or box) which can be quite effective, but these agents are rare on the campus. If you are planning a research project using a large amount of flammable metals you should consider purchasing a five or ten pound container of Class-D extinguishing agent as a precaution. Pure metals such as potassium and sodium react violently (even explosively) with water and some other chemicals, and must be handled with care. Generally these metals are stored in sealed containers in non-reactive liquid to prevent decay (surface oxidation) from contact with moisture in the air. White phosphorus is air-reactive and will burn / explode on contact with room air. It must be kept in a sealed container with a non-reactive solution to prevent contact with air. All of these metals are not uncommon in labs on the OU campus, but are generally only found in small quantities. An accidental fire / chemical leading to a fire reaction can be controlled or avoided completely through knowledge of the properties of the metals and using good judgment and common sense. HOW TO EXTINGUISH SMALL FIRES ?
  • 18. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Class A - Extinguish ordinary combustibles by cooling the material, below its ignition temperature and soaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition. Use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose (ABC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers. DO NOT USE carbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical extinguishers on class A fires. Class B - Extinguish flammable liquids, greases or gases by removing the oxygen, preventing the vapors from reaching the ignition source or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction. Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, and halon extinguishers may be used to fight Class B fires. C3001 / UNIT 2 / 18
  • 19. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Class C - Extinguish energized electrical equipment by using an extinguishing agent that is not capable of conducting electrical currents. Carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical and halon* fire extinguishers may be used to fight Class C fires. DO NOT USE water extinguishers on energized electrical equipment. * Even though baton is widely used, EPA legislation is phasing it out of use in favor of agents less harmful to the environment. Class D - Extinguish combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium with dry powder extinguishing agents specially designated for the material involved. In most cases, they absorb the heat from the material, cooling it below its ignition temperature. NOTE: Multipurpose (ABC-rated) C3001 / UNIT 2 / 19
  • 20. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 20 Chemical extinguishers leave a residue that can harm sensitive equipment, such as computers and other electronic equipment. Because of this, carbon dioxide or halon extinguishers are preferred in these instances because they leave very little residue. ABC dry powder residue is mildly corrosive to many metals. For example, residue left over from the use of an ABC dry powder extinguisher in the same room with a piano can seriously corrode piano wires. Carbon dioxide or halon extinguishers are provided for most labs and computer areas on campus. HOW TO USE A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER? Remember the acronym, "P.A.S.S."— P ......Pull the Pin. A …...Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flames. S …Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright. S ......Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the area of the fire with the extinguishing agent. REMEMBER……….
  • 21. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION • Should your path of escape be threatened • Should the extinguisher run out of agent • Should the extinguisher prove to be ineffective • C3001 / UNIT 2 / 21 Should you no longer be able to safely fight the fire THEN LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY! HOW DO YOU CHECK YOUR FIRE EXTINGUISHERS? 1. Know the locations of the fire extinguishers in your work area. 2. Make sure the class of the extinguisher is safe to use on fires likely to occur in the immediate area. 3. Check the plastic seal holding the pin in the extinguisher handle. Has the extinguisher been tampered with or used before? Report any broken/missing seals/pins to the Fire Safety Unit. 4. Look at the gauge and feel the weight. Make sure the extinguisher is full.
  • 22. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 22 Water, some foam, and dry chemical extinguishers have gauges indicating the pressure inside the extinguisher. The pressure needle should be in the "green" area (generally100-175 Ibs, depending on the type of agent). CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are high pressure cylinders with pressures ranging from 1500 lb to 2150 Ib. These extinguishers DO NOT have gauges and must be weighed by fire Safety Unit staff to determine the amount of contents remaining. NOTE :Ib and Ibs = pounds 5. Make sure the pin, nozzle and nameplate are intact. 6. Report any missing, empty or damaged fire extinguishers to the Fire Safety Unit whenever you notice any discrepancies. 2.2.1 Description Of Fire Extinguishers: How Do They Look Like? Generally, you can tell at a glance which type an extinguisher is hanging on the wall, or in the cabinet, just by looking at its shape. Check the labels of the extinguishers in your area and note the color and shape/size of the extinguisher. This may help if someone runs in to help you fight a fire with the WRONG extinguisher (i.e. water on an electrical fire) - you can STOP them before they are injured or make matters worse! ABC-rated multipurpose dry powder extinguishers are the most common on campus, particularly in the corridors of academic buildings. They are almost always RED in color and have either a long narrow hose or no hose (just a short nozzle). These extinguishers are very light (5-25 Ibs total weight).Halon extinguishers look virtually identical to ABC multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers.
  • 23. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 23 Water extinguishers are generally only found in the dormitories and are usually SILVER (crome-metal) in color, have a flat bottom, have a long narrow hose, are quite large (2-1/2 gallons). Foam extinguishers (rare on the OU campus, nowadays) look similar and the type without gauges have a handle inset in the flat bottom (you turn the extinguisher upside down to start and use it) C02 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are generally red (often yellow around aircraft or on military sites), have a LARGE "tapered" nozzle (horn), are VERY HEAVY (15-85 Ibs.)Some CO2 extinguishers for aircraft hangers or special industrial use are so large as to require roll-around carts to move them. These are all high-pressure cylinders. Care should be taken not to drop a CO2 cylinder; if it is damaged it may be able to make a hole through the nearest wall(s) and end up on the other side of campus! (The containers are quite sturdy, but don't abuse them.) 002 cylinders do not have a pressure gauge – they must be weighed to determine the amount of contents
  • 24. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 24 WHERE can I find a fire extinguisher on campus? • In the corridors of academic and office buildings, and inside very large rooms • In or immediately outside all laboratories where chemicals are stored and used • In or immediately outside mechanical spaces where motorized or other equipment is present which might reasonably cause a fire • In campus airpark hangers, storage buildings, and mounted inside certain university vehicles Questions State whether the following statement are TRUE or FALSE 1. Do not use carbon dioxide or ordinary dry chemical extinguishers on class A fires. 2. Class A fires are fueled by ordinary combustible or fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth and some plastics. 3. Class D fires can be extinguished with water.
  • 25. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 25
  • 26. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Answers 1. True 2. True 3. False C3001 / UNIT 2 / 26
  • 27. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 2.3 C3001 / UNIT 2 / 27 Fire prevention rules People protect themselves from the dangers of fires in several ways. Fire extinguishers in homes enable people to put out fires before they become dangerous, while smoke detectors alert residents that a fire has broken out in the early stages. Hundreds of Malaysians die in home and building fires each year, but most of these deaths could be avoided. Make sure your family knows simple fire-prevention rules and what to do if a fire does strike. Most fire victims die from inhaling smoke and poisonous gases, not from burns. If you know how to recognize danger signs and how to act appropriately, you will increase your chances of getting safely out of a burning building. 2.3.1 Fire – Safety Procedure Have a plan set in advance. All rooms in your house should have two means of escape. Draw a picture showing the escape routes for every room and explain it to everyone. Upper floor windows should have hook-on fire escape ladders or rope ladders. Assign one older person to be responsible for each child. Plan on a meeting place outside.
  • 28. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 28 Have practice fire drills every three months, especially if there are small children or disabled persons in your home. Some of your drills should take place at night. All members of the family should know how to call 911 to give the house address and tell the person on duty that there is a fire. 2.3.2 Warning From The Smoke Detector Alarms Act immediately but try to stay calm. Wake up anyone who may still be asleep, and shout, "Fire! Everyone out!" Don't waste time getting dressed or searching for valuables. Once outside the house, do not go back in. Sleep with bedroom doors closed. Doors offer protection from heat and smoke and slow a fire's progress. If in your escape you must go from room to room, close each door behind you. Feel every door before opening it. Place the back of your hand on the crack between the door and the door frame; if it's hot, do not open the door. Even if the door is cool, open it cautiously. Stay low in case smoke or toxic fumes are seeping around the door. If heat and smoke come in, slam the door tightly and use alternative exits. If you use a window for your escape, be sure the door in the room is closed tightly. Otherwise, the draft from the open window may draw smoke and fire into the room. If you must go through smoke, crawl under it on your hands and knees. However, do not crawl on your belly, because some heavier toxic gases settle in a thin layer on the floor. If you are unable to escape from a room because of a fire on the other side of the door,
  • 29. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 29 stuff clothing, towels, or newspapers in the door's cracks to keep smoke out of your refuge. Remember "STOP, DROP, ROLL" if your clothing catches fire. The moment it happens, stop where you are. Drop to the ground, and cover your mouth and face with your hands to protect them from the flames. Then roll over and over to smother the flames. 2.3.3 High Rise Apartments If you live in a high rise apartment there are a few added things you should know in case there is a fire in your building: Learn your building's evacuation plans. Know the location of fire alarms, and learn how to use them. Post emergency fire department numbers near all telephones. If you hear instructions on your building's public-address system, listen carefully and do just as you're told. Never take an elevator when leaving a burning building. Instead, go directly to the nearest fire- and smoke-free stairway. If you cannot get to a fire stairway, go to a room with an outside window. If there is a working phone, call the fire department emergency number and tell the dispatcher where you are. Do this even if you can see fire trucks on the street below.
  • 30. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 30 Stay where rescuers can see you through the window, and wave a light-colored cloth such as a hand towel to attract their attention. If possible, open the window at the top and bottom. Be ready to shut the window quickly if smoke rushes in. You may need to be patient; the rescue of occupants of a high-rise building can take several hours. DO YOU BUILDING KNOW WHAT REGULATIONS ARE? 2.3.4 Building Regulations The current set of building regulations have their origin in Post-War Building Studies and the objectives, although never expressly stated, have experienced a subtle change of emphasis in order to remain relevant to a modern social and industrial infrastructure. In this chapter it is intended to discuss the philosophy of the current prescriptive building regulations.
  • 31. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 31 Building regulations assume that if certain components of fire safety can be identified and suitable standards applied to particular building types, a satisfactory level of fire safety will be achieved. There is no evidence to support this assumption. Indeed, some would argue that the available evidence points in the opposite direction. Generally the structure of building regulations follow the pattern developed below: 1. Classify buildings by type 2. Compartment buildings 3. Prescribe fire resistance requirements for elements of structure 4. Limit unprotected areas of external walls 5. Prescribe constructional requirement for separating walls, compartment walls and floors. 6. Prescribe constructional requirements for protected shafts 7. Specify the type and constructional requirements for fire-resisting doors 8. Control the penetration of fire barriers by services 9. Specify non-combustibility requirements for stairways in prescribed situations 10. Describe requirements for cavity barriers and fire stops 11. Control spread of flame over walls and ceilings 12. Control the use of plastics on ceilings 13. Relate the sitting of buildings to roof constructional requirements.
  • 32. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 32 2.4 Fire Prevention Symbols In Building Plan
  • 33. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 33 SOURCE: BUILDING AND FIRE T.JSHIELD & G.W.H.SILCOCK LONGMAN SCIENTIFIC & TECNICAL
  • 34. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 34 Questions 1. What would you do if someone is on fire? 2. What would you do if you are trapped in a building which is on fire?
  • 35. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Answer 1. In situation when a person is on fire : STOP - where you are DROP - to the floor ROLL - around on the floor C3001 / UNIT 2 / 35
  • 36. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 2. These are the steps that you need to follow: • Act immediately but try to stay calm • If you use a window for your escape, be sure the door in the room is closed tightly. • If in a dorm room, use wet towels to seal the space under the door and prevent the entry of smoke. Write the best answer for each of the following questions: C3001 / UNIT 2 / 36
  • 37. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION C3001 / UNIT 2 / 37 1. How do you use a portable fire extinguisher? 2. How are fires classified? 3. How are fire extinguishers classified? Mistake shows us what we need to learn
  • 38. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 1. C3001 / UNIT 2 / 38 Remember the acronym “ P. A .S . S ” P………..Pull the pin A……….Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flames S………..Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright S………..Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the area of the fire with the extinguisher agent 2. The 4 classes of fires are : • Class A – caused by ordinary combustible liquid such as gasoline, kerosene, paint thinners and propane. • Class B – caused by flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint thinners and propane. • Class C – caused by energized electrical equipment, such as appliance, switches, panel boxes and power tools. • Class D – caused by certain combustible metal, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These metal burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. • They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care.
  • 39. FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION 3. C3001 / UNIT 2 / 39 Fire extinguishers are classified by the size and class of the fire; they are designed to extinguish fires. Different extinguishing agents are used for different classes of fire. Pass" and "fail" are the old ways of explaining how much you know. The new ways are, "knowledge and "ignorance".