DED100 Educational Psychology I: Theories and Applications for Learning and Teaching A proud compilation by Shiela Muzaiyanah Azira Nurathirah Nadiah
Synopsis of Case Study ANDY Andy is a Primary 5 student with low self esteem and low motivation who is not doing well in Science. He dreads Science lesson as his teacher, Ms Wong always puts him down. Andy also feels pressuredbecause his classmates do much better than him academically. He was compelled into a condition we call ‘learned helplessness’. MS WONG Ms Wong’s teaching style is rigid, and mostly suited for an auditory learner as she hardly uses visual aids and does not conduct any activity for them to learn by doing. She also uses harsh language with her students and shows favouritism towards students who gets better grades. She does not conduct remediation for pupils with learning difficulties. Although Andy spent a lot of time studying for his Science test, Andy failed. Ms Wong reprimanded Andy in class and embarrassed him by exclaiming that he had, “failed again”. Andy felt very depressed and became very unmotivated to study. He felt that his efforts were wasted and felt that it would be better off if he had not even bothered studying for the test. By this time, he had lost confidence of himself and was totally disengaged from the subject. In the next slide, we have identified and picked out some prominent problems from the case study.
Problems Identified: Types of learners -teacher’s teaching style not catered to all kinds of learners In the gist, the teacher had rigid instructional methods that could not cater to the diverse range of learners in her class, such as Andy. Piaget’s theory-According to theory, student’s cognitive development is gradual: requires a solid foundation and proper scaffolding Counselling skills Teaching pedagogies Choose instructional media based on
(QuekChoon Lang, Angela Wong, Tay May Yin)
Problems Identified: In conclusion, Andy has developed poor self-esteem and had lost confidence and interest in the subject. Types of motivation- intrinsic - extrinsic Kohlberg’s moral cognition theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Poor student-teacher relationship
We have also identified some problems in Andy’s learning environment. Problems Identified: Next, we shall diagnose the problems identified. Brof’s theory
Based on theory, levels of interaction in class has to be improved
Community->School->Family->Individual Educational Psychology of inclusion
Teacher needs to promote social and academic inclusion via various strategies
e.g.individualcounselling, peer tutoring, individualised goal-setting William Glasser
Based on theory, human character is always directed to satisfy one of these five basic needs
e.g. sense of belonging and being loved Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
According to Maslow (1968), only when basic needs are met can an individual become motivated to take risks, learn and attain full potential.
Based on Maslow’s theory, when the need for esteem is satisfied, one will feel confident and valuable; otherwise, a person tends to feel inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
Diagnosing the problems Based on the problems identified, these were the questions that surfaced. What are some strategies that she can adopt to facilitate learning of learners with diverse needs? What can she do to be more approachable and available to her students? What should she have done to intervene and remediate the situation? What are the ways that she can build rapport with her students? Why is it important to establish a positive healthy student teacher relationship? What can the teacher do to motivate Andy to learn? What can she do to rebuild up his confidence and recapture his attention towards the subject?
Problem Statements Based on our diagnosis of the problems on the earlier slides, we have formulated these concluding statements: 1) Student’s self esteem affects his/her motivation to learn. 2) Student’s ability to learn concepts is dependent on teacher’s instructional and counselling competence.
Hypothesis Based on our problem statements, we have formulated these statements of hypothesis: 1) A student with high self esteem is more motivated to learn as compared to a student with low self esteem. 2) A teacher with instructional and counselling competence will increase student’s ability to grasp and understand concepts.
Next , We will analyse the problems and formulate appropriate solutions based on relevant theories. analyse the problems formulate appropriate solutions theories.
Analysing the problems 1st Problem: The teacher has a lack ofinstructional expertise and lacks good pedagogical content knowledge. To conduct a more effective lesson, Solutions: 1)The teacher needs to employ a more systematic approach to instructional planning of her lesson. 2) The teacher needs to build her pedagogical repertoireof engaging students into her lesson. 3) The teacher needs to systematically scaffold students’ learningthrough the different strategies and activities.
Solution 1 The teacher needs to employ a more systematic approach to instructional planning of her lesson. Let’s go in depth into effective lesson planning strategies.
No proper introduction
Thus, Andy was not able to grasp concepts and was not meaningfully engaged in the lesson. An effective lesson should contain proper: Introduction Development Conclusion
Structure of an effective lesson: Introduction -Helps to motivate students -Inform students of objectives -Help students recall prerequisites Development -Presenting info with examples -Practice and feedback 3) Conclusion -Summarising
Solutions 2 & 3 The teacher needs to build her pedagogical repertoireof engaging students into her lesson. The teacher needs to systematically scaffold students’ learningthrough the different strategies and activities. To engage and help Andy learn better, these are some strategies the teacher can adopt: Questioning Scaffolding Reflection
Strategies: Now, let’s analyse the next few problems. Muz will take you through them. 1) Questioning
reflective prompts and deep reasoning prompts
Students’ learning is supported in various ways
2nd Problem: Teacher did not execute proper intervention when her students were quarreling and instead used harsh language to get them to settle down. Solution - Establish rules and regulations - Apply proper intervention to emphasize appropriate behaviour rather than simply to suppress misbehaviour Both of you, shut your mouths up! That is so rude of you Andy!
Establish rules and regulations
- clear, concrete and understood by everyone
Apply proper intervention - Propose negative consequences for misbehaviour
Mind the usage of language; be assertive
Student must know his/her mistakes - Help student refocus and engage in positive behaviour; employ positive reinforcement once students demonstrate rule-appropriate behaviour
‘I do not accept that behaviour. Do that again and I will deduct points from your group.’
3rd Problem: Andy felt shameful and doubted himself. He had little motivation to succeed and felt that no amount of effort could lead to success. I spent so much time learning the water cycle but I couldn’t remember anything when I sat for the test. Even though I know the different states of matter, I don’t even know what Ms Wong is asking for … Aiyah, I should have played soccer with you guys huh, after all, I still failed! Solution - Offer extrinsic motivation
Guide him in an individualised goal setting
Allow him to taste bite sized successess
Teacher to offer extrinsic motivation to Andy
- words of encouragement - positive feedback when Andy shows interest in subject
- Individualised goal-setting - Andy would not feel discouraged if he does not as well as his peers - gives Andy the opportunity to motivate himself intrinsically
Provide remediation for Andy - decrease task difficulty for him in class - builds up his confidence on subject
4th Problem: Teacher does not establish good rapport with her students; she is very result-oriented. Solution - Teacher should build rapport with her students - Agood student-teacher relationship will have a positive influence on a child’s cognitive development
Teacher should show positive attitude
Teacher should use strategies to build rapport with students emotionally at a class and at personal level
Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theatre. Gail Godwin
Solution Teacher to show positive attitude through: Body Language
Entering class with a smile
Have eye contact with pupils to show that they matter
Be energetic and show enthusiasm in actions
Listen to them
Show sincere interest in their progress
Being able to read their moods- whether they have a problem
Should reflect that she respects them and she is concerned about their learning
Use sincere, positive words as motivation
Solution Strategies for building rapport in learning environment: Know their personality
Get them to list down something about themselves
Journal writing / Emails / Blogging Teacher could encourage students to write to her about what they have learnt - gives student space and privacy to communicate with teacher Set an appointment
Teacher could make it a point to meet up with a few students every week
- could be done during recess; have a meal with them - ask about their well- being; whether they are facing any problems in the subject etc
appointment should not be entirely serious
incorporate games into lessons - leave students to wanting more
5th Problem Andy was disengaged from the lesson and he developed preconceived notion on the subject. Solution The teacher needs to: - revise her methods of lesson delivery - amend her classroom communication approach.
Factors that cause disengagement
Lack of self efficacy
Pace of instruction may be too fast or too slow
Lack of understanding about content area
Insufficient background information on material
Conceptual complexity and density of ideas may be overwhelming
Taken from: http://academic.evergreen.edu/f/fordter/Contentlit/disengagementfactors.htm
Lack of self efficacy & Peer Pressure According to Maslow’s hierachy of needs, personal needs must be fulfilled before the students are motivated to learn and be engaged in classroom activities. Inability to accomplish a task Decreases student’s self esteem & increases negative peer pressure Student is unmotivated to learn and is disengaged in classroom activities
Improvising lesson delivery Providing the lesson objectives at the start of the lesson 2) Demonstrating the knowledge accurately 3) Providing guided practice 4) Checking for understanding/ mastery 5) Giving feedback
1) Providing lesson objectives
State lesson objectives
Review student’s prior knowledge
Narrate lesson overview
Capture student’s attention
2) Demonstrating knowledge accurately The teacher ought to acquire thorough mastery of the knowledge before demonstrating it in class. 3) Guided Practice The teacher should provide appropriate practice for each knowledge bit by structuring it in a meaningful way, especially in the first few practices. This is to ensure that pupils are able to understand the skill/ knowledge.
Types of Lesson Objectives Cognitive domainLearning outcomes in this domain specify the thinking processes required by students. Affective domainLearning outcomes in this domain specify degree of commitment or emotional intensity required by students. Psychomotor domainLearning outcomes in this domain specify the range of simple reflex actions to complex actions which communicate a message to others.
4) Checking for understanding The teacher should plan intervals within the lesson to check for understanding before moving on to the next part. She should help the student to put all the various parts together in a coherent whole. 5) Giving meaningful feedback Feedbacks should be given:
Immediately after practice
Praising the correct performance
Specific to task
Classroom Communication Approach Andy developed negative preconceived notion of the lesson due to the way he was reprimanded and humiliated in front of the class, a few days before. Ms Wong used the aggressive style of communication to deal with the conflict. 1) Instead of sending such insulting messages across, she could have tried to understand where Andy was coming from and be more approachable. The teacher screamed and yelled at the child, because he was unable to understand a concept taught induced repugnance in the child, towards the lesson put a halt to his interest in the subject 2) Fathom the reason for Andy’s inability to grasp the concept that was taught.
6th Problem: Teacher’s role as a counsellor She did not assist students with their problems through availability, approachability, listening and problem solving. Solution: She should commit to students both as people and as learners.
Based on Humanistic Views of Motivation, understanding human’s motivation requires an understanding of the behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Conditional regards such as expectation of high grades in class Hindrance to personalgrowth due to lack of self-esteem Students will be less motivated to learn and be interested in the subject.
Teacher’s commitment to students as people and learners Teacher adopts unconditional positive regard Students feel unconditionally accepted by teacher Increases students’ self esteem Students are more interested in the subject and be more motivated to learn
Teacher can commit to students both as people and learners through her availability for communication
The teacher should not assume that Andy’s lack of understanding of the Science concepts means that he is lazy.
Instead, she should have a talk with Andy to understand why he is having problems with Science.
She should also inform other students that she is available if they need someone to talk to.
Summary: Problems and Solutions Let’s recap all the problems and solutions that have been mentioned in the earlier slides.
To end it off..
Teaching does not only involve the use of adequate instructional expertise and pedagogical skills.
Students’ psychological needs must be brought to the foreground and constantly addressed.
Teachers must take into consideration their relationships with students and work towards building good ties with them.
Teachers need to design effective environments that encourage a learning community.
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