Lesson 1.5

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Lesson 1.5

  1. 1. Lesson 1.5 Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan Prepared by:NUR SUHAIDAH SUKORSMK SANDAKAN, SABAH
  2. 2. Pengenalan Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan • Manusia dijangkiti penyakit akibat mikroorganisma dan patogen. • 3 peringkat pertahanan mekanisme badan: a) kulit dan membran mukus. b) pagotsit sel darah putih c) antibodi
  3. 3. First line of defence: Mechanical Barriers• Kulit dan membran mukus: – Sistem pertahanan pertama – Halangan fizikal – Mengupas sel mati – Mukus – Rambut – Cilia – Batuk, bersin, penghasilan air mata, air liur, urin, muntah adalah bertujuan untuk membuang bahan berbahaya.
  4. 4. Sistem Pertahanan Kedua: Sel Darah Putih Pagosit• Pagosit – Menelan patogen, tisu rosak,dan sel mati • Neutrofil • Makrofaj Video: CD (1) BioF5 – Lesson 10 – Frame 6 (Phagocytosis Process)
  5. 5. Proses Pagositosis
  6. 6. Sistem Pertahanan Badan Ketiga: Antibodi • 2 ciri sistem keimunan: – ciri spesifik – mempunyai memori
  7. 7. Kepelbagaian Jenis Imuniti Aktif = individu membuat antibodi sendiri Pasif = individu menerima antibodi daripada orang lain. Semulajadi = “terhasil sendiri” Buatan = berpunca daripada individu (suntikan jarum)
  8. 8. • Imuniti Aktif semulajadi:Kepelbagaian Jenis Imuniti individu sembuh daripada sakit (cacar) • Imuniti Aktif Buatan: imuniti daripada vaksin (patogen tidak berbahaya) – rubella,poliomyelitis • Imuniti Pasif Semulajadi: Bayi menerima antibodi daripada susu ibu - colostrum • Imuniti Pasif Buatan: Individu menerim serum mengandungi antibodi –hepatitis, tetanus
  9. 9. • Natural active acquired immunity: person recovered from diseasesPelbagai Jenis Keimunan • Artificial active acquired immunity: person is immunized with a vaccine (harmless pathogens) –rubella, poliomyelitis •Natural passive acquired immunity: Baby receives antibodies with mother’s milk - colostrum • Artificial passive acquired immunity: Person receives serum with antibodies –hepatitis, tetanus
  10. 10. Mekanisma Pertahanan Badan
  11. 11. HIV/AIDSHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)Attacks helper T cellsWithout production of IL-2, there is nosecond signal, and humoral and cellmediated immunity are shut off.See increase in rare diseases:TB, Kaposi sarcoma, etc.
  12. 12. “The immune system goned.” Hipersensitif
  13. 13. The transmission of HIV• HIV disebarkan menerusi cecair badan - darah, simen, cecair vagina, dan susu ibu.4 cara HIV disebarkan: a) hubungan kelamin dengan pasangan yang dijangkiti. b) bersentuhan dengan darah c) berkongsi jarum suntikan d) Ibu yang dijangkiti dan anak -semasa kandungan, kelahiran, dan penyusuan.
  14. 14. Aktiviti (1): Beritahu saya apa kamu lihat..?

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