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  • 1. A proud compilation by Shiela Muzaiyanah Azira Nurathirah Nadiah DED100 Educational Psychology I: Theories and Applications for Learning and Teaching
  • 2. Synopsis of Case Study ANDY Andy is a Primary 5 student with low self esteem and low motivation who is not doing well in Science. He dreads Science lesson as his teacher, Ms Wong always puts him down. Andy also feels pressured because his classmates do much better than him academically. He was compelled into a condition we call ‘learned helplessness’. MS WONG Ms Wong’s teaching style is rigid, and mostly suited for an auditory learner as she hardly uses visual aids and does not conduct any activity for them to learn by doing. She also uses harsh language with her students and shows favouritism towards students who gets better grades. She does not conduct remediation for pupils with learning difficulties. Although Andy spent a lot of time studying for his Science test, Andy failed. Ms Wong reprimanded Andy in class and embarrassed him by exclaiming that he had, “failed again”. Andy felt very depressed and became very unmotivated to study. He felt that his efforts were wasted and felt that it would be better off if he had not even bothered studying for the test. By this time, he had lost confidence of himself and was totally disengaged from the subject. In the next slide, we have identified and picked out some prominent problems from the case study.
  • 3. Teacher practices favouritism result oriented teacher do not intervene or remediate to help pupil doesn’t scaffold learning uses verbal abuse/humiliation doesn’t role model good behaviour monotonous tone during teaching / doesn’t check for understanding uses inappropriate language and sarcasm Counselling skills Teaching pedagogies Piaget’s theory -According to theory, student’s cognitive development is gradual: requires a solid foundation and proper scaffolding Types of learners -teacher’s teaching style not catered to all kinds of learners Choose instructional media based on -Appropriateness - Suitability - Visual design - Practicality (Quek Choon Lang, Angela Wong, Tay May Yin) Problems Identified: In the gist, the teacher had rigid instructional methods that could not cater to the diverse range of learners in her class, such as Andy.
  • 4. Pupil: Andy lack of self- esteem / confidence lack of interest in subject due to teacher easily distracted Types of motivation - intrinsic - extrinsic Kohlberg’s moral cognition theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Poor student-teacher relationship Problems Identified: In conclusion, Andy has developed poor self-esteem and had lost confidence and interest in the subject.
  • 5. Brof’s theory -Based on theory, levels of interaction in class has to be improved Community->School->Family->Individual Environment unhealthy competition in class peer pressure negative social space unsupportive and incondusive learning environment Educational Psychology of inclusion -Teacher needs to promote social and academic inclusion via various strategies e.g.i ndividual counselling, peer tutoring, individualised goal-setting Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - According to Maslow (1968), only when basic needs are met can an individual become motivated to take risks, learn and attain full potential. -Based on Maslow’s theory, when the need for esteem is satisfied, one will feel confident and valuable; otherwise, a person tends to feel inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. William Glasser -Based on theory, human character is always directed to satisfy one of these five basic needs e.g. sense of belonging and being loved We have also identified some problems in Andy’s learning environment. Next, we shall diagnose the problems identified. Problems Identified:
  • 6. Problems Questions A lack of instructional expertise. She does not plan activities that facilitate learning. Pedagogical content knowledge: She does not teach effectively to present information in a way that the students can understand. Role as a counsellor She did not assist students with their problems through availability, approachability, listening and problem solving. She did not execute proper intervention when her students were quarrelling. Role as a teacher Miss Wong also does not build rapport with her students as she is very result-oriented. Andy felt shameful and doubted himself. He had little motivation to succeed and felt that no amount of effort could lead to success. Andy got disengaged from the lesson and he developed negative preconceived notion on the subject. What are some strategies that she can adopt to facilitate learning of learners with diverse needs? What can she do to be more approachable and available to her students? What should she have done to intervene and remediate the situation? What are the ways that she can build rapport with her students? Why is it important to establish a positive healthy student teacher relationship? What can the teacher do to motivate Andy to learn? What can she do to rebuild up his confidence and recapture his attention towards the subject? Diagnosing the problems Based on the problems identified, these were the questions that surfaced.
  • 7. 2) Student’s ability to learn concepts is dependent on teacher’s instructional and counselling competence. 1) Student’s self esteem affects his/her motivation to learn. Problem Statements Based on our diagnosis of the problems on the earlier slides, we have formulated these concluding statements:
  • 8. 1) A student with high self esteem is more motivated to learn as compared to a student with low self esteem. Hypothesis Based on our problem statements, we have formulated these statements of hypothesis: 2) A teacher with instructional and counselling competence will increase student’s ability to grasp and understand concepts.
  • 9. Next , We will analyse the problems and formulate appropriate solutions based on relevant theories. analyse the problems formulate appropriate solutions theories.
  • 10. Analysing the problems To conduct a more effective lesson, 2) The teacher needs to build her pedagogical repertoire of engaging students into her lesson. 3) The teacher needs to systematically scaffold students’ learning through the different strategies and activities. 1st Problem: The teacher has a lack of instructional expertise and lacks good pedagogical content knowledge. Solutions: 1)The teacher needs to employ a more systematic approach to instructional planning of her lesson.
  • 11. Solution 1 The teacher needs to employ a more systematic approach to instructional planning of her lesson. • No proper introduction • No scaffolding Thus, Andy was not able to grasp concepts and was not meaningfully engaged in the lesson. An effective lesson should contain proper: 1) Introduction 2) Development 3) Conclusion Let’s go in depth into effective lesson planning strategies.
  • 12. 1) Introduction 2) Development -Presenting info with examples -Practice and feedback 3) Conclusion -Summarising -Helps to motivate students -Inform students of objectives -Help students recall prerequisites Structure of an effective lesson:
  • 13. Solutions 2 & 3 The teacher needs to build her pedagogical repertoire of engaging students into her lesson. To engage and help Andy learn better, these are some strategies the teacher can adopt: 1) Questioning 2) Scaffolding 3) Reflection The teacher needs to systematically scaffold students’ learning through the different strategies and activities.
  • 14. 1) Questioning 2) Scaffolding 3) Reflection •reflective prompts and deep reasoning prompts •Students’ learning is supported in various ways Strategies: Now, let’s analyse the next few problems. Muz will take you through them.
  • 15. 2nd Problem: Teacher did not execute proper intervention when her students were quarreling and instead used harsh language to get them to settle down. That is so rude of you Andy! Both of you, shut your mouths up! Solution - Establish rules and regulations - Apply proper intervention to emphasize appropriate behaviour rather than simply to suppress misbehaviour
  • 16. ‘I do not accept that behaviour. Do that again and I will deduct points from your group.’ • Establish rules and regulations - clear, concrete and understood by everyone • Apply proper intervention - Propose negative consequences for misbehaviour -Mind the usage of language; be assertive - Student must know his/her mistakes - Help student refocus and engage in positive behaviour; employ positive reinforcement once students demonstrate rule-appropriate behaviour Solution
  • 17. 3rd Problem: Andy felt shameful and doubted himself. He had little motivation to succeed and felt that no amount of effort could lead to success. I spent so much time learning the water cycle but I couldn’t remember anything when I sat for the test. Even though I know the different states of matter, I don’t even know what Ms Wong is asking for … Aiyah, I should have played soccer with you guys huh, after all, I still failed! Solution - Offer extrinsic motivation -Guide him in an individualised goal setting -Allow him to taste bite sized successess
  • 18. • Teacher to offer extrinsic motivation to Andy - words of encouragement - positive feedback when Andy shows interest in subject • Termly goal-setting - Individualised goal-setting - Andy would not feel discouraged if he does not as well as his peers - gives Andy the opportunity to motivate himself intrinsically • Provide remediation for Andy - decrease task difficulty for him in class - builds up his confidence on subject Solution
  • 19. 4th Problem: Teacher does not establish good rapport with her students; she is very result- oriented. Solution - Teacher should build rapport with her students - A good student-teacher relationship will have a positive influence on a child’s cognitive development - Teacher should show positive attitude - Teacher should use strategies to build rapport with students emotionally at a class and at personal level Gail Godwin Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theatre.
  • 20. Teacher to show positive attitude through: Words •Should reflect that she respects them and she is concerned about their learning • Use sincere, positive words as motivation Behaviour • Listen to them • Show sincere interest in their progress • Being able to read their moods- whether they have a problem Body Language • Entering class with a smile • Have eye contact with pupils to show that they matter • Be energetic and show enthusiasm in actions Solution
  • 21. Strategies for building rapport in learning environment: Games • incorporate games into lessons - leave students to wanting more Know their personality • Get them to list down something about themselves Journal writing / Emails / Blogging Teacher could encourage students to write to her about what they have learnt - gives student space and privacy to communicate with teacher Set an appointment • Teacher could make it a point to meet up with a few students every week - could be done during recess; have a meal with them - ask about their well- being; whether they are facing any problems in the subject etc • appointment should not be entirely serious Solution
  • 22. Andy was disengaged from the lessonand he developed preconceived notionon the subject. The teacher needs to: -revisehermethodsoflessondelivery -amendherclassroomcommunicationapproach.
  • 23. •Pace of instruction may be too fast or too slow •Lack of understanding about content area •Insufficient background information on material •Conceptual complexity and density of ideas may be overwhelmingTaken from: http://academic.evergreen.edu/f/fordter/Contentlit/disengagementfactors.htm •Lack of self efficacy •Peer pressure
  • 24. According to Maslow’s hierachy of needs, personal needs must be fulfilled before the students are motivated to learn and be engaged in classroom activities. Inability to accomplish a task Decreases student’s self esteem & increases negative peer pressure Student is unmotivated to learn and is disengaged in classroom activities
  • 25. 5) Giving feedback 1) Providing the lesson objectives at the start of the lesson 2) Demonstrating the knowledge accurately 3) Providing guided practice 4) Checking for understanding/ mastery
  • 26. •State lesson objectives •Review student’s prior knowledge •Narrate lesson overview •Capture student’s attention
  • 27. The teacher ought to acquire thorough mastery of the knowledge before demonstrating it in class. The teacher should provide appropriate practice for each knowledge bit by structuring it in a meaningful way, especially in the first few practices. This is to ensure that pupils are able to understand the skill/ knowledge.
  • 28. Cognitive domain Learning outcomes in this domain specify the thinking processes required by students. Affective domain Learning outcomes in this domain specify degree of commitment or emotional intensity required by students. Psychomotor domain Learning outcomes in this domain specify the range of simple reflex actions to complex actions which communicate a message to others.
  • 29. The teacher should plan intervals within the lesson to check for understanding before moving on to the next part. She should help the student to put all the various parts together in a coherent whole. Feedbacks should be given: -Immediately after practice -Behaviour oriented -Praising the correct performance -Specific to task
  • 30. Andy developed negative preconceived notion of the lesson due to the way he was reprimanded and humiliated in front of the class, a few days before. Ms Wong used the aggressive style of communication to deal with the conflict. 1) Instead of sending such insulting messages across, she could have tried to understand where Andy was coming from and be more approachable. The teacher screamed and yelled at the child, because he was unable to understand a concept taught induced repugnance in the child, towards the lesson put a halt to his interest in the subject 2) Fathom the reason for Andy’s inability to grasp the concept that was taught.
  • 31. 6th Problem: Teacher’s role as a counsellor She did not assist students with their problems through availability, approachability, listening and problem solving. Solution: She should commit to students both as people and as learners.
  • 32. Based on Humanistic Views of Motivation, understanding human’s motivation requires an understanding of the behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Conditional regards such as expectation of high grades in class Hindrance to personal growth due to lack of self-esteem Students will be less motivated to learn and be interested in the subject.
  • 33. Teacher’s commitment to students as people and learners Teacher adopts unconditional positive regard Students feel unconditionally accepted by teacher Increases students’ self esteem Students are more interested in the subject and be more motivated to learn
  • 34. Teacher can commit to students both as people and learners through her availability for communication •The teacher should not assume that Andy’s lack of understanding of the Science concepts means that he is lazy. •Instead, she should have a talk with Andy to understand why he is having problems with Science. •She should also inform other students that she is available if they need someone to talk to.
  • 35. Summary: Problems and Solutions Problems Solutions A lack of instructional expertise. She does not plan activities that facilitate learning. Pedagogical content knowledge: She does not teach effectively to present information in a way that the students can understand. 1) The teacher needs to employ a more systematic approach to instructional planning of her lesson. 2) The teacher needs to build her pedagogical repertoire of engaging students into her lesson. 3) The teacher needs to systematically scaffold students’ learning through the different strategies and activities. Role as a counsellor She did not assist students with their problems through availability, approachability, listening and problem solving. She did not execute proper intervention when her students were quarrelling. 1) Establish rules and regulations 2) Apply proper intervention to increase effective appropriate behaviour rather than simply to suppress misbehaviour Let’s recap all the problems and solutions that have been mentioned in the earlier slides.
  • 36. Problems Solutions Role as a teacher Miss Wong also does not build rapport with her students as she is very result- oriented. 1) Teacher should build rapport with her students 2) A good student-teacher relationship will have a positive influence on a child’s cognitive development 3) Teacher should show positive attitude 4) Teacher should use strategies to build rapport with students emotionally and at personal level Andy felt shameful and doubted himself. He had little motivation to succeed and felt that no amount of effort could lead to success. 1) Offer extrinsic motivation 2) Guide him in goal setting Andy got disengaged from the lesson and he developed negative preconceived notion on the subject. 1) Revise her methods of lesson delivery 2) Amend her classroom communication approach.
  • 37. •Teaching does not only involve the use of adequate instructional expertise and pedagogical skills. •Students’ psychological needs must be brought to the foreground and constantly addressed. •Teachers must take into consideration their relationships with students and work towards building good ties with them. •Teachers need to design effective environments that encourage a learning community. To end it off..
  • 38. Kohlberg's Moral Cognition Theory retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/kohlberg.htm http://www.vtaide.com/blessing/Kohlberg.htm Teacher as Counsellor retreived from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:L2k43TQsSTwJ:avnihealth.org/ppt/Teacher.ppt+importance+of+tea cher+as+counsellor&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=sg&gl=sg http://www.basic-counseling-skills.com/ Wikipedia (2010) Ecological Systems Theory retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_Systems_Theory Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs retrieved from http://www.naturalnews.com/024190_WHO_schools_deficiency.html http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm http://worlduni.com/extras/human_behavior_files/Maslow'sHeirarchy.gif Piaget's Theory and Its Impact retrieved from http://www.funderstanding.com/content/piaget Piaget's Key Ideas retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Different Types of Motivation retrieved from http://www.self-improvement-mentor.com/types-of-motivation.html Motivational Strategies retrieved from http://www.garysturt.free-online.co.uk/Motivation%20lecture%20notes.htm Vigotsky's theory retrieved from Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D.(2010). The development of cognition and language . (p.p45-47).New Jersey: Pearson Education Different types of learners retrieved from http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/spklearn.html Other references retrieved from Oon ST, Parsons RD, Hinson SL & Sardo-Brown D (2nd Edition) Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach Singapore References

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